104 relations: Adolf Kirchhoff, Aeolic Greek, Aeschylus, Alexandria, Anatolia, Ancient Greek dialects, Ancient Greek grammar, Ancient Rome, Antiphon (orator), Archaic Greek alphabets, Archon, Aristophanes, Aristotle, Artemis, Athenian democracy, Athens, Attested language, Attic numerals, Attic orators, Attica, Atticism, Chalkidiki, Christian, Classical antiquity, Classical Greece, Compensatory lengthening, Cyclades, Declension, Demosthenes, Digamma, Diphthong, Doric Greek, Dual (grammatical number), Elision, Eta, Euboea, Eucleides, Euripides, Gemination, Genitive case, Greek language, Greek literature, Harvard University Press, Hellenic languages, Hellenistic period, Heta, Hiatus (linguistics), Homer, Homeric Greek, Indo-European ablaut, ..., Indo-European languages, Ionia, Ionic Greek, Isocrates, JSTOR, Koine Greek, Kyrios, Lambda, Language (journal), Lemnos, Letter case, Linear B, Lysias, Macmillan Education, Magna Graecia, Modern Greek, Movable nu, Muslim world, Mycenaean Greece, Mycenaean Greek, Neologism, New Testament, Omega, Osthoff's law, Palatalization (sound change), Paul Kiparsky, Plato, Proto-Greek language, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European root, Psi (letter), Psilosis, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Quantitative metathesis, Reduplication, Sigma, Solon, Sonorant, Sophocles, Spurious diphthong, Thematic vowel, Thirty Tyrants, Thrace, Thucydides, Turkey, Uncial script, University of Chicago Press, Vernacular, Vowel, Vowel length, Xenophon, Xi (letter), 5th century BC. Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
Johann Wilhelm Adolf Kirchhoff (6 January 1826 – 26 February 1908) was a German classical scholar and epigraphist.
In linguistics, Aeolic Greek (also Aeolian, Lesbian or Lesbic dialect) is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece); Thessaly, in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and the Greek colonies of Aeolis in Anatolia and adjoining islands.
Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος Aiskhulos;; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greek in classical antiquity, before the development of the κοινή (koiné) "common" language of Hellenism, was divided into several dialects.
Ancient Greek grammar is morphologically complex and preserves several features of Proto-Indo-European morphology.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Antiphon of Rhamnus (Ἀντιφῶν ὁ Ῥαμνούσιος) (480–411 BC) was the earliest of the ten Attic orators, and an important figure in fifth-century Athenian political and intellectual life.
Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC.
Archon (ἄρχων, árchon, plural: ἄρχοντες, árchontes) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office.
Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης,; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.
Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
In linguistics, attested languages are languages (living or dead) that have been documented and for which the evidence has survived to the present day.
Attic numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC.
The ten Attic orators were considered the greatest orators and logographers of the classical era (5th–4th century BC).
Attica (Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or; or), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece.
Atticism (meaning "favouring Attica", the region that includes Athens in Greece) was a rhetorical movement that began in the first quarter of the 1st century BC; it may also refer to the wordings and phrasings typical of this movement, in contrast with various contemporary forms of Koine Greek (both literary and vulgar), which continued to evolve in directions guided by the common usages of Hellenistic Greek.
Chalkidiki, also spelt Chalkidike, Chalcidice or Halkidiki (Χαλκιδική, Chalkidikí), is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
Compensatory lengthening in phonology and historical linguistics is the lengthening of a vowel sound that happens upon the loss of a following consonant, usually in the syllable coda, or of a vowel in an adjacent syllable.
The Cyclades (Κυκλάδες) are an island group in the Aegean Sea, southeast of mainland Greece and a former administrative prefecture of Greece.
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs;; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.
Digamma, waw, or wau (uppercase: Ϝ, lowercase: ϝ, numeral: ϛ) is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Doric, or Dorian, was an Ancient Greek dialect.
Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
Eta (uppercase, lowercase; ἦτα ē̂ta or ήτα ita) is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet.
Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.
Eucleides (Εὐκλείδης) was archon of Athens towards the end of the fifth century BC.
Euripides (Εὐριπίδης) was a tragedian of classical Athens.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek literature dates from ancient Greek literature, beginning in 800 BC, to the modern Greek literature of today.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hellenic is the branch of the Indo-European language family whose principal member is Greek.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Heta is a conventional name for the historical Greek alphabet letter Eta (Η) and several of its variants, when used in their original function of denoting the consonant.
In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey and in the Homeric Hymns.
In linguistics, the Indo-European ablaut (pronounced) is a system of apophony (regular vowel variations) in the Proto-Indo-European language.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
Ionic Greek was a subdialect of the Attic–Ionic or Eastern dialect group of Ancient Greek (see Greek dialects).
Isocrates (Ἰσοκράτης; 436–338 BC), an ancient Greek rhetorician, was one of the ten Attic orators.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
Kyrios or kurios (translit) is a Greek word which is usually translated as "lord" or "master".
Lambda, Λ, λ (uppercase Λ, lowercase λ; λάμ(β)δα lám(b)da) is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Language is a peer-reviewed quarterly academic journal published by the Linguistic Society of America since 1925.
Lemnos (Λήμνος) is a Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
Lysias (Λυσίας; c. 445 BC – c. 380 BC) was a logographer (speech writer) in Ancient Greece.
Macmillan Education is a publisher of English Language teaching and school curriculum materials.
Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
In Ancient Greek grammar, movable nu, movable N or ephelcystic nu (νῦ ἐφελκυστικόν nû ephelkustikón, literally "nu dragged onto" or "attracted to") is a letter nu (written ν; the Greek equivalent of the letter n) placed on the end of some grammatical forms in Attic or Ionic Greek.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Omega (capital: Ω, lowercase: ω; Greek ὦ, later ὦ μέγα, Modern Greek ωμέγα) is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet.
Osthoff's law is an Indo-European sound law which states that long vowels shorten when followed by a resonant (Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) *m, *n, *l, *r, *y, *w), followed in turn by another consonant (i.e. in a closed syllable environment).
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
René Paul Victor Kiparsky (born January 28, 1941) is a Finnish professor of linguistics at Stanford University.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
The Proto-Greek language (also known as Proto-Hellenic) is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean Greek, the subsequent ancient Greek dialects (i.e., Attic, Ionic, Aeolic, Doric, Ancient Macedonian and Arcadocypriot) and, ultimately, Koine, Byzantine and Modern Greek.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes.
Psi (uppercase Ψ, lowercase ψ; psi) is the 23rd letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 700.
Psilosis is the sound change in which Greek lost the consonant sound /h/ during antiquity.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.
Quantitative metathesis (or transfer of quantity)Smyth, Greek Grammar, on CCEL: transfer of quantity is a specific form of metathesis or transposition (a sound change) involving quantity or vowel length.
Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.
Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.
Solon (Σόλων Sólōn; BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
Sophocles (Σοφοκλῆς, Sophoklēs,; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41.
A spurious diphthong (or false diphthong) is an Ancient Greek vowel that is etymologically a long vowel but written exactly like a true diphthong ει, ου (ei, ou).
In Indo-European studies, a thematic vowel or theme vowel is the vowel or from ablaut placed before the ending of a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) word.
The Thirty Tyrants (οἱ τριάκοντα τύραννοι, hoi triákonta týrannoi) were a pro-Spartan oligarchy installed in Athens after its defeat in the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
Xi (uppercase Ξ, lowercase ξ; ξι) is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet.
The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC.