205 relations: Addiction, Adenylyl cyclase, ADHD rating scale, Adjuvant therapy, Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Aerobic exercise, Age appropriateness, Aggression, Alcoholic drink, Alexander Crichton, Alkyl phosphate, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor, American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, Amphetamine, Antipsychotic, Antisocial personality disorder, Anxiety disorder, Appetite, Asthma, Atomoxetine, Attention, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder controversies, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive, Attentional control, Attentional shift, Autism spectrum, Behaviour therapy, Biomarker (medicine), Biosynthesis, Bipolar disorder, Blood plasma, Borderline personality disorder, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Bupropion, Cannabis (drug), Catechol-O-methyltransferase, Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Chlorpyrifos, Cholinergic, Clonidine, Coeliac disease, Cognition, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Communication disorder, Conduct disorder, Coping (psychology), ..., Crime, Cyclothymia, Depression (mood), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Dopamine, Dopamine beta-hydroxylase, Dopamine receptor D4, Dopamine receptor D5, Dopamine transporter, Dopaminergic pathways, Down syndrome, Drug interaction, DSM-5, DSM-IV codes, Dysthymia, Effective dose (pharmacology), Electroencephalography, Elimination diet, Enantiomer, Encephalitis, Enterovirus 71, Epilepsy, European Union, Executive functions, Exercise, Family therapy, Fatigue, Fatty acid, Fear, Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Food allergy, Food and Drug Administration, Food coloring, Food intolerance, G protein–coupled receptor, Gene pool, George Frederic Still, Glutamate (neurotransmitter), Gluten-free diet, Grandiose delusions, GRIN2A, Guanfacine, Guideline, Handwriting, Happiness, Head injury, Hearing loss, Hostility, Hunter vs. farmer hypothesis, Hyperkinetic disorder, Hyperthyroidism, ICD-10, Impulsivity, Inhibitory control, Insomnia, Intelligence quotient, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Interpersonal psychotherapy, Iron-deficiency anemia, Irritability, Keith Conners, Latrophilin 3, Lead, Lead poisoning, Learning disability, Liver disease, Locus coeruleus, Low birth weight, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Mania, Measles, Medicalization, Melatonin, Mental chronometry, Mental disorder, Methylphenidate, Migraine, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine oxidase A, Mood disorder, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Neurodevelopmental disorder, Neurofeedback, Neurological disorder, Neurotransmitter, Nocturnal enuresis, Norepinephrine, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Obstructive sleep apnea, Omega-3 fatty acid, Oppositional defiant disorder, Organophosphate, Oxford University Press, Panic, Paracetamol, Parent management training, Phenethylamine, Phenotype, Physician, Planning, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Posterior parietal cortex, Prefrontal cortex, Preterm birth, Procrastination, Psychiatry, Psychoeducation, Psychological stress, Psychology, Psychotherapy, Quality of life (healthcare), Quantitative electroencephalography, Racing thoughts, Reinforcement, Restless legs syndrome, Rubella, Self-esteem, Serotonergic, Serotonin transporter, Sleep apnea, Sleep disorder, Sluggish cognitive tempo, SNAP25, Social construct theory of ADHD, Social skills, Stimulant, Stimulant psychosis, Striatum, Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Substance use disorder, Synapse, TAAR1, Tantrum, The New York Times, Thomas Szasz, Tic, Tourette syndrome, TPH2, Traumatic brain injury, Twin study, United Kingdom, Vanderbilt ADHD diagnostic rating scale, Varicella zoster virus, Ventral tegmental area, Vigilance (psychology), Working memory, World Health Organization, Zinc, Zinc deficiency, Zinc sulfate (medical use), 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, 5-HT1B receptor. Expand index (155 more) » « Shrink index
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
The ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) is a parent-report or teacher-report inventory created by DuPaul and colleagues consisting of 18 questions regarding a child’s behavior over the past 6 months.
Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.
Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (also referred to as adult ADHD, adult with ADHD, or simply ADHD in adults, formerly AADD) is the neurobiological condition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.
Age appropriateness or child-friendly is the progression of behavioral norms largely agreed upon within a society or among sociological and psychological authorities to be appropriate to a child's development of social skills.
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Sir Alexander Crichton (2 December 1763 – 4 June 1856) was a Scottish physician and author.
Alkyl phosphates belong to a group of organic compounds called organophosphates.
The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.
The alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (α2A adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2A, is an α2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD or APD) is a personality disorder characterized by a long term pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Atomoxetine, sold under the brand name Strattera among others, is a norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor which is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) controversies include concerns about its causes, perceived overdiagnosis, and methods of treatment, especially with the use of stimulant medications in children.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management options are evidence-based practices with established treatment efficacy for ADHD.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI or ADHD-I), is one of the three presentations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Attentional control refers to an individual's capacity to choose what they pay attention to and what they ignore.
Attentional shift (or shift of attention) occurs when directing attention to a point to increase the efficiency of processing that point and includes inhibition to decrease attentional resources to unwanted or irrelevant inputs.
Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.
Behaviour therapy is a broad term referring to clinical psychotherapy that uses techniques derived from behaviourism.
In medicine, a biomarker is a measurable indicator of the severity or presence of some disease state.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), catecholestrogens, and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure.
Child and Adolescent Mental Health is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Wiley-Blackwell in Britain on behalf of the Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Chlorpyrifos (CPS), sold under many brandnames, is an organophosphate pesticide used to kill a number of pests including insects and worms.
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
A communication disorder is any disorder that affects an individual's ability to comprehend, detect, or apply language and speech to engage in discourse effectively with others.
Conduct disorder (CD) is a mental disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated.
Coping is the conscious effort to reduce stress.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
Cyclothymia, also known as cyclothymic disorder, is a mental disorder that involves periods of symptoms of depression and periods of symptoms of hypomania.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), also known as dopamine beta-monooxygenase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DBH gene.
The dopamine receptor D4 is a dopamine D2-like G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5.
Dopamine receptor D5, also known as D1BR, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD5 gene.
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.
A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
DSM-IV codes are the classification found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, also known as DSM-IV-TR, a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that includes all currently recognized mental health disorders.
Dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms.
An effective dose (ED) in pharmacology is the dose or amount of drug that produces a therapeutic response or desired effect in some fraction of the subjects taking it.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
An elimination diet, also known as exclusion diet is a diagnostic procedure used to identify foods that an individual cannot consume without adverse effects.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a virus of the genus Enterovirus in the Picornaviridae family notable for its etiological role in epidemics of severe neurological diseases in children.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy, marriage and family therapy, family systems therapy, and family counseling, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.
A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink.
Food intolerance is a detrimental reaction, often delayed, to a food, beverage, food additive, or compound found in foods that produces symptoms in one or more body organs and systems, but generally refers to reactions other than food allergy.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.
Sir George Frederic Still, KCVO (27 February 1868 – 28 June 1941) was an English paediatrician and author of numerous medical textbooks and articles who first described a form of juvenile idiopathic arthritis as well as the common functional Still's murmur, both of which bear his name, as well as being the first to describe ADHD.
In neuroscience, glutamate refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells use to send signals to other cells.
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).
Grandiose delusions (GD), delusions of grandeur, expansive delusions also known as megalomania are a subtype of delusion that occur in patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric diseases, including two-thirds of patients in manic state of bipolar disorder, half of those with schizophrenia, patients with the grandiose subtype of delusional disorder, and a substantial portion of those with substance abuse disorders.
Glutamate receptor subunit epsilon-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIN2A gene.
Guanfacine (trade names Estulic, Tenex, and, in extended release form, Intuniv) is a sympatholytic drug used to treat hypertension and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
A guideline is a statement by which to determine a course of action.
Handwriting is the writing done with a writing instrument, such as a pen or pencil, in the hand.
In psychology, happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being which can be defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.
A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain.
Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.
Hostility is seen as form of emotionally charged aggressive behavior.
The hunter vs.
Hyperkinetic disorder is an outdated term for a psychiatric neurodevelopmental condition emerging in early childhood.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
In psychology, impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.
Inhibitory control, also known as response inhibition, is a cognitive process that permits an individual to inhibit their impulses and natural, habitual, or dominant behavioral responses to stimuli (prepotent responses) in order to select a more appropriate behavior that is consistent with completing their goals.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a brief, attachment-focused psychotherapy that centers on resolving interpersonal problems and symptomatic recovery.
Iron-deficiency anemia is anemia caused by a lack of iron.
Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.
Carmen Keith Conners (March 20, 1933 – July 5, 2017) was an American psychologist, best known for establishing the first standards for the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Latrophilin 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADGRL3 gene.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless of gestational age.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Medicalization or medicalisation (see spelling differences) is the process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions, and thus become the subject of medical study, diagnosis, prevention, or treatment.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Mental chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Monoamine oxidase A, also known as MAO-A, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOA gene.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
Nature Reviews Neuroscience is a leading review journal with one of the highest impact factors covering neuroscience, in particular.
Neurodevelopmental disorder is a mental disorder.
Neurofeedback (NFB), also called neurotherapy or neurobiofeedback, is a type of biofeedback that uses real-time displays of brain activity—most commonly electroencephalography (EEG), to teach self-regulation of brain function.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nocturnal enuresis, also called bedwetting, is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually occurs.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the upper airway.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is defined by the DSM-5 as "a pattern of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, or vindictiveness" in children and adolescents.
Organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Panic is a sudden sensation of fear, which is so strong as to dominate or prevent reason and logical thinking, replacing it with overwhelming feelings of anxiety and frantic agitation consistent with an animalistic fight-or-flight reaction.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Parent management training (PMT), also known as behavioral parent training (BPT) or simply parent training, is a family of treatment programs that aims to change parenting behaviors, teaching parents positive reinforcement methods for improving pre-school and school-age children's behavior problems (such as aggression, hyperactivity, temper tantrums, and difficulty following directions).
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Planning is the process of thinking about the activities required to achieve a desired goal.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
The posterior parietal cortex (the portion of parietal neocortex posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex) plays an important role in planned movements, spatial reasoning, and attention.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
Procrastination (from Latin's "procrastinare", that translates in to: the prefix pro-, 'forward', and the suffix -crastinus, 'till next day' from cras, 'tomorrow') is the avoidance of doing a task that needs to be accomplished.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychoeducation is an evidence-based therapeutic intervention for patients and their loved ones that provides information and support to better understand and cope with illness.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
In general, quality of life (QoL or QOL) is the perceived quality of an individual's daily life, that is, an assessment of their well-being or lack thereof.
Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a field concerned with the numerical analysis of electroencephalography data and associated behavioral correlates.
Racing thoughts refers to the rapid thought patterns that often occur in manic, hypomanic, or mixed episodes.
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.
Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.
Self-esteem reflects an individual's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth.
Serotonergic or serotoninergic means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin".
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is the term for a syndrome that may comprise a novel and distinct attention disorder from ADHD.
Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) is a t-SNARE protein that is encoded by the SNAP25 gene in humans.
The social construction theory of ADHD argues that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is not necessarily an actual pathology, but that an ADHD diagnosis is a socially constructed explanation to describe behaviors that simply do not meet prescribed social norms.
A social skill is any competence facilitating interaction and communication with others where social rules and relations are created, communicated, and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Stimulant psychosis, also known as stimulant-induced psychotic disorder, is a psychosis symptom which involves hallucinations, paranoia, and/or delusions and typically occurs following an overdose on psychostimulants; however, it has also been reported to occur in approximately 0.1% of individuals, or 1 out of every 1,000 people, within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
A tantrum, temper tantrum, meltdown or hissy fit is an emotional outburst, usually associated with children or those in emotional distress, that is typically characterized by stubbornness, crying, screaming, defiance, angry ranting, a resistance to attempts at pacification, and, in some cases, hitting, and other physically violent behavior.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thomas Stephen Szasz (Szász Tamás István; 15 April 1920 – 8 September 2012) was a Hungarian-American academic, psychiatrist and psychoanalyst.
A tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups.
Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.
Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is an isozyme of tryptophan hydroxylase found in vertebrates.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Twin studies are studies conducted on identical or fraternal twins.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scale (VADRS) is a psychological assessment tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and their effects on behavior and academic performance in children ages 6-12.
Varicella zoster virus or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one of eight herpesviruses known to infect humans.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.
In modern psychology, vigilance, also termed sustained concentration, is defined as the ability to maintain concentrated attention over prolonged periods of time.
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc deficiency is defined either as insufficient zinc to meet the needs of the body, or as a serum zinc level below the normal range.
Zinc sulfate is used medically as a dietary supplement.
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG, MOPEG) is a metabolite of norepinephrine degradation.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B also known as the 5-HT1B receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR1B gene.
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