47 relations: British Raj, Burma Campaign, Command and Staff College, Dehradun, Fort Leavenworth, Fourteenth Army (United Kingdom), Frontier Force Regiment, Ghulam Mustafa Khar, Governor of Punjab, Pakistan, I Corps (Pakistan), Indian Military Academy, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, IV Corps (Pakistan), Kurram Agency, Lahore, Lieutenant general, List of governors of Punjab (British India), London, Malik Nur Khan, Mangla, Military Cross, Multan, Murree, Mushtaq Ahmed Gurmani, Myanmar, National Accountability Bureau, One Unit, Pakistan Military Academy, Peshawar, Punjab, Pakistan, Rawalpindi District, Royal College of Defence Studies, Sialkot, St Paul's School, London, Three-star rank, Tikka Khan, United States Army Command and General Staff College, West Pakistan, William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim, Yahya Khan, Yusuf Haroon, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, 12th Frontier Force Regiment, 12th Infantry Division (Pakistan), 7th Infantry Division (Pakistan).
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
The Command and Staff College is a Pakistani military training institution where officers receive staff training and education.
Dehradun or Dehra Dun is the interim capital city of Uttarakhand, a state in the northern part of India.
Fort Leavenworth is a United States Army installation located in Leavenworth County, Kansas, immediately north of the city of Leavenworth, in the northeast part of the state.
The British Fourteenth Army was a multi-national force comprising units from Commonwealth countries during World War II.
The Frontier Force Regiment is one of six infantry regiments of the Pakistan Army.
Malik Ghulam Mustafa Khar (غلام مصطفى کھر; born Sanawan, Muzaffargarh on 2 August 1937) is a Pakistani politician from Punjab Province.
The Governor of Punjab is the appointed head of state of the provincial government in Punjab, Pakistan.
The I Corps, also known as I Strike Corps, of the Pakistan Army headquartered in Mangla, Azad Kashimir Territory of Pakistan.
The Indian Military Academy, Dehradun (also known as IMA) is the officer training Academy of the Indian Army.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.
The IV Corps is one of military administrative corps of Pakistan Army.
Kurram (د کورمې قبايلي سيمه; کرم ایجنسی) is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
The Governor of the Punjab was head of the British administration in the province of the Punjab.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Air Marshal Malik Nur Khan (ملک نور خان.; 22 February 1923 – 15 December 2011), commonly known as Nur Khan, was a three-star rank air force general, politician, sports administrator, and the Commander in Chief of Pakistan Air Force, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1965 until 1969.
The name Mangla (منگلا)is derived from the name of a small village that was situated in District Mirpur within the State of Jammu Kashmir.
The Military Cross (MC) is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Armed Forces, and used to be awarded to officers of other Commonwealth countries.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
Murree (Punjabi, مری, marī, meaning "apex") is a mountain resort town, located in the Galyat region of the Pir Panjal Range, within the Rawalpindi District of Punjab, Pakistan.
Nawab Mushtaq Ahmed Gurmani (مشتاق احمد گرمانی.; 1905–1981) was a Pakistani politician.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The National Accountability Bureau (قومی احتساب ادارہ; abbreviated NAB), is an autonomous and constitutionally established federal institution responsible to build efforts against corruption and prepare critical national economic intelligence assessments against economic terrorism to the Government of Pakistan.
The One Unit (ایک وحدت) was a geopolitical program launched by the government of Pakistan led by then-Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra on 22 November 1954.
The Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul (PMA), also known as PMA Kakul, is a two-year accredited federal service military academy.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
Rawalpindi District (Punjabi and ضِلع راولپِنڈى), is a district located in the northernmost part of the Punjab province of Pakistan.
The Royal College of Defence Studies (RCDS) instructs senior officers of the Armed Forces and Civil Service in defence and international security matters at the highest level, to prepare them for the top posts.
Sialkot (سيالكوٹ and سيالكوٹ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.
St Paul's School is a selective independent school for boys aged 13–18, founded in 1509 by John Colet and located on a 43-acre (180,000m2) site by the River Thames, in Barnes, London.
An officer of three-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-8.
General Tikka Khan (ٹِکّا خان), (February 1915 – 28 March 2002),, was a four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army who served as the first chief of army staff from 3 March 1972 till retiring on 1 March 1976.
The United States Army Command and General Staff College (CGSC or, obsolete, USACGSC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, is a graduate school for United States Army and sister service officers, interagency representatives, and international military officers.
West Pakistan (مغربی پاکستان,; পশ্চিম পাকিস্তান) was one of the two exclaves created at the formation of the modern State of Pakistan following the 1947 Partition of India.
Field Marshal William Joseph Slim, 1st Viscount Slim, (6 August 1891 – 14 December 1970), usually known as Bill Slim, was a British military commander and the 13th Governor-General of Australia.
Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (آغا محمد یحییٰ خان; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), widely known as Yahya Khan,, was the third President of Pakistan, serving in this post from 25 March 1969 until turning over his presidency in December 1971.
Muhammad Yusuf Abdullah Haroon (Urdu: یوسف ہارون) (1916– 12 Feb 2011) was a politician from Sindh, Pakistan.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.
The 12th Frontier Force Regiment was formed in 1922 as part of the British Indian Army.
12th Infantry Division is a Pakistani Army Largest infantry division currently based in Murree, Punjab close to Azad Kashmir.
The 7th Infantry Division, also known as the Golden Arrow (after its formation sign) and Peshawar Division, (after its garrison city) is the Pakistan Army's oldest and most battle-hardened division.