55 relations: Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Absorption cross section, Absorption spectroscopy, Acoustic attenuation, Acoustics, American Meteorological Society, Atmosphere, Atmospheric sciences, Attenuation, Attenuation length, Avogadro constant, Beer–Lambert law, Cargo scanning, Collimated light, Compton edge, Compton scattering, Computation of radiowave attenuation in the atmosphere, Cross section (physics), Decibel, Density, Energy, Exponential function, Gamma ray, Grey atmosphere, Half-value layer, High-energy X-rays, Infrared, International Organization for Standardization, International System of Units, Light, Mass attenuation coefficient, Matter, Mean free path, Molar attenuation coefficient, Molar concentration, Neutron, Nuclear reactor, Number density, Opacity (optics), Particle, Particle-size distribution, Penetration depth, Propagation constant, Radiance, Radiant flux, Radiation length, Radiation protection, Reciprocal length, Scattering, Scattering theory, ..., Sound, Transmittance, Transparency and translucency, Visible spectrum, X-ray. Expand index (5 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
Absorption cross section is a measure for the probability of an absorption process.
Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.
Acoustic attenuation is a measure of the energy loss of sound propagation in media.
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
The American Meteorological Society (AMS) is the premier scientific and professional organization in the United States promoting and disseminating information about the atmospheric, oceanic, and hydrologic sciences. Its mission is to advance the atmospheric and related sciences, technologies, applications, and services for the benefit of society.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.
In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.
In physics, the attenuation length or absorption length is the distance \lambda into a material when the probability has dropped to 1/e that a particle has not been absorbed.
In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant (named after scientist Amedeo Avogadro) is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.
The Beer–Lambert law, also known as Beer's law, the Lambert–Beer law, or the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law relates the attenuation of light to the properties of the material through which the light is travelling.
Cargo scanning or non-intrusive inspection (NII) refers to non-destructive methods of inspecting and identifying goods in transportation systems.
Collimated light is light whose rays are parallel, and therefore will spread minimally as it propagates.
In spectrophotometry, the Compton edge is a feature of the spectrograph that results from the Compton scattering in the scintillator or detector.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
One of the causes of attenuation of radio propagation is the absorption by the atmosphere.
When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form in which the argument occurs as an exponent.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
The Grey atmosphere (or gray) is a useful set of approximations made for radiative transfer applications in studies of stellar atmospheres based on the simplification that the absorption coefficient \alpha_ of matter within the atmosphere is constant for all frequencies of incident radiation.
A material's half-value layer (HVL), or half-value thickness, is the thickness of the material at which the intensity of radiation entering it is reduced by one half.
High-energy X-rays or HEX-rays are very hard X-rays, with typical energies of 80–1000 keV (1 MeV), about one order of magnitude higher than conventional X-rays (and well into gamma-ray energies over 120 keV).
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The mass attenuation coefficient, mass extinction coefficient, or mass narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
In physics, the mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties.
The molar attenuation coefficient is a measurement of how strongly a chemical species attenuates light at a given wavelength.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
In physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology and geography, number density (symbol: n or ρN) is an intensive quantity used to describe the degree of concentration of countable objects (particles, molecules, phonons, cells, galaxies, etc.) in physical space: three-dimensional volumetric number density, two-dimensional areal number density, or one-dimensional line number density.
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.
The particle-size distribution (PSD) of a powder, or granular material, or particles dispersed in fluid, is a list of values or a mathematical function that defines the relative amount, typically by mass, of particles present according to size.
Penetration depth is a measure of how deep light or any electromagnetic radiation can penetrate into a material.
The propagation constant of a sinusoidal electromagnetic wave is a measure of the change undergone by the amplitude and phase of the wave as it propagates in a given direction.
In radiometry, radiance is the radiant flux emitted, reflected, transmitted or received by a given surface, per unit solid angle per unit projected area.
In radiometry, radiant flux or radiant power is the radiant energy emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time, and spectral flux or spectral power is the radiant flux per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength.
In physics, the radiation length is a characteristic of a material, related to the energy loss of high energy, electromagnetic-interacting particles with it.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
Reciprocal length or inverse length is a measurement used in several branches of science and mathematics.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
In mathematics and physics, scattering theory is a framework for studying and understanding the scattering of waves and particles.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
Transmittance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in transmitting radiant energy.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.