104 relations: Absorption (acoustics), Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Acoustic attenuation, Acoustic rheometer, Air mass (astronomy), Astronomical filter, Astronomical seeing, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric refraction, Attenuation coefficient, Attenuation length, Attenuator (electronics), Attenuator (genetics), Beer–Lambert law, Blood, Bone, Bone marrow, Brain, Breast, Chlorophyll, Coefficient, Colloid, Compton scattering, Connective tissue, Cross section (physics), Decibel, Dentin, Diffuse reflection, Dispersive mass transfer, Dissipation, Distance, Ear protection, Earth, Earthquake, Electrical engineering, Electrical impedance, Electrical network, Electromagnetic radiation, Emulsion, Energy, Environmental remediation, Exponential function, Extensional viscosity, Extinction (astronomy), Fat, Flux, Frequency, Glasses, Grain boundary, Heart, ..., Homogeneity and heterogeneity, Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, Hypocenter, Incoherent scatter, Interface (matter), Inverse-square law, ITU-R P.525, Lambertian reflectance, Lead, Light, Liver, Mean free path, Micrometer, Muscle, Optical attenuator, Optical fiber, Pair production, Particle-size distribution, Path loss, Phenomenon, Photoelectric effect, Photon, Physical oceanography, Physics, Phytoplankton, Radar horizon, Radiation length, Radiography, Rain fade, Rheology, Scattering, Seismic wave, Shortwave radiation, Signal, Sound, Sound power, Spectroscopy, Stokes's law of sound attenuation, Sunlight, Telecommunication, Tendon, Tissue (biology), Tooth enamel, Transmission medium, Transparency and translucency, Treatment of cancer, Twinkling, Ultrasound, Visible spectrum, Volume viscosity, Water, Wave propagation, Wavelength, X-ray. Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
Acoustic absorption refers to the process by which a material, structure, or object takes in sound energy when sound waves are encountered, as opposed to reflecting the energy.
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
Acoustic attenuation is a measure of the energy loss of sound propagation in media.
An acoustic rheometer employs a piezo-electric crystal that can easily launch a successive wave of extensions and contractions into the fluid.
In astronomy, air mass (airmass, or AM) is the path length for light from a celestial source to pass through the atmosphere.
An astronomical filter is a telescope accessory consisting of an optical filter used by amateur astronomers to simply enhance the details of celestial objects (much as with amateur photography).
Astronomical seeing is the blurring and twinkling of astronomical objects like stars due to turbulent mixing in the Earth's atmosphere, causing variations of the optical refractive index.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric refraction is the deviation of light or other electromagnetic wave from a straight line as it passes through the atmosphere due to the variation in air density as a function of height.
Attenuation coefficient or narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.
In physics, the attenuation length or absorption length is the distance \lambda into a material when the probability has dropped to 1/e that a particle has not been absorbed.
An attenuator is an electronic device that reduces the power of a signal without appreciably distorting its waveform.
Attenuation (in genetics) is a proposed mechanism of control in some bacterial operons which results in premature termination of transcription and is based on the fact that, in bacteria, transcription and translation proceed simultaneously.
The Beer–Lambert law, also known as Beer's law, the Lambert–Beer law, or the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law relates the attenuation of light to the properties of the material through which the light is travelling.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of a polynomial, a series or any expression; it is usually a number, but may be any expression.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
Dentin (American English) or dentine (British English) (substantia eburnea) is a calcified tissue of the body and, along with enamel, cementum, and pulp, is one of the four major components of teeth.
Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection.
Dispersive mass transfer, in fluid dynamics, is the spreading of mass from highly concentrated areas to less concentrated areas.
Dissipation is the result of an irreversible process that takes place in homogeneous thermodynamic systems.
Distance is a numerical measurement of how far apart objects are.
Ear protection refers to devices used to protect the ear, either externally from elements such as cold, intrusion by water and other environmental conditions, debris, or specifically from noise.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.
Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.
An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Environmental remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water.
In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form in which the argument occurs as an exponent.
Extensional viscosity (also known as elongational viscosity) is a viscosity coefficient when applied stress is extensional stress.
In astronomy, extinction is the absorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation by dust and gas between an emitting astronomical object and the observer.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are devices consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically using a bridge over the nose and arms which rest over the ears.
A grain boundary is the interface between two grains, or crystallites, in a polycrystalline material.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.
A homogeneous mixture is a solid, liquid, or gaseous mixture that has the same proportions of its components throughout any given sample.
A hypocenter (or hypocentre) (from ὑπόκεντρον for 'below the center') is the point of origin of an earthquake or a subsurface nuclear explosion.
Incoherent scattering is a type of scattering phenomenon in physics.
In the physical sciences, an interface is the boundary between two spatial regions occupied by different matter, or by matter in different physical states.
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
ITU-R P.525 is the International Telecommunications Union radiocommunications standard for the calculation of free-space attenuation.
Lambertian reflectance is the property that defines an ideal "matte" or diffusely reflecting surface.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
In physics, the mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties.
A micrometer, sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge, is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for precise measurement of components in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
An optical attenuator, or fiber optic attenuator, is a device used to reduce the power level of an optical signal, either in free space or in an optical fiber.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle from a neutral boson.
The particle-size distribution (PSD) of a powder, or granular material, or particles dispersed in fluid, is a list of values or a mathematical function that defines the relative amount, typically by mass, of particles present according to size.
Path loss (or path attenuation) is the reduction in power density (attenuation) of an electromagnetic wave as it propagates through space.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Physical oceanography is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical properties of ocean waters.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
The radar horizon is a critical area of performance for aircraft detection systems that is defined by the distance at which the radar beam rises enough above the Earth's surface to make detection of a target at low level impossible.
In physics, the radiation length is a characteristic of a material, related to the energy loss of high energy, electromagnetic-interacting particles with it.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
Rain fade refers primarily to the absorption of a microwave radio frequency (RF) signal by atmospheric rain, snow, or ice, and losses which are especially prevalent at frequencies above 11 GHz.
Rheology (from Greek ῥέω rhéō, "flow" and -λoγία, -logia, "study of") is the study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the Earth's layers, and are a result of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, magma movement, large landslides and large man-made explosions that give out low-frequency acoustic energy.
Shortwave radiation (SW) is radiant energy with wavelengths in the visible (VIS), near-ultraviolet (UV), and near-infrared (NIR) spectra.
A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
Sound power or acoustic power is the rate at which sound energy is emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Stokes's law of sound attenuation is a formula for the attenuation of sound in a Newtonian fluid, such as water or air, due to the fluid's viscosity.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.
A transmission medium is a material substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) that can propagate energy waves.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Cancer can be treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy (including immunotherapy such as monoclonal antibody therapy) and synthetic lethality.
Twinkling, or scintillation, is a generic term for variations in apparent brightness or position of a distant luminous object viewed through a medium.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Volume viscosity (also called second coefficient of viscosity or dilatational viscosity or bulk viscosity) becomes important only for such effects where fluid compressibility is essential.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Wave propagation is any of the ways in which waves travel.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Attentuate, Attenuate, Attenuating, Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation), Extinction (physics), Natural attenuation, Optical extinction, Scattering of electromagnetic radiation, Ultrasonic attenuation, Ultrasound attenuation.