372 relations: A History of Western Philosophy, Abortion, Abraham Kuyper, Adam and Eve, Africa (Roman province), Age of Enlightenment, Agostino Gaetano Riboldi, Alcuin, Alexander of San Elpidio, Algeria, Alypius of Thagaste, Ambrose, American Political Science Review, Amillennialism, Ancient philosophy, Ancient Rome, Anglican Communion, Annaba, Anselm of Canterbury, Anthony the Great, Antonio Negri, Apocalypse, Apologetics, Apostolic succession, Apuleius, Archimandrite, Arianism, Aristotelianism, Arthur Schopenhauer, Ascetical theology, Assyrian Church of the East, Astrology, Athenagoras of Athens, Augustinian hypothesis, Augustinian Studies, Augustinian theodicy, Augustinians, Augustinus-Lexikon, Aurelia (gens), Autobiography, Avilés, B. B. Warfield, Basel, Basil of Caesarea, Bede, Being and Time, Bengt Hägglund, Bennet Tyler, Berbers, Bernard of Clairvaux, ..., Bertrand Russell, Bible, Bishop, Blaise Pascal, Bonaventure, Book of Genesis, Caelestius, Cagliari, Calama (Numidia), Calendar of saints, Calvinism, Cambridge University Catholic Chaplaincy, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Canonization, Canons regular, Carl Schmitt, Carnal knowledge, Carthage, Cassago Brianza, Catholic Church, Catholic Encyclopedia, Chastity, Christian anthropology, Christian apologetics, Christian Classics Ethereal Library, Christian denomination, Christian philosophy, Christian theology, Church Fathers, Cicero, Clement of Alexandria, Coadjutor bishop, Concupiscence, Confessions (Augustine), Constantinian shift, Constitutio Antoniniana, Cornelius Jansen, Corpus Christianorum, Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Council of Ephesus, Council of Orange (529), Council of Trent, Councils of Carthage, Critical thinking, Cur Deus Homo, Cyprian, De doctrina christiana, De libero arbitrio (Augustine), Decurion (administrative), Dialogue, Diarmaid MacCulloch, Dionysius (journal), Divine grace, Divine illumination, Doctor of the Church, Doctrine, Domingo Báñez, Dominican Order, Donald Burt, Donatism, Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria, Easter Vigil, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecclesiology, Edmund Husserl, Edwin Mellen Press, Eichmann in Jerusalem, Elizabeth Fentress, Empirical evidence, Epistemology, Epistle to the Romans, Eratosthenes, Eternity, Ethics, Ex opere operato, Exegesis, Fall of man, Faustus of Mileve, Ferdinand de Saussure, Filioque, First Council of Constantinople, First Council of Nicaea, Fordham University, Fornication, Framework interpretation (Genesis), Frances Yates, Francis Landey Patton, Franz Neumayr, Free will, Freedman, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gaius Marius Victorinus, Gentleman, Georges Florovsky, Gerard Seghers, Germanic peoples, Grace in Christianity, Greed, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Rimini, Gregory Palamas, Guelma, Hannah Arendt, Hedonism, Hermeneutics, Heuristic, Hierarchy of the Catholic Church, Hipparchus, Hippo Regius, Horoscope, Hortensius (Cicero), Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Human sexuality, Huneric, Idolatry, Immanuel Kant, Incurvatus in se, Infant baptism, Infanticide, Intermediate state, Irresistible grace, J. R. R. Tolkien, James Carroll (author), James J. O'Donnell, Jansenism, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jerome, Jews, Johann Adolph Hasse, Johannes Klenkok, Johannes von Goch, John Benjamins Publishing Company, John Calvin, John Chrysostom, John Gresham Machen, John Henry Newman, John Piper (theologian), John Romanides, Johns Hopkins University Press, Jonathan Edwards (theologian), Jovinian, Julian of Eclanum, Just war theory, Justo L. González, Kalamazoo, Michigan, Laity, Late Latin, Latin literature, Leo Ruickbie, Letter (message), Libido, Liutprand, King of the Lombards, Longman, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Lutheranism, M'Daourouch, Magic (supernatural), Manichaeism, Mar Ammo, Mariology, Marius Mercator, Martin Heidegger, Martin Luther, Marxism, Memory, Merrimack College, Metaphor, Metaphysics, Michael Horton (theologian), Milan, Mnemonic, Monasticism, Monsignor, Municipium, Muslim, Neo-Calvinism, Neoplatonism, New Advent, Nicolas Malebranche, Numidia, On the Trinity, Order of Saint Augustine, Ordination, Original sin, Orosius, Osnabrück, Ostia Antica, Otium, Oxford English Dictionary, Pacifism, Paganism, Patristics, Patrologia Latina, Patron saint, Paul the Apostle, Pavia, Pelagianism, Pelagius, Perpetual virginity of Mary, Perseverance of the saints, Person, Phenomenology (philosophy), Philippines, Philosopher, Philosophical Investigations, Philosophical problems of testimony, Philosophical skepticism, Philosophy of history, Philosophy of religion, Pierre Hadot, Pietro Metastasio, Plato, Platonic Academy, Platonism, Plotinus, Pope Benedict XIII, Pope Benedict XVI, Pope Boniface VIII, Pope Innocent I, Pope John XXII, Pope Pius V, Pope Zosimus, Porphyry (philosopher), Possidius, Postmillennialism, Preacher, Predestination, Premillennialism, Pride, Priest, Problem of evil, Problem of other minds, Protestant Reformers, Protestantism, Psalms, Psychoanalysis, Purgatory, Questia Online Library, Quintus Aurelius Symmachus, Rabanus Maurus, Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, Redemption (theology), Reformation, Regular clergy, René Descartes, Resurrection, Rhetoric, Robert Hugh Benson, Robert Kilwardby, Roman Africans, Roman Catholic Diocese of Pavia, Roman Empire, Roman naming conventions, Sack of Rome (410), Sacrament, Sacraments of the Catholic Church, Saint Augustin Basilica, Saint Monica, Salvation, Samaritans, San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro, Sardinia, Satan, Søren Kierkegaard, Scholasticism, Semiotics, Semipelagianism, Septuagint, Sermon, Sexual abstinence, Simplician, Sirach, Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, Society of Jesus, Souk Ahras, Soul, St. Augustine, Florida, State (theology), Stoicism, Superior, Wisconsin, Tanakh, Taylor & Francis, Tertullian, Thagaste, The Art of Memory, The City of God, The Enneads, The Holocaust, The Lutterworth Press, The Reformation: A History, Theodicy, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theology, Theology of John Calvin, Theotokos, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Bradwardine, Time (magazine), Total depravity, Translation (relic), Tree of the knowledge of good and evil, Trinity, Truth, Tucson, Arizona, University of California Press, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Massachusetts Press, Utne Reader, Vandals, Veneration, Villanova University, Virgil, Visigoths, Western Christianity, Western philosophy, Western Roman Empire, Wiley-Blackwell, Will (philosophy), William B. 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A History of Western Philosophy is a 1945 book by philosopher Bertrand Russell.
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
Abraham Kuijper (29 October 1837 – 8 November 1920), publicly known as Abraham Kuyper, was Prime Minister of the Netherlands between 1901 and 1905, an influential neo-Calvinist theologian and also a journalist.
Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agostino Gaetano Riboldi (18 February 1839–25 April 1902) was an Italian cardinal.
Alcuin of York (Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria.
Alexander of San Elpidio (1269–1326) was an Italian Augustinian.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Saint Alypius of Thagaste was bishop of the see of Tagaste (in what is now Algeria) in 394.
Aurelius Ambrosius (– 397), better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.
The American Political Science Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all areas of political science.
Amillennialism (Greek: a- "no" + millennialism), in Christian eschatology, involves the rejection of the belief that Jesus will have a literal, thousand-year-long, physical reign on the earth.
This page lists some links to ancient philosophy.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Annaba (عنّابة), ("Jujube Town"), formerly known as Bona, and then Bône, is a seaport city in the northeastern corner of Algeria, close to Tunisia.
Anselm of Canterbury (1033/4-1109), also called (Anselmo d'Aosta) after his birthplace and (Anselme du Bec) after his monastery, was a Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109.
Saint Anthony or Antony (Ἀντώνιος Antṓnios; Antonius); January 12, 251 – January 17, 356) was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony such as, by various epithets of his own:,, and For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism, he is also known as the. His feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church. The biography of Anthony's life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism, particularly in Western Europe via its Latin translations. He is often erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, however, the first to go into the wilderness (about 270), which seems to have contributed to his renown. Accounts of Anthony enduring supernatural temptation during his sojourn in the Eastern Desert of Egypt inspired the often-repeated subject of the temptation of St. Anthony in Western art and literature. Anthony is appealed to against infectious diseases, particularly skin diseases. In the past, many such afflictions, including ergotism, erysipelas, and shingles, were referred to as St. Anthony's fire.
Antonio "Toni" Negri (born 1 August 1933) is an Italian Marxist sociologist and political philosopher, best known for his co-authorship of Empire and secondarily for his work on Spinoza.
An apocalypse (Ancient Greek: ἀποκάλυψις apokálypsis, from ἀπό and καλύπτω, literally meaning "an uncovering") is a disclosure of knowledge or revelation.
Apologetics (from Greek ἀπολογία, "speaking in defense") is the religious discipline of defending religious doctrines through systematic argumentation and discourse.
Apostolic succession is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, which has usually been associated with a claim that the succession is through a series of bishops.
Apuleius (also called Lucius Apuleius Madaurensis; c. 124 – c. 170 AD) was a Latin-language prose writer, Platonist philosopher and rhetorician.
The title archimandrite (ἀρχιμανδρίτης archimandritis), primarily used in the Eastern Orthodox and the Eastern Catholic churches, originally referred to a superior abbot whom a bishop appointed to supervise several 'ordinary' abbots (each styled hegumenos) and monasteries, or to the abbot of some especially great and important monastery.
Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
Ascetical theology is the organized study or presentation of spiritual teachings found in Christian Scripture and the Church Fathers that help the faithful to more perfectly follow Christ and attain to Christian perfection.
The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻĒdtā d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ʻEdtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāitā Qātolīqī d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Athenagoras (Ἀθηναγόρας ὁ Ἀθηναῖος; c. 133 – c. 190 AD) was a Father of the Church, an Ante-Nicene Christian apologist who lived during the second half of the 2nd century of whom little is known for certain, besides that he was Athenian (though possibly not originally from Athens), a philosopher, and a convert to Christianity.
The Augustinian hypothesis is a solution to the synoptic problem, which concerns the origin of the Gospels of the New Testament.
Augustinian Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal devoted to the study of Augustine of Hippo.
The Augustinian theodicy, named for the 4th- and 5th-century theologian, philosopher and (according to some Christian denominations) Saint Augustine of Hippo, is a type of Christian theodicy designed in response to the evidential problem of evil.
The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders, dating back to the first millennium but formally created in the 13th century, and some Anglican religious orders, created in the 19th century, though technically there is no "Order of St.
The Augustinus-Lexikon is a trilingual scholarly encyclopedia under the editorship of Cornelius Petrus Mayer, Robert Dodaro, and others that has as its subject matter the life and works of St Augustine of Hippo.
The gens Aurelia was a plebeian family at Rome, which flourished from the third century BC to the latest period of the Empire.
An autobiography (from the Greek, αὐτός-autos self + βίος-bios life + γράφειν-graphein to write) is a self-written account of the life of oneself.
Avilés is a city in Asturias, Spain.
Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield (November 5, 1851 – February 16, 1921) was professor of theology at Princeton Seminary from 1887 to 1921.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Ágios Basíleios o Mégas, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).
Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
Being and Time (Sein und Zeit) is a 1927 book by the German philosopher Martin Heidegger, in which the author seeks to analyse the concept of Being.
Bengt Vilhelm Hägglund (22 November 1920-8 March 2015) was a Swedish theologian.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist (Bernardus Claraevallensis; 109020 August 1153) was a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism that caused the formation of the Cistercian order.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.
Saint Bonaventure (Bonaventura; 1221 – 15 July 1274), born Giovanni di Fidanza, was an Italian medieval Franciscan, scholastic theologian and philosopher.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
Caelestius (or Celestius) was the major follower of the Christian teacher Pelagius and the Christian doctrine of Pelagianism, which was opposed to Augustine of Hippo and his doctrine in original sin, and was later declared to be heresy.
Cagliari (Casteddu; Caralis) is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy.
Calama was a colonia in the Roman province of Numidia situated where Guelma in Algeria now stands.
The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Cambridge University Catholic Chaplaincy, known as Fisher House after its patron, English martyr and Cambridge chancellor St John Fisher, is the Catholic chaplaincy for members of the University of Cambridge in England.
The Canadian Journal of Philosophy is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of philosophy that was established in 1971 by John King-Farlow, Kai Nielsen, T.M. Penelhum, and W.W. Rozeboom.
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints.
Canons regular are priests in the Western Church living in community under a rule ("regula" in Latin), and sharing their property in common.
Carl Schmitt (11 July 1888 – 7 April 1985) was a conservative German jurist and political theorist.
Carnal knowledge is an archaic or legal euphemism for sexual intercourse.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Cassago Brianza is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Lecco in the Italian region Lombardy, located about northeast of Milan and about southwest of Lecco.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
Chastity is sexual conduct of a person deemed praiseworthy and virtuous according to the moral standards and guidelines of their culture, civilization or religion.
In the context of Christian theology, Christian anthropology refers to the study of the human ("anthropology") as it relates to God.
Christian apologetics (ἀπολογία, "verbal defence, speech in defence") is a branch of Christian theology that attempts to defend Christianity against objections.
The Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL) is a digital library that provides free electronic copies of Christian scripture and literature texts.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
Christian philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from a Christian tradition.
Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria (Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 150 – c. 215), was a Christian theologian who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria.
A coadjutor bishop (or bishop coadjutor) is a bishop in the Catholic, Anglican, and (historically) Eastern Orthodox churches whose main role is to assist the diocesan bishop in the administration of the diocese.
Concupiscence (from Late Latin noun concupiscentia, from the Latin verb concupiscere, from con-, "with", here an intensifier, + cupi(d)-, "desiring" + -escere, a verb-forming suffix denoting beginning of a process or state) is an ardent, usually sensual, longing.
Confessions (Latin: Confessiones) is the name of an autobiographical work, consisting of 13 books, by Saint Augustine of Hippo, written in Latin between AD 397 and 400.
Constantinian shift is a term used by some theologians and historians of antiquity to describe the political and theological aspects and outcomes of the 4th-century process of Constantine's integration of the Imperial government with the Church that began with the First Council of Nicaea.
The Constitutio Antoniniana (Latin for: "Constitution of Antoninus") (also called the Edict of Caracalla or the Antonine Constitution) was an edict issued in 212, by the Roman Emperor Caracalla declaring that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given theoretical Roman citizenship and that all free women in the Empire were to be given the same rights as Roman women.
Cornelius Jansen (Latinized name Cornelius Jansenius; also Corneille Janssens; 28 October 1585 – 6 May 1638) was the Dutch Catholic bishop of Ypres in Flanders and the father of a theological movement known as Jansenism.
The Corpus Christianorum (CC) is a major publishing undertaking of the Belgian publisher Brepols Publishers devoted to patristic and medieval Latin texts.
The Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum (CSEL) is an academic series that publishes critical editions of Latin works by late-antique Christian authors.
The Council of Ephesus was a council of Christian bishops convened in Ephesus (near present-day Selçuk in Turkey) in AD 431 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius II.
The Second Council of Orange (or Second Synod of Orange) was held in 529 at Orange, which was then part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
The Council of Trent (Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy), was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.
The Councils of Carthage, or Synods of Carthage, were church synods held during the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries in the city of Carthage in Africa.
Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment.
Cur Deus Homo? (Latin for "Why was God a Man?"), usually translated Why God Became a Man, is a book written by St Anselm of Canterbury in the period of 1094–1098.
Saint Cyprian (Thaschus Cæcilius Cyprianus; 200 – September 14, 258 AD) was bishop of Carthage and a notable Early Christian writer of Berber descent, many of whose Latin works are extant.
De doctrina christiana (English: On Christian Doctrine or On Christian Teaching) is a theological text written by Saint Augustine of Hippo.
De libero arbitrio (libri tres) (English: On Free Choice of the Will) is a book by Augustine of Hippo about the freedom of will.
A decurion was a member of a city senate in the Roman Empire.
Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.
Diarmaid Ninian John MacCulloch (born 31 October 1951) is a British historian and academic, specialising in ecclesiastical history and the history of Christianity.
Dionysius is a scholarly journal published by the Department of Classics at Dalhousie University.
Divine grace is a theological term present in many religions.
According to divine illumination, the process of human thought needs to be aided by divine grace.
Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor "teacher") is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine.
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
Domingo Báñez (29 February 1528 in Valladolid – 22 October 1604 in Medina del Campo) was a Spanish Dominican and Scholastic theologian.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
Donald X. Burt O.S.A., Ph.D. (born 1929), is a member of the Augustinian Order.
Donatism (Donatismus, Δονατισμός Donatismós) was a schism in the Church of Carthage from the fourth to the sixth centuries AD.
Maria Antonia, Princess of Bavaria, Electress of Saxony (18 July 1724 – 23 April 1780) was a German princess, composer, singer, harpsichordist and patron, known particularly for her operas Il trionfo della fedeltà (Dresden, summer 1754) and Talestri, regina delle amazoni (Nymphenburg Palace, February 6, 1760).
Easter Vigil, also called the Paschal Vigil or the Great Vigil of Easter, is a service held in traditional Christian churches as the first official celebration of the Resurrection of Jesus.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
The Edwin Mellen Press is a scholarly publishing house with offices in Lewiston, New York, and Lampeter, Wales.
Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil is a book by political theorist Hannah Arendt, originally published in 1963.
Elizabeth Barringer Fentress (born 30 October 1948) is a Roman archaeologist who specialises in Italy and North Africa.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
The Epistle to the Romans or Letter to the Romans, often shortened to Romans, is the sixth book in the New Testament.
Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.
Eternity in common parlance is an infinitely long period of time.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Ex opere operato is a Latin phrase meaning "from the work worked" referring to sacraments deriving their power from Christ's work (ex opere operato Christi) rather than the role of humans.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
The fall of man, or the fall, is a term used in Christianity to describe the transition of the first man and woman from a state of innocent obedience to God to a state of guilty disobedience.
Faustus of Mileve was a Manichaean bishop of the fourth century.
Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.
Filioque is a Latin term added to the original Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed (commonly known as the Nicene Creed), and which has been the subject of great controversy between Eastern and Western Christianity.
The First Council of Constantinople (Πρώτη σύνοδος της Κωνσταντινουπόλεως commonly known as Β΄ Οικουμενική, "Second Ecumenical"; Concilium Constantinopolitanum Primum or Concilium Constantinopolitanum A) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. This second ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom, except for the Western Church,Richard Kieckhefer (1989).
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.
Fornication is generally consensual sexual intercourse between two people not married to each other.
The framework interpretation (also known as the literary framework view, framework theory, or framework hypothesis) is a description of the structure of the first chapter of the Book of Genesis (more precisely Genesis 1:1–2:4a), the Genesis creation narrative.
Dame Frances Amelia Yates, (28 November 1899 – 29 September 1981) was an English historian who focused on the study of the Renaissance.
Francis Landey Patton (February 22, 1843 – November 25, 1932), American educator, academic administrator, and theologian, and the twelfth president of Princeton University.
Franz Neumayr (17 January 1697 – 1 May 1765) was a German Jesuit preacher, writer on theological, controversial and ascetical subjects, and author of many Latin dramas on sacred themes.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Gaius Marius Victorinus (also known as Victorinus Afer; fl. 4th century) was a Roman grammarian, rhetorician and Neoplatonic philosopher.
In modern parlance, a gentleman (from gentle + man, translating the Old French gentilz hom) is any man of good, courteous conduct.
Georges Vasilievich Florovsky (Russian: Гео́ргий Васи́льевич Флоро́вский; September 9, 1893 – August 11, 1979) was an Orthodox Christian priest, theologian, historian and ecumenist.
Gerard Seghers at the Netherlands Institute for Art History Frans Jozef Peter Van den Branden, Geschiedenis der Antwerpsche schilderschool, Antwerpen, 1883, p. 879-884 (1591 in Antwerp – 18 March 1651 in Antwerp) was a Flemish painter, art collector and art dealer.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
In Western Christian theology, grace has been defined, not as a created substance of any kind, but as "the love and mercy given to us by God because God desires us to have it, not necessarily because of anything we have done to earn it", "Grace is favour, the free and undeserved help that God gives us to respond to his call to become children of God, adoptive sons, partakers of the divine nature and of eternal life." It is understood by Christians to be a spontaneous gift from God to people "generous, free and totally unexpected and undeserved" – that takes the form of divine favor, love, clemency, and a share in the divine life of God.
Greed, or avarice, is an inordinate or insatiable longing for unneeded excess, especially for excess wealth, status, power, or food.
Gregory of Nyssa, also known as Gregory Nyssen (Γρηγόριος Νύσσης; c. 335 – c. 395), was bishop of Nyssa from 372 to 376 and from 378 until his death.
Gregory of Rimini (c. 1300 – November 1358), also called Gregorius de Arimino or Ariminensis, was one of the great scholastic philosophers and theologians of the Middle Ages.
Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς; c. 1296 – 1357 or 1359) was a prominent theologian and ecclesiastical figure of the late Byzantine period.
Guelma (ڨالمة;; Algerian pronunciation) is the capital of Guelma Province and Guelma District, located in north-eastern Algeria, about 65 kilometers from the Mediterranean coast.
Johanna "Hannah" Arendt (14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American philosopher and political theorist.
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic goods are the primary or most important goals of human life.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.
The hierarchy of the Catholic Church consists of its bishops, priests, and deacons.
Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.
Hippo Regius (also known as Hippo or Hippone) is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba, in Algeria.
A horoscope is an astrological chart or diagram representing the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, astrological aspects and sensitive angles at the time of an event, such as the moment of a person's birth.
Hortensius or On Philosophy is a lost dialogue written by Marcus Tullius Cicero in the year 45 BC.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.
Huneric or Hunneric or Honeric (died December 23, 484) was King of the (North African) Vandal Kingdom (477–484) and the oldest son of Genseric.
Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Incurvatus in se (Latin for Turned/curved inward on oneself) is a theological phrase describing a life lived "inward" for oneself rather than "outward" for God and others.
Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children.
Infanticide (or infant homicide) is the intentional killing of infants.
In some forms of Christian eschatology, the intermediate state or interim state refers to a person's "intermediate" existence between one's death and the universal resurrection.
Irresistible grace (or efficacious grace) is a doctrine in Christian theology particularly associated with Calvinism, which teaches that the saving grace of God is effectually applied to those whom he has determined to save (the elect) and, in God's timing, overcomes their resistance to obeying the call of the gospel, bringing them to faith in Christ.
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6). In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because speakers of General American realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.
James P. Carroll (born January 22, 1943, Chicago, Illinois, United States) is an American author, historian, and journalist.
James Joseph O'Donnell (born 1950) is a classical scholar and University Librarian at Arizona State University.
Jansenism was a Catholic theological movement, primarily in France, that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johann Adolph Hasse (born in Bergedorf, near Hamburg, baptised 25 March 1699 – died in Venice 16 December 1783) was an 18th-century German composer, singer and teacher of music.
Johannes Klenkok (or Klenke) (c. 1310 - 15 June 1374) was a German Augustinian friar, known as a theologian and disciple of Gregory of Rimini.
Johannes von Goch (properly Johann Pupper) (c.1400 - 1475) was a German Augustinian monk, thought by some to be a precursor of the Reformation.
John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent academic publisher in social sciences and humanities with its head office in Amsterdam.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
John Chrysostom (Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος; c. 349 – 14 September 407), Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father.
John Gresham Machen (July 28, 1881 – January 1, 1937) was an American Presbyterian theologian in the early 20th century.
John Henry Newman, (21 February 1801 – 11 August 1890) was a poet and theologian, first an Anglican priest and later a Catholic priest and cardinal, who was an important and controversial figure in the religious history of England in the 19th century.
John Stephen Piper (born January 11, 1946) is an American Reformed Baptist continuationist pastor and author who is the founder and leader of desiringGod.org and is the chancellor of Bethlehem College & Seminary in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
John Savvas Romanides (Ιωάννης Σάββας Ρωμανίδης; 2 March 1927, Piraeus1 November 2001, Athens) was an Orthodox Christian priest, author and professor who had a distinctive influence on post-war Greek Orthodox theology.
The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703 – March 22, 1758) was an American revivalist preacher, philosopher, and Congregationalist Protestant theologian.
Jovinian (Jovinianus; died c. 405), was an opponent of Christian asceticism in the 4th century and was condemned as a heretic at synods convened in Rome under Pope Siricius and in Milan by St Ambrose in 393.
Julian of Eclanum (Latin: Iulianus Aeclanensis, Giuliano di Eclano) (c. 386 – c. 455) was bishop of Eclanum, near today's Benevento (Italy).
Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum iustum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers.
Justo L. González (born August 9, 1937) is a Cuban-American Methodist historian and theologian.
Kalamazoo is a city in the southwest region of the U.S. state of Michigan.
A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language.
Leo Ruickbie is an historian and sociologist of religion, specializing in paranormal beliefs, magic, witchcraft and Wicca.
A letter is one person's written message to another pertaining to some matter of common concern.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
Liutprand was the King of the Lombards from 712 to 744 and is chiefly remembered for his Donation of Sutri, in 728, and his long reign, which brought him into a series of conflicts, mostly successful, with most of Italy.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Mdawrush is a municipality in Souk Ahras, Algeria, occupying the site of the Berber-Roman town of Madauros (or Madaura) in Numidia.
Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
Mar Ammo was a 3rd-century Manichean disciple of the prophet Mani.
Mariology is the theological study of Mary, the mother of Jesus.
Marius Mercator (born probably in Northern Africa about 390; died shortly after 451) was a Latin Christian ecclesiastical writer best known for his advocacy of Augustinian theology during the Pelagian controversy.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Merrimack College is a private college in the Roman Catholic tradition located in North Andover, Massachusetts.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Michael Scott Horton (born 1964) is the J. Gresham Machen Professor of Theology and Apologetics at Westminster Seminary California since 1998, Editor-in-Chief of Modern Reformation (MR) magazine, and President and host of the nationally syndicated radio broadcast, The White Horse Inn. Both Modern Reformation magazine and The White Horse Inn radio broadcast are now entities under the umbrella of White Horse Media, whose offices are located on the campus of Westminster Seminary California.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
A mnemonic (the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory.
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
Monsignor is an honorific form of address for those members of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church including bishops, honorary prelates and canons.
Municipium (pl. municipia) was the Latin term for a town or city.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Neo-Calvinism, a form of Dutch Calvinism, is the movement initiated by the theologian and former Dutch prime minister Abraham Kuyper.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
New Advent is a website that provides online versions of various works connected with the Catholic Church.
Nicolas Malebranche, Oratory of Jesus (6 August 1638 – 13 October 1715), was a French Oratorian priest and rationalist philosopher.
Numidia (202 BC – 40 BC, Berber: Inumiden) was an ancient Berber kingdom of the Numidians, located in what is now Algeria and a smaller part of Tunisia and Libya in the Berber world, in North Africa.
On the Trinity (De Trinitate) is a Latin book written by Augustine of Hippo to discuss the Trinity in context of the logos.
The Order of Saint Augustine (Ordo sancti Augustini, abbreviated as OSA; historically Ordo eremitarum sancti Augustini, OESA, the Order of Hermits of Saint Augustine), generally called Augustinians or Austin Friars (not to be confused with the Augustinian Canons Regular), is a Catholic religious order.
Ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart as clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies.
Original sin, also called "ancestral sin", is a Christian belief of the state of sin in which humanity exists since the fall of man, stemming from Adam and Eve's rebellion in Eden, namely the sin of disobedience in consuming the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
Paulus Orosius (born 375, died after 418 AD) — less often Paul Orosius in English — was a Gallaecian Chalcedonian priest, historian and theologian, a student of Augustine of Hippo.
Osnabrück (Ossenbrügge; archaic Osnaburg) is a city in the federal state of Lower Saxony in north-west Germany.
Ostia Antica is a large archaeological site, close to the modern town of Ostia, that is the location of the harbour city of ancient Rome, 15 miles (25 kilometres) southwest of Rome.
Otium, a Latin abstract term, has a variety of meanings, including leisure time in which a person can enjoy eating, playing, resting, contemplation and academic endeavors.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Patristics or patrology is the study of the early Christian writers who are designated Church Fathers.
The Patrologia Latina (Latin for The Latin Patrology) is an enormous collection of the writings of the Church Fathers and other ecclesiastical writers published by Jacques-Paul Migne between 1841 and 1855, with indices published between 1862 and 1865.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Pavia (Lombard: Pavia; Ticinum; Medieval Latin: Papia) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po.
Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without special divine aid.
Pelagius (– 418) was a theologian of British origin who advocated free will and asceticism.
The perpetual virginity of Mary is a Marian doctrine, taught by the Catholic Church and held by a number of groups in Christianity, which asserts that Mary (the mother of Jesus) was "always a virgin, before, during and after the birth of Jesus Christ." This doctrine also proclaims that Mary had no marital relations after Jesus' birth nor gave birth to any children other than Jesus.
Perseverance of the saints (also referred to as eternal security as well as the similar but distinct doctrine known as "Once Saved, Always Saved") is a teaching that asserts that once persons are truly "born of God" or "regenerated" by the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, nothing in heaven or earth "shall be able to separate (them) from the love of God" (Romans 8:39) resulting in a reversal of the converted condition.
A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen) is a work by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, first published, posthumously, in 1953, in which Wittgenstein discusses numerous problems and puzzles in the fields of semantics, logic, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of psychology, philosophy of action, and philosophy of mind.
In philosophy, testimony includes any words or utterances that are presented as evidence for the claims they express.
Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.
Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.
Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, and can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy.
Pierre Hadot (February 21, 1922 – April 24, 2010) was a French philosopher and historian of philosophy specializing in ancient philosophy, particularly Neoplatonism.
Pietro Antonio Domenico Trapassi, better known by his pseudonym of Pietro Metastasio (3 January 1698 – 12 April 1782), was an Italian poet and librettist, considered the most important writer of opera seria libretti.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
The Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδημία) was founded by Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) in ca.
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it.
Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; – 270) was a major Greek-speaking philosopher of the ancient world.
Pope Benedict XIII (Benedictus XIII; 2 February 1649 – 21 February 1730), born Pietro Francesco Orsini and later called Vincenzo Maria Orsini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 May 1724 to his death in 1730.
Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
Pope Boniface VIII (Bonifatius VIII; born Benedetto Caetani (c. 1230 – 11 October 1303), was Pope from 24 December 1294 to his death in 1303. He organized the first Catholic "jubilee" year to take place in Rome and declared that both spiritual and temporal power were under the pope's jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Roman pontiff. Today, he is probably best remembered for his feuds with King Philip IV of France, who caused the Pope's death, and Dante Alighieri, who placed the pope in the Eighth Circle of Hell in his Divine Comedy, among the simoniacs.
Pope Innocent I (Innocentius I; d. 12 March 417) served as the Pope of the Catholic Church from 401 to his death in 417. From the beginning of his papacy, he was seen as the general arbitrator of ecclesiastical disputes in both the East and the West. He confirmed the prerogatives of the Archbishop of Thessalonica, and issued a decretal on disciplinary matters referred to him by the Bishop of Rouen. He defended the exiled John Chrysostom and consulted with the bishops of Africa concerning the Pelagian controversy, confirming the decisions of the African synods. The Catholic priest-scholar, Johann Peter Kirsch, described Innocent as a very energetic and highly gifted individual, "...who fulfilled admirably the duties of his office".
Pope John XXII (Ioannes XXII; 1244 – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334.
Pope Saint Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572.
Pope Zosimus (died 26 December 418) reigned from 18 March 417 to his death in 418.
Porphyry of Tyre (Πορφύριος, Porphýrios; فرفوريوس, Furfūriyūs; c. 234 – c. 305 AD) was a Neoplatonic philosopher who was born in Tyre, in the Roman Empire.
Possidius (5th century) was a friend of Augustine of Hippo who wrote a reliable biography and an indiculus or list of his works.
In Christian end-times theology (eschatology), postmillennialism is an interpretation of chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation which sees Christ's second coming as occurring after (Latin post-) the "Millennium", a Golden Age in which Christian ethics prosper.
A preacher is a person who delivers sermons or homilies on religious topics to an assembly of people.
Predestination, in theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul.
Premillennialism, in Christian eschatology, is the belief that Jesus will physically return to the earth (the Second Coming) before the Millennium, a literal thousand-year golden age of peace.
Pride is an inwardly directed emotion that carries two antithetical meanings.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
The problem of evil refers to the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent God (see theism).
The problem of other minds is a philosophical problem traditionally stated as the following epistemological challenge raised by the skeptic: given that I can only observe the behavior of others, how can I know that others have minds? It is a central tenet of the philosophical idea known as solipsism; the notion that for any person only one's own mind is known to exist.
Protestant Reformers were those theologians whose careers, works and actions brought about the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
In Roman Catholic theology, purgatory (via Anglo-Norman and Old French) is an intermediate state after physical death in which some of those ultimately destined for heaven must first "undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven," holding that "certain offenses can be forgiven in this age, but certain others in the age to come." And that entrance into Heaven requires the "remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven," for which indulgences may be given which remove "either part or all of the temporal punishment due to sin," such as an "unhealthy attachment" to sin.
Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.
Quintus Aurelius Symmachus (c. 345 – 402) was a Roman statesman, orator, and man of letters.
Rabanus Maurus Magnentius (780 – 4 February 856), also known as Hrabanus or Rhabanus, was a Frankish Benedictine monk and theologian who became archbishop of Mainz in Germany.
The real presence of Christ in the Eucharist is a term used in Christian theology to express the doctrine that Jesus is really or substantially present in the Eucharist, not merely symbolically or metaphorically.
Redemption is an essential concept in many religions, including Judaism and Christianity.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Regular clergy, or just regulars, is applied in the Roman Catholic Church to clerics who follow a "rule" (Latin regula) in their life, those who are members of religious institutes.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Resurrection is the concept of coming back to life after death.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Robert Hugh Benson AFSC KC*SG KGCHS (18 November 1871 – 19 October 1914) was an English Anglican priest who in 1903 was received into the Roman Catholic Church in which he was ordained priest in 1904.
Robert Kilwardby (c. 1215 – 11 September 1279) was an Archbishop of Canterbury in England and a cardinal.
Roman-Africans are the ancient North African populations of Roman North Africa that had a Romanized culture and used to speak their own variety of Latin as a result.
The Diocese of Pavia (Dioecesis Papiensis) is a see of the Catholic Church in Italy.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Over the course of some fourteen centuries, the Romans and other peoples of Italy employed a system of nomenclature that differed from that used by other cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean, consisting of a combination of personal and family names.
The Sack of Rome occurred on 24 August 410.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
There are seven sacraments of the Catholic Church, which according to Catholic theology were instituted by Jesus and entrusted to the Church.
The Basilica of St Augustine (Église Saint-Augustin d'Annaba) is a Roman Catholic basilica and pro-cathedral located in Annaba, Algeria.
Saint Monica (c.331/2- 387) (AD 322–387), also known as Monica of Hippo, was an early Christian saint and the mother of St.
Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.
The Samaritans (Samaritan Hebrew: ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ,, "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)") are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant originating from the Israelites (or Hebrews) of the Ancient Near East.
San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro (Italian for "Saint Peter in Golden Sky") is a Roman Catholic basilica (and a former cathedral) of the Augustinians in Pavia, Italy, in the Lombardy region.
Satan is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
Semipelagianism (Semipelagianismus) is a Christian theological and soteriological school of thought on salvation; that is, the means by which humanity and God are restored to a right relationship.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
A sermon is an oration, lecture, or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy.
Sexual abstinence or sexual restraint is the practice of refraining from some or all aspects of sexual activity for medical, psychological, legal, social, financial, philosophical, moral, or religious reasons.
Simplician (Simplicianus; Simpliciano) was Bishop of Milan from 397 to 400 or 401 AD.
The Book of the All-Virtuous Wisdom of Yeshua ben Sira, commonly called the Wisdom of Sirach or simply Sirach, and also known as the Book of Ecclesiasticus (abbreviated Ecclus.) or Ben Sira, is a work of ethical teachings, from approximately 200 to 175 BCE, written by the Jewish scribe Ben Sira of Jerusalem, on the inspiration of his father Joshua son of Sirach, sometimes called Jesus son of Sirach or Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira.
The Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies (The Roman Society) was founded in 1910 as the sister society to the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Souk Ahras (Berber: Tagast; ancient name: Thagast; سوق أهراس) is a municipality in Algeria.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
In Christianity, the term state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Superior is a city in, and the county seat of, Douglas County in the state of Wisconsin.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
Thagaste (or "Tagaste") was a Roman-Berber city in present-day Algeria, now called Souk Ahras.
The Art of Memory is a 1966 non-fiction book by British historian Frances A. Yates.
The City of God Against the Pagans (De civitate Dei contra paganos), often called The City of God, is a book of Christian philosophy written in Latin by Augustine of Hippo in the early 5th century AD.
The Enneads (Ἐννεάδες), fully The Six Enneads, is the collection of writings of Plotinus, edited and compiled by his student Porphyry (270).
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Lutterworth Press, one of the oldest independent British publishing houses, has traded since the late eighteenth century - initially as the Religious Tract Society (RTS).
The Reformation: A History (2003) is a history book by English historian Diarmaid MacCulloch.
Theodicy, in its most common form, is an attempt to answer the question of why a good God permits the manifestation of evil, thus resolving the issue of the problem of evil.
Theodore the Interpreter (c. 350 – 428) was bishop of Mopsuestia (as Theodore II) from 392 to 428 AD.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
The theology of John Calvin has been influential in both the development of the system of belief now known as Calvinism and in Protestant thought more generally.
Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, mother of God, used especially in Eastern Christianity.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Bradwardine (c. 1300 – 26 August 1349) was an English cleric, scholar, mathematician, physicist, courtier and, very briefly, Archbishop of Canterbury.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Total depravity (also called radical corruption or pervasive depravity) is a Christian theological doctrine derived from the Augustinian concept of original sin.
In Christianity, the translation of relics is the removal of holy objects from one locality to another (usually a higher status location); usually only the movement of the remains of the saint's body would be treated so formally, with secondary relics such as items of clothing treated with less ceremony.
The tree of the knowledge of good and evil is one of two specific trees in the story of the Garden of Eden in Genesis 2–3, along with the tree of life.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The University of Massachusetts Press is a university press that is part of the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Utne Reader (a.k.a. Utne) is a quarterly American magazine that collects and reprints articles on politics, culture, and the environment, generally from alternative media sources including journals, newsletters, weeklies, zines, music, and DVDs.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
Veneration (Latin veneratio or dulia, Greek δουλεία, douleia), or veneration of saints, is the act of honoring a saint, a person who has been identified as having a high degree of sanctity or holiness.
Villanova University is a private research university located in Radnor Township, a suburb northwest of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, within the Archdiocese of Philadelphia in the United States.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Western Christianity is the type of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Will, generally, is that faculty of the mind which selects, at the moment of decision, the strongest desire from among the various desires present.
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
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