168 relations: Absolute monarchy, Adam Heinrich von Steinau, Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Anna Aloysia Maximiliane von Lamberg, Anna Constantia von Brockdorff, Anna Karolina Orzelska, Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt, Augustus III of Poland, Augustus the Strong (film), Austria, Badger, Baroque, Battle of Fraustadt, Battle of Kliszów, Battle of Narva (1700), Battle of Podhajce (1698), Battle of Poltava, Battle of Pułtusk (1703), Bayreuth, Brandenburg-Prussia, By the Grace of God, Campaign of Grodno, Carnival of Venice, Catherine of Brandenburg-Küstrin, Catholic Church, Charles XII of Sweden, Christian I, Elector of Saxony, Christian IV of Denmark, Christian, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Civil war in Poland (1704–06), Conty, Crossing of the Düna, Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Cuius regio, eius religio, Denmark, Diabetes mellitus, Dorothea of Denmark, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Dresden, Dresden Castle, Dresden Cathedral, Duchess Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia, Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Duchy of Prussia, Duchy of Saxony, Duchy of Teschen, Elbe, Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ..., Electorate of Saxony, Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst, Europe, Fox tossing, François Louis, Prince of Conti, Frederick Augustus Rutowsky, Frederick I of Prussia, Frederick II of Denmark, Frederick III of Denmark, Frederick IV of Denmark, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Generalfeldmarschall, George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Grünes Gewölbe, Great Northern War, Hare, Henriette Rénard, History of Poland in the Early Modern era (1569–1795), History of Saxony, Holy League (1684), Holy Roman Empire, Horseshoe, House of Wettin, Hubertusburg, Imperial vicar, Issachar Berend Lehmann, Jacob Heinrich von Flemming, Jan Kanty Moszyński, Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg, Johann Adolf II, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels, Johann Friedrich Böttger, Johann Georg, Chevalier de Saxe, John George I, Elector of Saxony, John George II, Elector of Saxony, John George III, Elector of Saxony, John George IV, Elector of Saxony, John George, Elector of Brandenburg, John III Sobieski, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Kraków, Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt, Legitimacy (family law), List of archbishops of Gniezno and primates of Poland, List of Polish monarchs, List of rulers of Lithuania, List of rulers of Saxony, Livonia, Louis de Silvestre, Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, Louis XV of France, Lutheranism, Magdalena Sibylla of Neidschutz, Magdalene of Brandenburg, Margraviate of Brandenburg, Margravine Magdalene Sibylle of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Maria Anna Katharina Rutowska, Maria Aurora von Königsmarck, Maria Aurora von Spiegel, Marie Eleonore of Cleves, Marie of Prussia, Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Maurice de Saxe, Meissen, Meissen porcelain, Michael Bohnen, Moritzburg Castle, Narva, Obesity, Order of chivalry, Order of the Golden Fleece, Ottoman Empire, Pacta conventa, Palace of Versailles, Paul Wegener, Peace of Augsburg, Peace of Westphalia, Peter the Great, Pillnitz Castle, Podolia, Polish language, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Pretzsch, Wittenberg, Princess Anna Sophie of Denmark, Principality of Bayreuth, Principality of Smolensk, Protectorate, Protestantism, Reformation, Rosalba Carriera, Russian Empire, Saxe-Weissenfels, Saxon Garden, Silent Sejm, Smallpox, Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Sophie of Brandenburg, Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, Stanisław Leszczyński, Swedish Empire, Szlachta, Tarnogród Confederation, Tatars, Toruń, Treaty of Altranstädt (1706), Treaty of Karlowitz, Treaty of Narva, Treaty of Thorn (1709), Treaty of Warsaw (1705), United Baltic Duchy, Ursula Katharina Lubomirska, Venice, War of the Polish Succession, Warsaw, Wawel Cathedral, Wildcat, Wilhelmine of Prussia, Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, William the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Zwinger (Dresden). Expand index (118 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Adam Heinrich Graf von Steinau (died 1712) was a Saxon Generalfeldmarschall.
Albert Frederick (Albrecht Friedrich, Albrecht Fryderyk; 7 May 1553, in Königsberg – 28 August 1618, in Fischhausen, Rybaki) was Duke of Prussia from 1568 until his death.
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (Universal German Biography) is one of the most important and most comprehensive biographical reference works in the German language.
Anna Aloysia Maximiliane Louise von Lamberg (? - died 28 June 1738) was an Austrian countess who was successively the mistress of Augustus II the Strong, King of Poland, and Aleksander Benedykt Sobieski.
Anna Constantia von Brockdorff (17 October 1680 – 31 March 1765), later the Countess of Cosel, was a German lady-in-waiting and noblewoman, and mistress of Augustus the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, in 1706-1713.
Anna Karolina Orzelska (23 November 1707 – 27 September 1769) was an adventuress and Polish ''szlachcianka'' (noblewoman), the illegitimate daughter of August II the Strong, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, by Henriette Rénard.
Anne Catherine of Brandenburg (26 June 1575 – 8 April 1612) was queen-consort of Denmark and Norway from 1597 to 1612 as the first spouse of King Christian IV of Denmark.
Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt (30 July 1601 – 6 May 1659) was the daughter of Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and Magdalena von Brandenburg.
Augustus III (August III Sas, Augustas III; 17 October 1696 5 October 1763) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II (Friedrich August II).
Augustus the Strong (German: August der Starke) is a 1936 German-Polish biographical film directed by Paul Wegener and starring Michael Bohnen, Lil Dagover and Marieluise Claudius.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the family Mustelidae, which also includes the otters, polecats, weasels, and wolverines.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The Battle of Fraustadt was fought on 2 February 1706 (O.S.) / 3 February 1706 (Swedish calendar) / 13 February 1706 (N.S.) between Sweden and Saxony-Poland and their Russian allies near Fraustadt (now Wschowa) in Poland.
The Battle of Kliszów (Klissow) (Klezow) took place on July 8 (Julian calendar) / July 9 (Swedish calendar) / July 19, 1702 (Gregorian calendar) near Kliszów, Poland-Lithuania, during the Great Northern War.
The Battle of Narva (Битва при Нарве; Slaget vid Narva) on (20 November in the Swedish transitional calendar) was an early battle in the Great Northern War.
Battle of Podhajce took place on 8–9 September 1698 near Podhajce in Ruthenian Voivodship during the Great Turkish War.
The Battle of Poltava (Slaget vid Poltava; Полта́вская би́тва; Полта́вська би́тва) on 27 June 1709 (8 July, N.S.) was the decisive victory of Peter I of Russia, also known as "the Great," over the Swedish forces under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, in one of the battles of the Great Northern War.
The Battle of Pułtusk took place on April 21, 1703 in Pułtusk during the Great Northern War.
Bayreuth (Bavarian: Bareid) is a medium-sized town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Franconian Jura and the Fichtelgebirge Mountains.
Brandenburg-Prussia (Brandenburg-Preußen) is the historiographic denomination for the Early Modern realm of the Brandenburgian Hohenzollerns between 1618 and 1701.
By the Grace of God (Latin Dei Gratia, abbreviated D.G.) is an introductory part of the full styles of a monarch historically considered to be ruling by divine right, not a title in its own right.
The Campaign of Grodno was a plan developed by Johann Patkul and Otto Arnold von Paykull during the Swedish invasion of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a part of the Great Northern War.
The Carnival of Venice (Carnevale di Venezia) is an annual festival held in Venice, Italy.
Catherine of Brandenburg-Küstrin (10 August 1549 – 30 September 1602) was a Margravine of Brandenburg-Küstrin by birth and Electress of Brandenburg by marriage.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charles XII, also Carl (Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718.
Christian I of Saxony (29 October 1560 in Dresden – 25 September 1591 in Dresden) was Elector of Saxony from 1586 to 1591.
Christian IV (Christian den Fjerde; 12 April 1577 – 28 February 1648), sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648.
Christian, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (30 January 1581 in Cölln – 30 May 1655 in Bayreuth) was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (later renamed Brandenburg-Bayreuth).
Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (19 December 1671 – 4 September 1727) was Electress of Saxony from 1694 to 1727 (her death) and titular Queen of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1697 to 1727 by marriage to Augustus II the Strong.
The civil war in Poland (1704–1706) was a part of a larger European conflict, the Great Northern War.
Conty is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
The Crossing of the Düna (also known as Battle of Riga) took place during the Great Northern War on July 8 (Julian calendar) / July 9 (Swedish calendar) / July 19 (Gregorian calendar) 1701 near the city of Riga, present-day Latvia.
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.
Cuius regio, eius religio is a Latin phrase which literally means "Whose realm, his religion", meaning that the religion of the ruler was to dictate the religion of those ruled.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Princess Dorothea of Denmark (29 June 1546 – 6 January 1617) was the Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1561 until 1592 as the consort of Duke William the Younger.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
Dresden Castle or Royal Palace (German: Dresdner Residenzschloss or Dresdner Schloss) is one of the oldest buildings in Dresden, Germany.
Dresden Cathedral, or the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Dresden, previously the Catholic Church of the Royal Court of Saxony, called in German Katholische Hofkirche and since 1980 also known as Kathedrale Sanctissimae Trinitatis, is the Catholic Cathedral of Dresden.
Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia (31 December 1586 – 12 February 1659) was an Electress of Saxony as the spouse of John George I, Elector of Saxony.
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was an historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.
The Duchy of Prussia (Herzogtum Preußen, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (Herzogliches Preußen, Prusy Książęce) was a duchy in the region of Prussia established as a result of secularization of the State of the Teutonic Order during the Protestant Reformation in 1525.
The Duchy of Saxony (Hartogdom Sassen, Herzogtum Sachsen) was originally the area settled by the Saxons in the late Early Middle Ages, when they were subdued by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars from 772 and incorporated into the Carolingian Empire (Francia) by 804.
The Duchy of Teschen (Herzogtum Teschen), also Duchy of Cieszyn (Księstwo Cieszyńskie) or Duchy of Těšín (Těšínské knížectví, was one of the Duchies of Silesia centered on Cieszyn (Teschen) in Upper Silesia. It was split off the Silesian Duchy of Opole and Racibórz in 1281 during the feudal division of Poland and was ruled by Silesian dukes of the Piast dynasty from 1290 until the line became extinct with the death of Duchess Elizabeth Lucretia in 1653. The ducal lands initially comprised former Lesser Polish territories east of the Biała River, which in about 1315 again split off as the Polish Duchy of Oświęcim, while the remaining duchy became a fiefdom of the Bohemian kings in 1327 and was incorporated into the Lands of the Bohemian Crown by 1347. While the bulk of Silesia was conquered by the Prussian king Frederick the Great in the Silesian Wars of 1740–1763, Teschen together with the duchies of Troppau (Opava), Krnov and Nysa remained with the Habsburg Monarchy and merged into the Austrian Silesia crown land in 1849. The so-called "commander line" of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, a cadet branch descending from Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen, held the title "Duke of Teschen" until 1918.
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.
The Electorate of Saxony (Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also Kursachsen) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356.
Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst (15 September 1563 – 8 November 1607) was a princess of Anhalt by birth and Electress of Brandenburg by marriage.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Fox tossing (German: Fuchsprellen) was a popular competitive blood sport in parts of Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, which involved throwing live foxes and other animals high into the air.
François Louis de Bourbon, le Grand Conti (30 April 1664 – 9 February 1709), was Prince de Conti, succeeding his brother, Louis Armand de Bourbon, in 1685.
Frederick Augustus, Count Rutowsky (also written Rutowski) (Warsaw/Dresden, 19 June 1702 – Pillnitz, 16 March 1764), was a Saxon Field Marshal who commanded Saxon forces in the Siege of Pirna during the Seven Years' War.
Frederick I (Friedrich I.) (11 July 1657 – 25 February 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and Duke of Prussia in personal union (Brandenburg-Prussia).
Frederick II (1 July 1534 – 4 April 1588) was King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.
Frederick III (Frederik; 18 March 1609 – 9 February 1670) was king of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death in 1670.
Frederick IV (11 October 1671 – 12 October 1730) was the king of Denmark and Norway from 1699 until his death.
The Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (Old Masters Gallery) in Dresden, Germany, displays around 750 paintings from the 15th to the 18th centuries.
Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.
George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (17 February 1582, Celle – 12 April 1641, Hildesheim), ruled as Prince of Calenberg from 1635.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Grünes Gewölbe (English: Green Vault) in Dresden is a unique historic museum that contains the largest collection of treasures in Europe.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
Ana Katharina (Henriette) Rénard (d. 26 May 1721 or 1722), was a mistress of Augustus the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony and mother of his daughter, the later Countess Anna Karolina Orzelska.
The early modern era of Polish history follows the late Middle Ages.
The history of Saxony consists of what was originally a small tribe living on the North Sea between the Elbe and Eider River in the present Holstein.
The Holy League (Latin: Sacra Ligua) of 1684 was an alliance organized by Pope Innocent XI to oppose the Ottoman Empire in the Great Turkish War.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
A horseshoe is a fabricated product, normally made of metal, although sometimes made partially or wholly of modern synthetic materials, designed to protect a horse's hoof from wear.
The House of Wettin is a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors and kings that once ruled territories in the present-day German states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia.
Hubertusburg is a Baroque palace in Saxony, Germany.
An imperial vicar (Reichsvikar) was a prince charged with administering all or part of the Holy Roman Empire on behalf of the Emperor.
Issachar Berend Lehmann, Berend Lehmann, Yissakhar Bermann Segal, Yissakhar ben Yehuda haLevi, Berman Halberstadt (April 23, 1661 in Essen, Westphalia – July 9, 1730 in Halberstadt, Kingdom of Prussia), was a Jewish-German banker, merchant, diplomatic agent as well as army and mint contractor working as a court Jew for Elector Augustus II the Strong of Saxony, King of Poland, and other German princes.
Jakob Heinrich von Flemming (March 3, 1667 – April 30, 1728) was a Saxon count, military officer and politician.
Jan Kanty Moszyński (c. 1690 – 14 September 1737) was a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman and politician, Treasurer of the Crown Court from 1729.
Joachim Frederick (27 January 1546 – 18 July 1608), of the House of Hohenzollern, was Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1598 until his death.
Johann Adolf II, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels (Weissenfels, 4 September 1685 – Leipzig, 16 May 1746), was the last duke of Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt and a member of the House of Wettin.
Johann Friedrich Böttger (also Böttcher or Böttiger; February 4, 1682 – March 13, 1719) was a German alchemist.
Johann Georg, Chevalier de Saxe (21 August 1704 – 25 February 1774), also called Johann Georg of Saxony, was a Saxon Field Marshal and Governor of Dresden.
John George I (German: Johann Georg I.) (5 March 1585 – 8 October 1656) was Elector of Saxony from 1611 to 1656.
Johann George II (31 May 1613 – 22 August 1680) was the Elector of Saxony from 1656 to 1680.
Johann George III (20 June 1647 – 12 September 1691) was Elector of Saxony from 1680 to 1691.
John George IV (18 October 1668 in Dresden – 27 April 1694 in Dresden) was Elector of Saxony from 1691 to 1694.
John George of Brandenburg (Johann Georg) (11 September 1525 – 8 January 1598) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1571–1598) and a Duke of Prussia.
John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski; Jonas III Sobieskis; Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Kamianets-Podilskyi (Kamyanets-Podilsky, Kamieniec Podolski, Camenița, Каменец-Подольский, קאמענעץ־פאדאלסק) is a city on the Smotrych River in western Ukraine, to the north-east of Chernivtsi.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgrafschaft Hessen-Darmstadt) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by a younger branch of the House of Hesse.
Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce.
This is a list of Archbishops of the Archdiocese of Gniezno, who are simultaneously Primates of Poland since 1418.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
The following is a list of rulers over Lithuania—grand dukes, kings, and presidents—the heads of authority over historical Lithuanian territory.
This article lists dukes, electors, and kings ruling over different territories named Saxony from the beginning of the Saxon Duchy in the 9th century to the end of the Saxon Kingdom in 1918.
Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
Louis de Silvestre (23 June 1675 – 11 April 1760) was a French portrait and history painter.
Louis V of Hesse-Darmstadt (Ludwig; 24 September 1577 – 27 July 1626) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1596 to 1626.
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Magdalena Sibylla of Neidschutz (8 February 1675 – 14 April 1694), later Countess of Rochlitz, was a German noblewoman and the mistress of John George IV, Elector of Saxony.
Magdalene of Brandenburg, also Magdalene and Magdalen, (7 January 1582 – 4 May 1616) was the daughter of John George, Elector of Brandenburg and his third wife Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
Magdalene Sibylle of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (27 October 1612 – 20 March 1687) was Electress of Saxony from 1656 to 1680 as the wife of John George II.
Maria Anna Katharina Rutowska (1706–1746) was a Polish noblewoman.
Countess Maria Aurora von Königsmarck (sv: Aurora Königsmarck) (28 August 166216 February 1728) was a Swedish and German noblewoman of Brandenburg extraction and mistress of Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland.
Maria Aurora von Spiegel, born Fatima (1681 - fl 1733), also referred to as Fatime, Fatima Kariman or Fatima von Kariman, was the Ottoman Turkish mistress of Augustus II the Strong.
Duchess Marie Eleonore of Cleves (16 June 1550 – 1 June 1608) was a Duchess consort of Prussia by marriage to Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia.
Marie of Prussia (23 January 1579 – 21 February 1649) was a Prussian duchess by birth and Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth by marriage.
Maurice, Count of Saxony (Hermann Moritz Graf von Sachsen, Maurice de Saxe; 28 October 1696 – 20 November 1750) was a German soldier and officer of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire, the Imperial Army, and at last in French service who became a Marshal and later also Marshal General of France.
Meissen (in German orthography: Meißen) is a town of approximately 30,000 about northwest of Dresden on both banks of the Elbe river in the Free State of Saxony, in eastern Germany.
Meissen porcelain or Meissen china was the first European hard-paste porcelain.
Franz Michael Bohnen (2 May 1887 – 26 April 1965) was a German bass baritone opera singer and actor.
Moritzburg Castle (Schloss Moritzburg) or Moritzburg Palace is a Baroque palace in Moritzburg, in the German state of Saxony, about northwest of the Saxon capital, Dresden.
Narva (Нарва) is the third largest city in Estonia.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
A chivalric order, order of chivalry, order of knighthood or equestrian order is an order, confraternity or society of knights typically founded during or in inspiration of the original Catholic military orders of the Crusades (circa 1099-1291), paired with medieval concepts of ideals of chivalry.
The Order of the Golden Fleece (Orden del Toisón de Oro, Orden vom Goldenen Vlies) is a Roman Catholic order of chivalry founded in Bruges by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabella.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Pacta conventa (Latin for "articles of agreement") was a contractual agreement, from 1573 to 1764 entered into between the "Polish nation" (i.e., the szlachta (nobility) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and a newly elected king upon his "free election" (''wolna elekcja'') to the throne.
The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.
Paul Wegener (11 December 1874 – 13 September 1948) was a German actor, writer and film director known for his pioneering role in German expressionist cinema.
The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (the predecessor of Ferdinand I) and the Schmalkaldic League, signed in September 1555 at the imperial city of Augsburg.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Pillnitz Castle (German: Schloss Pillnitz) is a restored Baroque palace at the eastern end of the city of Dresden in the German state of Saxony.
Podolia or Podilia (Подíлля, Podillja, Подо́лье, Podolʹje., Podolya, Podole, Podolien, Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova (i.e. northern Transnistria).
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Pretzsch is a small town and a former municipality in Wittenberg district in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Princess Anna Sophie of Denmark (1 September 1647 – 1 July 1717) was the eldest daughter of King Frederick III of Denmark and Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and Electress of Saxony from 1680 to 1691 as the wife of John George III.
The Principality of Bayreuth (Fürstentum Bayreuth) or Margraviate of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Markgraftum Brandenburg-Bayreuth) was an immediate territory of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by a Franconian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty.
The Principality of Smolensk (eventually Grand Principality of Smolensk) was a Kievan Rus' lordship from the eleventh to the fifteenth century.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Rosalba Carriera (12 January 1673 – 15 April 1757) was a Venetian Rococo painter.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Saxe-Weissenfels (Sachsen-Weißenfels) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire from 1656/7 until 1746 with its residence at Weißenfels.
The Saxon Garden (Ogród Saski) is a 15.5–hectare public garden in central (Śródmieście) Warsaw, Poland, facing Piłsudski Square.
Silent Sejm (also Dumb Sejm and literally Mute Sejm, Нямы сойм; Sejm Niemy; Nebylusis seimas) is the name given to the session of the Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of 1 February 1717 held in Warsaw.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg (24 March 1628 – 20 February 1685) was queen of Denmark and Norway as the consort of the King Frederick III of Denmark.
Sophie of Brandenburg (6 June 1568 – 7 December 1622) was a German regent, Electress of Saxony by marriage to Christian I, Elector of Saxony, and regent.
Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (4 September 1557 – 14 October 1631) was Queen of Denmark and Norway by marriage to Frederick II of Denmark.
Stanisław I Leszczyński (also Anglicized and Latinized as Stanislaus I, Stanislovas Leščinskis, Stanislas Leszczynski; 20 October 1677 – 23 February 1766) was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.
The Tarnogród Confederation was a confederation of szlachta in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the years 1715–1716.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Toruń (Thorn) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River.
The Treaty of Altranstädt was concluded between Charles XII of Sweden and Augustus the Strong of Saxony and Poland-Lithuania, on 13 October 1706, during the Great Northern War.
The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci, in modern-day Serbia, concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–97 in which the Ottoman side had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta.
The Treaty of Narva was concluded on 19 August (O.S.) / 30 August 1704 during the Great Northern War.
The Treaty of Thorn was concluded on 9 October 1709 between Augustus the Strong of Poland-Lithuania and Peter the Great of Russia in Thorn (Toruń), during the Great Northern War.
The Treaty of Warsaw was concluded on 18 November (O.S.) / 28 November 1705 during the Great Northern War.
The proposed United Baltic Duchy, (Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum, Balti Hertsogiriik, Apvienotā Baltijas hercogiste) also known as the Grand Duchy of Livonia, was a state proposed by the Baltic German nobility and exiled Russian nobility after the Russian Revolution and German occupation of the Courland, Livonian, and Estonian governorates of the Russian Empire.
Ursula Katharina of Altenbockum, divorced Princess Lubomirska, married Duchess von Württemberg-Winnental (Urszula Katarzyna Lubomirska z domu Bokum; 25 November 1680 – 4 May 1743), later Imperial Princess of Teschen (Teschen), was a Polish-German noblewoman and mistress of Augustus II the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, in 1700-1705.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The War of the Polish Succession (1733–35) was a major European war sparked by a Polish civil war over the succession to Augustus II, which the other European powers widened in pursuit of their own national interests.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Royal Archcathedral Basilica of Saints Stanislaus and Wenceslaus on the Wawel Hill (królewska bazylika archikatedralna śś.), also known as the Wawel Cathedral (katedra wawelska), is a Roman Catholic church located on Wawel Hill in Kraków, Poland.
The wildcat is a small cat species complex comprising ''Felis silvestris'' and the ''Felis lybica''.
Princess Wilhelmine of Prussia (Friederike Sophie Wilhelmine; 3 July 1709 – 14 October 1758) was a princess of the German Kingdom of Prussia (the older sister of Frederick the Great) and composer.
Wilhelm (4 July 1535 – 20 August 1592), called William the Younger (Wilhelm der Jüngere), was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Prince of Lüneburg from 1559 until his death.
The Zwinger (Dresdner Zwinger) is a palace in the German city of Dresden, built in Baroque style and designed by court architect Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann.
August II, August II Mocny, August II of Poland, August II the Strong, August der Starke, August the Strong, August the strong, Augustus II, Augustus II of Poland, Augustus II of Saxony, Augustus II the strong, Augustus II., Augustus ii the strong, Augustus the Strong, Frederick August I, Elector of Saxony, Frederick Augustus I (1670-1733), Frederick Augustus I of Poland, Frederick Augustus I the Strong, Frederick Augustus I, Elector of Saxony, Frederick Augustus I, Margrave of Meissen, King Augustus II of Poland.