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Aufbau principle

Index Aufbau principle

The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. [1]

42 relations: Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic orbital, Atomic physics, Azimuthal quantum number, Charles Janet, Chemical Physics Letters, Chromium, Copper, Degenerate energy levels, Education in Chemistry, Electron, Electron configuration, Energy level, Erwin Madelung, Ground state, Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity, Ion, Jan C. A. Boeyens, Journal of Chemical Education, Neutron, Niels Bohr, Nuclear shell model, Old quantum theory, Orbital eccentricity, Palladium, Pauli exclusion principle, Physics, Principal quantum number, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Proton, Purdue University, Quantum mechanics, Royal Society of Chemistry, Scandium, Spin (physics), Thomas–Fermi model, Valence electron, Vsevolod Klechkovsky, Wiswesser's rule, Wolfgang Pauli, Wyzant.


An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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Atomic orbital

In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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Atomic physics

Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus.

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Azimuthal quantum number

The azimuthal quantum number is a quantum number for an atomic orbital that determines its orbital angular momentum and describes the shape of the orbital.

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Charles Janet

Charles Janet (15 June 1849 – 7 February 1932) was a French engineer, company director, inventor and biologist.

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Chemical Physics Letters

Chemical Physics Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in chemical physics and physical chemistry.

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Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Degenerate energy levels

In quantum mechanics, an energy level is degenerate if it corresponds to two or more different measurable states of a quantum system.

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Education in Chemistry

Education in Chemistry is a magazine covering all areas of chemistry education, concentrating on the teaching of chemistry in secondary schools and universities.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron configuration

In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

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Energy level

A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.

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Erwin Madelung

Erwin Madelung (18 May 1881 – 1 August 1972) was a German physicist.

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Ground state

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.

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Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity

Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity is a rule based on observation of atomic spectra, which is used to predict the ground state of an atom or molecule with one or more open electronic shells.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Jan C. A. Boeyens

Jan C. A. Boeyens (1934-2015) was a South African chemist.

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Journal of Chemical Education

The Journal of Chemical Education is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal available in both print and electronic versions.

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Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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Nuclear shell model

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, the nuclear shell model is a model of the atomic nucleus which uses the Pauli exclusion principle to describe the structure of the nucleus in terms of energy levels.

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Old quantum theory

The old quantum theory is a collection of results from the years 1900–1925 which predate modern quantum mechanics.

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Orbital eccentricity

The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.

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Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.

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Pauli exclusion principle

The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Principal quantum number

In quantum mechanics, the principal quantum number (symbolized n) is one of four quantum numbers which are assigned to all electrons in an atom to describe that electron's state.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Purdue University

Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette, Indiana and is the flagship campus of the Purdue University system.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Royal Society of Chemistry

The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".

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Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.

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Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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Thomas–Fermi model

The Thomas–Fermi (TF) model, named after Llewellyn Thomas and Enrico Fermi, is a quantum mechanical theory for the electronic structure of many-body systems developed semiclassically shortly after the introduction of the Schrödinger equation.

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Valence electron

In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.

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Vsevolod Klechkovsky

Vsevolod Mavrikievich Klechkovsky (Все́волод Маври́киевич Клечко́вский; also transliterated as Klechkovskii and Klechkowski; November 28, 1900 – May 2, 1972) was a Soviet-era agricultural chemist known for his work with radioisotopes.

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Wiswesser's rule

The Wiswesser rule gives a simple method to determine the energetic sequence of the atomic subshells (n,l).

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Wolfgang Pauli

Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.

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Wyzant is an online-based service that attempts to match tutors with students.

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Atomic build-up, Atomic buildup, Auf bau, Aufbau Principle, Aufbau procedure, Aufbau rule, Building up principle, Building-up principle, Diagonal rule, Electron Aufbau, Electron aufbau, Janet rule, Klechkovsky's rule, Klechkowski rule, Klechkowsky rule, Madelung rule, Madelung's rule, Principles in distribution of electrons.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aufbau_principle

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