138 relations: Adjuvant therapy, Agranulocytosis, Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Amenorrhea, Amisulpride, Angioedema, Anticholinergic, Antipsychotic, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Aplastic anemia, Aripiprazole, Asenapine, Australia, Autism, Autism spectrum, Bipolar disorder, Blonanserin, Cariprazine, Carpipramine, Chlorpromazine, Clocapramine, Clozapine, Creatine kinase, Creatinine, CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, Dementia, Department of Health (Australia), Diabetes mellitus, Disability, Dopamine receptor D1, Dopamine receptor D2, Dopamine receptor D3, Dopamine receptor D4, Dopaminergic pathways, Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, Downregulation and upregulation, Dysphagia, Enzyme inhibitor, Eosinophilia, Epileptic seizure, Erythema multiforme, European Medicines Agency, Exocytosis, Extrapyramidal symptoms, Food and Drug Administration, Galactorrhea, ..., Glaucoma, Gynecomastia, Haloperidol, Health Products and Food Branch, Histamine H1 receptor, Hyperglycemia, Hyperprolactinaemia, Hypersensitivity, Hypotension, Iloperidone, Insulin resistance, Intramuscular injection, Leukopenia, Lithium (medication), Lurasidone, Major depressive disorder, Mania, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, Melperone, Metabolic syndrome, Mixed affective state, Mosapramine, Motor control, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3, Myocarditis, National Health Service, National Institute of Mental Health, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Neutropenia, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Off-label use, Olanzapine, Olanzapine/fluoxetine, Orthostatic hypotension, Paliperidone, Pancreatitis, Parkinson's disease, Perospirone, Perphenazine, Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Physicians' Desk Reference, Pimavanserin, Pneumonia severity index, Priapism, Prolactin, QT interval, Quetiapine, Remoxipride, Respiratory arrest, Rhabdomyolysis, Risperidone, Schizophrenia, Sertindole, Sexual dysfunction, Spasticity, Status epilepticus, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, Stroke, Suicidal ideation, Sulpiride, Syncope (medicine), Tardive dyskinesia, The Lancet, Therapeutic Goods Administration, Therapy, Thrombocytopenia, Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Tranquilizer, Tremor, Typical antipsychotic, UGT1A4, United Kingdom, United States, United States National Library of Medicine, University of Manchester, Valproate, Ventromedial prefrontal cortex, WebMD, Ziprasidone, Zotepine, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT1B receptor, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-HT2C receptor, 5-HT3 receptor, 5-HT6 receptor, 5-HT7 receptor. Expand index (88 more) » « Shrink index
Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.
Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood.
The alpha-1 (α1) adrenergic receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gq heterotrimeric G-protein.
The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.
Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
Amisulpride, sold under the brand name Solian among others, is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia.
Angioedema is an area of swelling of the lower layer of skin and tissue just under the skin or mucous membranes.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Aplastic anaemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged.
Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.
Asenapine, sold under the trade names Saphris and Sycrest among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and acute mania associated with bipolar disorder.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Blonanserin, sold under the brand name Lonasen, is a relatively new atypical antipsychotic (approved by PMDA in January 2008) commercialized by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma in Japan and Korea for the treatment of schizophrenia.
Cariprazine, sold under the brand names Vraylar in the United States and Reagila in Europe, is an atypical antipsychotic which is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar mania.
Carpipramine (Prazinil, Defekton) is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia and anxiety in France and Japan.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Clocapramine (Clofekton, Padrasen), also known as 3-chlorocarpipramine, is an atypical antipsychotic of the imidobenzyl class which was introduced in Japan in 1974 by Yoshitomi for the treatment of schizophrenia.
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) or phosphocreatine kinase, is an enzyme expressed by various tissues and cell types.
Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).
Cytochrome P450 1A2 (abbreviated CYP1A2), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
The Department of Health is a department of the Government of Australia charged with overseeing the running of Australia's health system, including supporting universal and affordable access to medical, pharmaceutical and hospital services, as well as helping people to stay healthy through health promotion, participation and exercise and other disease prevention activities.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
Dopamine receptor D3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD3 gene.
The dopamine receptor D4 is a dopamine D2-like G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5.
Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or DL-PFC) is an area in the prefrontal cortex of the brain of humans and non-human primates.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
Dysphagia is the medical term for the symptom of difficulty in swallowing.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Eosinophilia is a condition in which the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood exceeds.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Erythema multiforme (EM) is a skin condition of unknown cause; it is a type of erythema possibly mediated by deposition of immune complexes (mostly IgM-bound complexes) in the superficial microvasculature of the skin and oral mucous membrane that usually follows an infection or drug exposure.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.
Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.
Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), also known as extrapyramidal side effects (EPSE), are drug-induced movement disorders that include acute and tardive symptoms.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Galactorrhea (also spelled galactorrhoea) (galacto- + -rrhea) or lactorrhea (lacto- + -rrhea) is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
The Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB) of Health Canada manages the health-related risks and benefits of health products and food by minimizing risk factors while maximizing the safety provided by the regulatory system.
The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Hyperprolactinemia or hyperprolactinaemia is the presence of abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood.
Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Iloperidone, also known as Fanapt, Fanapta, and previously known as Zomaril, is an atypical antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Leukopenia is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection.
Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.
Lurasidone (trade name Latuda) is an atypical antipsychotic developed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and marketed by Sunovion in the U.S. It has been an FDA approved treatment for schizophrenia since 2010 and for treating depressive episodes in adults with bipolar I disorder since 2013.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom which is responsible for ensuring that medicines and medical devices work and are acceptably safe.
Melperone (Bunil (PT), Buronil (AT, BE, CZ, DK, FL†, NL†, NO†, SE), Eunerpan (DE)) is an atypical antipsychotic of the butyrophenone chemical class, making it structurally related to the typical antipsychotic haloperidol.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Traditionally, a mixed affective state, formerly known as a mixed-manic or mixed episode, has been defined as a state wherein features unique to both depression and mania—such as despair, fatigue, morbid or suicidal ideation, racing thoughts, pressure of activity, and heightened irritability—occur either simultaneously or in very short succession.
Mosapramine (Cremin) is an atypical antipsychotic used in Japan.
Motor control is the systematic regulation of movement in organisms that possess a nervous system.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1, is a muscarinic receptor that in humans is encoded by the CHRM1 gene.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, also known as cholinergic/acetylcholine receptor M3, or the muscarinic 3, is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor encoded by the human gene CHRM3.
Myocarditis, also known as inflammatory cardiomyopathy, is inflammation of the heart muscle.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that occasionally occurs in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication.
Neutropenia or neutropaenia is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Olanzapine/fluoxetine (trade name Symbyax, created by Eli Lilly and Company) is a single capsule containing the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine.
Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.
Paliperidone, sold under the trade name Invega among others, is a dopamine antagonist and 5-HT2A antagonist of the atypical antipsychotic class of medications.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Perospirone (Lullan) is an atypical antipsychotic of the azapirone family.
Perphenazine is a typical antipsychotic drug.
The is a Japanese governmental organization, similar in function to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States or the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency in the United Kingdom or the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) in India or the European Medicines Agency in Europe.
The Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR) is a commercially published compilation of manufacturers' prescribing information (package insert) on prescription drugs, updated annually.
Pimavanserin, sold under the brand name Nuplazid, is an atypical antipsychotic which is approved for the treatment of Parkinson's disease psychosis and is also under development for the treatment of schizophrenia, agitation, and major depressive disorder.
The pneumonia severity index (PSI) or PORT Score is a clinical prediction rule that medical practitioners can use to calculate the probability of morbidity and mortality among patients with community acquired pneumonia.
Priapism is a condition in which a penis remains erect for hours in the absence of stimulation or after stimulation has ended.
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
In cardiology, the QT interval is a measure of the time between the start of the Q wave and the end of the T wave in the heart's electrical cycle.
Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
Remoxipride (Roxiam) is an atypical antipsychotic (although according to some sources it is a typical antipsychotic) which was previously used in Europe for the treatment of schizophrenia and acute mania but was withdrawn due to toxicity concerns (incidence of aplastic anemia in 1/10,000 patients).
Respiratory arrest is caused by apnea (cessation of breathing) due to failure of the lungs to function effectively.
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Sertindole (brand names: Serdolect and Serlect) is an antipsychotic medication.
Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.
Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity, and hypertonia.
Status epilepticus (SE) is a single epileptic seizure lasting more than five minutes or two or more seizures within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.
Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a type of severe skin reaction.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Suicidal ideation, also known as suicidal thoughts, is thinking about or having an unusual preoccupation with suicide.
Sulpiride, sold under the brand name Dogmatil among others, is an atypical antipsychotic (although some texts have referred to it as a typical antipsychotic) medication of the benzamide class which is used mainly in the treatment of psychosis associated with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, and sometimes used in low dosage to treat anxiety and mild depression.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is the regulatory body for therapeutic goods (including medicines, medical devices, gene technology, and blood products) in Australia.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare disorder of the blood-coagulation system, causing extensive microscopic clots to form in the small blood vessels throughout the body, resulting in low platelet counts.
A tranquilizer refers to a drug which is designed for the treatment of anxiety, fear, tension, agitation, and disturbances of the mind, specifically to reduce states of anxiety and tension.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Typical antipsychotics are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia).
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A4 gene.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is a part of the prefrontal cortex in the mammalian brain.
WebMD is an American corporation known primarily as an online publisher of news and information pertaining to human health and well-being.
Ziprasidone, sold under the brand name Geodon among others, is an atypical antipsychotic which is used for the treatment of schizophrenia as well as acute mania and mixed states associated with bipolar disorder.
Zotepine (brand names: Losizopilon (JP), Lodopin (ID, JP), Setous (JP), Zoleptil (CZ, PT, TR, UK†); where † indicates a formulation that has been discontinued) is an atypical antipsychotic drug indicated for acute and chronic schizophrenia.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B also known as the 5-HT1B receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR1B gene.
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
The 5-HT2C receptor is a subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.
The 5HT6 receptor is a subtype of 5HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT).
The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels.
Adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics, Atypical antipsychotic agents, Atypical antipsychotics, Atypical medications (antipsychotics), Atypical neuroleptic, Second-generation antipsychotic, Second-generation antipsychotics.