286 relations: "Polish death camp" controversy, Adolf Burger, Adolf Eichmann, Adolf Hitler, Adolf Hitler's rise to power, Afro-Germans, Ahnenerbe, Alfréd Wetzler, Allies of World War II, Alsace, American Journal of Comparative Law, Amir Eshel, Anne Frank, Antisemitism, Antoni Dobrowolski, Arbeit macht frei, Arpad Wigand, Arthur Liebehenschel, Aryan race, August Hirt, Auschwitz Album, Auschwitz bombing debate, Auschwitz cross, Auschwitz trial, Auschwitz-Birkenau Foundation, Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum, Żegota, Babice, Oświęcim County, Bayer, Bór, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Będzin, Belsen trial, Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, Bernard Wasserstein, Biuletyn Informacyjny, Blechhammer, Bleeding, Block 11, Bloodlands, Bronisław Komorowski, Broszkowice, Bruno Tesch, Brzeszcze, Brzezinka, Bureau of Information and Propaganda, Carl Clauberg, Carmelites, Catholic Church, Chaim Michael Dov Weissmandl, Chełmno extermination camp, ..., Compulsory sterilization, Concentration Camps Inspectorate, Counterfactual history, Crematory, Cyanide, Dachau trials, Dębno, Death marches (Holocaust), Declaration by United Nations, Doctors' trial, Dwory II, Dystrophy, East Upper Silesia, Edith Stein, Einsatzgruppen, Elie Wiesel, Elisabeth Volkenrath, Else Ury, Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, Eugenics, European Parliament, Existentialism, Expulsion of Poles by Nazi Germany, Extermination camp, Extermination through labour, Final Solution, First mass transport to Auschwitz concentration camp, Flensburg, Florence Jaffray Harriman, Franciszek Piper, Frankfurt Auschwitz trials, Franz Hössler, Fritz Löhner-Beda, Gangrene, Gas chamber, Gas van, General Government, Generalplan Ost, George Mantello, Gerald Reitlinger, German military administration in occupied France during World War II, German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war, German-occupied Europe, Germany, Gestapo, Gross-Rosen concentration camp, Halina Krahelska, Hans Aumeier, Hans Münch, Harbutowice, Silesian Voivodeship, Harmęże, Höcker Album, Heinrich Himmler, Helmut Kohl, Hermann Göring, HighBeam Research, History of the Jews in Germany, History of the Jews in Poland, Holocaust trains, Home Army, Homosexuality, Human subject research, Hunger Plan, If This Is a Man, IG Farben, Imre Kertész, Intelligence Corps (United Kingdom), International Holocaust Remembrance Day, Invasion of Poland, Irène Némirovsky, Irma Grese, Israeli Air Force, Jawiszowice, Jaworzno concentration camp, Jean-Claude Pressac, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jerzy Bielecki (Auschwitz survivor), Jewish question, Jewish skeleton collection, Jews, Josef Kramer, Josef Mengele, Kapo (concentration camp), Karl Bischoff, Karl Weinbacher, Kazimierz Piechowski, Kommando, Kraków, Krupp, Kurt Heissmeyer, Laurence Rees, Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, Lebensraum, List of Nazi concentration camps, List of victims and survivors of Auschwitz, Lists of World Heritage Sites in Europe, Lucy Dawidowicz, Madagascar Plan, Majdanek concentration camp, Mala Zimetbaum, Man's Search for Meaning, March of the Living, Maria Mandl, Martin Gilbert, Mass in the Catholic Church, Master race, Maximilian Kolbe, McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, Miklós Nyiszli, Monowitz concentration camp, Mug shot, Mysłowice, Natzweiler-Struthof, Nazi concentration camp badge, Nazi concentration camps, Nazi Germany, Nazi human experimentation, Nazism, Necrosis, Neuengamme concentration camp, Night (book), Nizhny Novgorod, NKVD, Nobel Peace Prize, Noma (disease), Nuremberg Laws, Oświęcim, Oberführer, Obergruppenführer, Obersturmbannführer, Obersturmführer, Occupation of Poland (1939–1945), Operation Barbarossa, Oskar Gröning, Otto Frank, Pan-Germanism, Pławy, Pesticide, Peter Longerich, Poison, Poles, Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany, Polish government-in-exile, Polish Red Cross, Polish resistance movement in World War II, Pope John Paul II, Primo Levi, Prisoner of war, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Province of Upper Silesia, Pseudoscience, Racial hygiene, Rajsko, Oświęcim County, Raul Hilberg, Red Army, Reich Main Security Office, Reichsführer-SS, Reichsuniversität Straßburg, Reinhard Heydrich, Richard C. Lukas, Richard Glücks, Romani genocide, Romani language, Romani people, Ronald Lauder, Rudolf Brandt, Rudolf Höss, Rudolf Vrba, Sachsenhausen concentration camp, Saint Petersburg, Satrap, Schutzstaffel, Siemens-Schuckert, Simone Veil, Sinti, Slavs, Sobibór extermination camp, Sonderkommando, Spotted fever, SS and police leader, SS Main Economic and Administrative Office, SS-Totenkopfverbände, Standing cell, Starvation, Stefan Jaracz, Steven Spielberg, Supreme National Tribunal, Survivor guilt, Synthetic rubber, Tadeusz Borowski, Tambov, Tarnów, Tesch & Stabenow, The Destruction of the European Jews, The Holocaust, The New York Times, The Perse School, The Third Reich Trilogy, This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen, Timothy D. Snyder, Totenkopf, Treblinka extermination camp, Trzebinia, Twin, Typhoid fever, UNESCO, United Nations General Assembly, United States Army Air Forces, Uterus, Viktor Frankl, Vinzenz Schöttl, Vologda, Vrba–Wetzler report, Walter Eisfeld, Wannsee Conference, War crime, Warsaw, West Germany, Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, Winston Churchill, Witold Pilecki, Wodzisław Śląski, Wolfram Sievers, Women's Orchestra of Auschwitz, World Heritage Committee, World Heritage site, World Jewish Congress, World War II, X-ray, Yad Vashem, Yalta Conference, Yellow badge, Zofia Kossak-Szczucka, Związek Organizacji Wojskowej, Zyklon B, 322nd Rifle Division (Soviet Union). Expand index (236 more) » « Shrink index
"Polish death camp" and "Polish concentration camp" are misnomers that have been a subject of controversy and legislation.
Adolf Burger (12 August 1917 – 6 December 2016) was a Jewish Slovak typographer, memoir writer, and Holocaust survivor involved in Operation Bernhard.
Otto Adolf Eichmann (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party).
Afro-Germans (Afrodeutsche), Black Germans (schwarze Deutsche) or during the German Empire Imperial Negroes (Reichsneger) are an ethnic group, namely people who are citizens and/or residents of Germany and who are of Black African descent.
The Ahnenerbe (ancestral heritage) was a think tank that operated in Nazi Germany between 1935 and 1945.
Alfréd Israel Wetzler (10 May 1918– 8 February 1988), who later wrote under the alias Jozef Lánik, was a Slovak Jew, and one of a very small number of Jews known to have escaped from the Auschwitz death camp during the Holocaust.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
The American Journal of Comparative Law (AJCL) is a quarterly, peer-reviewed law journal devoted to comparative and transnational legal studies—including, among other subjects, comparative law, comparative and transnational legal history and theory, private international law and conflict of laws, and the study of legal systems, cultures, and traditions other than those of the United States.
Aluf Amir Eshel (אמיר אשל; born 1959) is a former Israeli general who served as commander of the Israeli Air Force.
Annelies Marie Frank (12 June 1929 – February or March 1945)Research by The Anne Frank House in 2015 revealed that Frank may have died in February 1945 rather than in March, as Dutch authorities had long assumed.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Antoni Dobrowolski (October 8, 1904 – October 21, 2012) was a Polish educator, teacher and Holocaust survivor.
"Arbeit macht frei" is a German phrase meaning "work sets you free".
Arpad Wigand (born 13 January 1906 – 26 July 1983) was a Nazi German war criminal with the rank of SS-Oberführer who served as the SS and Police Leader in Warsaw (SS-und Polizeiführer (SSPF) from 4 August 1941 until 23 April 1943 during the occupation of Poland in World War II. As an aide to Erich von dem Bach Zelewski he first suggested the site of the former Polish artillery barracks in the Zasole suburb of Oswiecim for a concentration camp in January 1940. This site would evolve into the Auschwitz concentration camp which went on to become a major site of the Nazi "Final Solution to the Jewish question" resulting in the death of up to 1,000,000 Jews.
Arthur Liebehenschel (25 November 1901 – 24 January 1948) was a commandant at the Auschwitz and Majdanek concentration camps during World War II.
The Aryan race was a racial grouping used in the period of the late 19th century and mid-20th century to describe people of European and Western Asian heritage.
August Hirt (28 April 1898 – 2 June 1945) was an anatomist with Swiss and German nationality who served as a chairman at the Reich University in Strasbourg during World War II.
The Auschwitz Album is a unique photographic record of the Holocaust of the Second World War.
The issue of why Auschwitz concentration camp was not bombed by the Allies during World War II continues to be explored by historians.
The Auschwitz cross is a cross erected near the Auschwitz concentration camp.
The Auschwitz trial began on November 24, 1947, in Kraków, when Polish authorities (the Supreme National Tribunal) tried 40 former staff of the Auschwitz concentration camps.
Auschwitz-Birkenau Foundation, created in 2009 by Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, aims in gathering and manage the iron fund from which income shall finance long-term, global preservation program of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial Site.
The Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu (Teren Niemiecki zabrany Polsce) is a memorial and museum in Oświęcim (German: Auschwitz), Poland, which includes the Nazi concentration camps Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II-Birkenau. It is devoted to the memory of the victims who died at both camps during World War II. The museum performs several tasks, including Holocaust research.
Żegota (full codename: the "Konrad Żegota Committee"Yad Vashem Shoa Resource Center) was the Polish Council to Aid Jews with the Government Delegation for Poland (Rada Pomocy Żydom przy Delegaturze Rządu RP na Kraj), an underground Polish resistance organization, and part of the Polish Underground State, active 1942–45 in German-occupied Poland.
Babice is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Oświęcim, within Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.
Bór is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Szaflary, within Nowy Targ County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Będzin (also Bendzin; Bendzin, בענדין Bendin) is a city in Zagłębie Dąbrowskie, southern Poland.
The Belsen trial was one of several trials which the Allied occupation forces conducted against former officials and functionaries of Nazi Germany after the end of World War II.
Bergen-Belsen, or Belsen, was a Nazi concentration camp in what is today Lower Saxony in northern Germany, southwest of the town of Bergen near Celle.
Bernard Wasserstein (born 22 January 1948 in London) historian, educated at the High School of Glasgow and Wyggeston Boys' Grammar School, Leicester.
Biuletyn Informacyjny ("Information Bulletin") was a Polish underground weekly published covertly in General Government territory of occupied Poland during World War II.
The Blechhammer (sheet metal hammer) area was the location of Nazi Germany chemical plants, prisoner of war (POW) camps, and forced labor camps (Arbeitslager Blechhammer; also Nummernbücher).
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Block 11 was the name of a brick building in the Auschwitz concentration camp.
Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin is a book by Yale historian Timothy D. Snyder, first published by Basic Books on October 28, 2010.
Bronisław Maria Komorowski (born 4 June 1952) is a Polish politician and historian who served as President of Poland from 2010 to 2015.
Broszkowice is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Oświęcim, within Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Bruno Emil Tesch (14 August 1890 – 16 May 1946) was a German chemist and entrepreneur.
Brzeszcze is a town in Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland, near Oświęcim.
Brzezinka (Birkenau, Březinka) is a village in southern Poland, about from Oświęcim (Auschwitz), in the district of Gmina Oświęcim, Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship.
The Bureau of Information and Propaganda of the Headquarters of Związek Walki Zbrojnej, later of Armia Krajowa (Biuro Informacji i Propagandy (Komendy Głównej Związku Walki Zbrojnej - Armii Krajowej) - in short: BIP) a conspiracy department created in spring 1940 during the German occupation of Poland, inside the Związek Walki Zbrojnej, then of the Supreme Command of Armia Krajowa (as 6th Department). Initially, its commander was Major Tadeusz Kruk-Strzelecki, then Colonel Jan Rzepecki pseudonym "Wolski" or "Prezes". Until the end of 1940 his deputy was Hipolit Niepokólczycki, while since 1944 until January 1945 Captain Kazimierz Moczarski. Tasks of BIP included informing of Polish community of activities of the Polish Government in London, documenting activities of the German occupant, psychological warfare against Nazi propaganda, consolidation of solidarity in the fight for independence of the Polish nation, collecting of information, reports and orders. BIP published underground press, like: Biuletyn Informacyjny (Information Bulletin), Wiadomości Polskie (Polish News) and Insurekcja (Insurrection); some of its departments carried secret trainings: Department A (film) in photoreport, direction, operation of megaphones. Among others, cameramen and cutters Antoni Bohdziewicz, Wacław Kaźmierczak, Leonard Zawisławski, Seweryn Kruszyński, film/stage directors Jerzy Gabryelski, Jerzy Zarzycki pseudonym "Pik", Andrzej Ancuta, photographers Sylwester Braun and Joachim Joachimczyk, historian Aleksander Gieysztor, philologist professor Kazimierz Feliks Kumaniecki worked for BIP. Among others, Krystyna Wyczańska and Hanna Bińkowska were its liaisons officers.
Carl Clauberg (28 September 1898 – 9 August 1957) was a German gynecologist who conducted medical experiments on human subjects (mainly Jewish) at Auschwitz concentration camp.
The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by synecdoche; Ordo Fratrum Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmelo) is a Roman Catholic religious order founded, probably in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel in the Crusader States, hence the name Carmelites.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Chaim Michael Dov Weissmandl (חיים מיכאל דב וויסמנדל) (25 October 1903, Debrecen, Hungary – 29 November 1957, Mount Kisco, New York) (known as Michael Ber Weissmandl) was a rabbi and shtadlan who became known for his efforts to save the Jews of Slovakia from extermination at the hands of the Nazis during the Holocaust.
Chełmno extermination camp (Vernichtungslager Kulmhof), built during World War II, was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps and was situated north of the metropolitan city of Łódź (renamed to Litzmannstadt), near the village of Chełmno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr in German).
Compulsory sterilization, also known as forced or coerced sterilization, programs are government policies which force people to undergo surgical or other sterilization.
The Concentration Camps Inspectorate (CCI) or in German, IKL (Inspektion der Konzentrationslager) was the central SS administrative and managerial authority for the concentration camps of the Third Reich.
Counterfactual history, also sometimes referred to as virtual history, is a form of historiography that attempts to answer "what if" questions known as counterfactuals.
A crematory (also known as a crematorium, cremator or retort) is a machine in which bodies are burned down to the bones, eliminating all soft tissue.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
The Dachau trials were held for all war criminals caught in the United States zones in occupied Germany and Austria, as well as for those individuals accused of committing war crimes against American citizens and its military personnel.
Dębno (Neudamm) is a town in Myślibórz County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland.
Death marches (Todesmärsche in German) refer to the forcible movements of prisoners of Nazi Germany between Nazi camps on pain of death during World War II.
The Declaration by United Nations was a World War II document agreed on 1 January 1942 during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments: the Allied "Big Four" (the US, the UK, the USSR, and China), nine other American countries in North and Central America and the Caribbean, the four British Dominions, British India, and eight Allied governments-in-exile, for a total of twenty-six nations.
The Doctors' trial (officially United States of America v. Karl Brandt, et al.) was the second of 12 trials for war crimes of German doctors that the United States authorities held in their occupation zone in Nuremberg, Germany, after the end of World War II.
Dwory II is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Oświęcim, within Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Dystrophy is the degeneration of tissue, due to disease or malnutrition, most likely due to heredity.
East Upper Silesia (Ostoberschlesien) is a term denoting the easternmost extremity of Silesia, the eastern part of the Upper Silesian region around the city of Katowice (Kattowitz).
Edith Stein (religious name Teresa Benedicta a Cruce OCD; also known as St. Teresa Benedicta of the Cross; 12 October 1891 – 9 August 1942), was a German Jewish philosopher who converted to Roman Catholicism and became a Discalced Carmelite nun.
Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).
Eliezer "Elie" Wiesel (’Ēlí‘ézer Vízēl; September 30, 1928 – July 2, 2016) was a Romanian-born American Jewish writer, professor, political activist, Nobel Laureate, and Holocaust survivor.
Elisabeth Volkenrath (née Mühlau; 5 September 1919 – 13 December 1945) was a German supervisor at several Nazi concentration camps during World War II.
Else Ury (b. 1 November 1877 in Berlin; – d. 13 January 1943 in the Auschwitz concentration camp) was a German writer and children's book author.
Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski (1 March 1899 – 8 March 1972) was a high-ranking SS commander of Nazi Germany.
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
The Expulsion of Poles by Nazi Germany during World War II was a massive Nazi German operation consisting of the forced resettlement of over 1.7 million Poles from all territories of occupied Poland with the aim of their geopolitical Germanization (see Lebensraum) between 1939–1944.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
Extermination through labour is a term sometimes used to describe the operation of concentration camp, death camp and forced labour systems in Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, North Korea, and elsewhere, defined as the willful or accepted killing of forced labourers or prisoners through excessively heavy labour, malnutrition and inadequate care.
The Final Solution (Endlösung) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews during World War II.
The first mass transport of prisoners by Nazi Germany to Auschwitz Concentration Camp was organized in occupied Poland on 14 June 1940 during World War II.
Flensburg (Danish, Low Saxon: Flensborg; North Frisian: Flansborj; South Jutlandic: Flensborre) is an independent town (kreisfreie Stadt) in the north of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
Florence Jaffray "Daisy" Harriman (July 21, 1870 – August 31, 1967) was an American socialite, suffragist, social reformer, organizer, and diplomat.
Franciszek Piper (born 1941) is a Polish scholar, historian and author.
The Frankfurt Auschwitz trials, known in German as der Auschwitz-Prozess, or der zweite Auschwitz-Prozess, (the "second Auschwitz trial") was a series of trials running from 20 December 1963 to 19 August 1965, charging 22 defendants under German criminal law for their roles in the Holocaust as mid- to lower-level officials in the Auschwitz-Birkenau death and concentration camp complex.
Franz Hößler, also Franz Hössler (4 February 1906 – 13 December 1945) was a Nazi German SS-Obersturmführer and Schutzhaftlagerführer at the Auschwitz-Birkenau, Dora-Mittelbau and Bergen-Belsen concentration camps during World War II.
Fritz Löhner-Beda (24 June 1883 – 4 December 1942), born Bedřich Löwy, was an Austrian librettist, lyricist and writer.
Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply.
A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing humans or other animals with gas, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced.
A gas van or gas wagon (душегубка (dushegubka); Gaswagen) was a vehicle reequipped as a mobile gas chamber.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
The Generalplan Ost (Master Plan for the East), abbreviated GPO, was the German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans.
George Mantello (11 December 1901 – 25 April 1992) was a Jewish diplomat who, while working for the Salvadoran consulate in Geneva, Switzerland from 1942 to 1945, saved thousands of Jews from the Holocaust by providing them with fictive Salvadoran citizenship papers.
Gerald Roberts Reitlinger (born 1900 in London, United Kingdom – died 1978 in St Leonards-on-Sea, United Kingdom) was an art historian, especially of Asian ceramics, and a scholar of historical changes in taste in art and their reflection in art prices.
The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.
During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in a policy of deliberate maltreatment of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs), in contrast to their treatment of British and American POWs.
German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
Gross-Rosen concentration camp (Konzentrationslager Groß-Rosen) was a German network of Nazi concentration camps built and operated during World War II.
Halina Krahelska (12 June 1892, Odessa - 1945, Ravensbrück) was a Polish activist, publicist and writer.
Hans Aumeier (20 August 1906 – 28 January 1948) was an SS commander during the Nazi era who was the deputy commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp.
Hans Wilhelm Münch (14 May 1911 – 2001) son of the german botanic Ernst Münch, he was a German Nazi Party member who worked as an SS physician during World War II at the Auschwitz concentration camp from 1943 to 1945 in German occupied Poland.
Harbutowice (Harbutowitz) is a village in Gmina Skoczów, Cieszyn County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland.
Harmęże is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Oświęcim, within Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
The Höcker Album (or Hoecker Album) is a collection of photographs believed to have been collected by Karl-Friedrich Höcker, an officer for the SS during the Nazi regime in Germany.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (3 April 1930 – 16 June 2017) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 (of West Germany 1982–1990 and of the reunited Germany 1990–1998) and as the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 1973 to 1998.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.
Jewish settlers founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community in the Early (5th to 10th centuries CE) and High Middle Ages (circa 1000–1299 CE).
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
Holocaust trains were railway transports run by the Deutsche Reichsbahn national railway system under the strict supervision of the German Nazis and their allies, for the purpose of forcible deportation of the Jews, as well as other victims of the Holocaust, to the German Nazi concentration, forced labour, and extermination camps.
The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional (a "trial") or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects.
The Hunger Plan (der Hungerplan; der Backe-Plan) was a plan developed by Nazi Germany during World War II to seize food from the Soviet Union and give it to German soldiers and civilians; the plan entailed the death by starvation of millions of so-called "racially inferior" Slavs following Operation Barbarossa, the 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union.
If This Is a Man (Italian: Se questo è un uomo; United States title: Survival in Auschwitz) is a memoir by Italian Jewish writer Primo Levi, first published in 1947.
IG Farben was a German chemical and pharmaceutical industry conglomerate.
Imre Kertész (9 November 192931 March 2016) was a Hungarian author and recipient of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Literature, "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history".
The Intelligence Corps (Int Corps) is a corps of the British Army.
International Holocaust Remembrance Day, is an international memorial day on 27 January commemorating the tragedy of the Holocaust that occurred during the Second World War.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Irène Némirovsky (24 February 1903 – 17 August 1942) was a novelist of Ukrainian Jewish origin born in Kiev Ukraine under the Russian Empire; she lived more than half her life in France, and wrote in French, but was denied French citizenship.
Irma Ida Ilse Grese (7 October 1923 – 13 December 1945) was a female SS guard at the Nazi concentration camps of Ravensbrück and Auschwitz, and served as warden of the women's section of Bergen-Belsen.
The Israeli Air Force (IAF; זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces.
Jawiszowice is a village in Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland.
The Jaworzno concentration camp was a concentration camp in WW2 German-occupied Poland, first established by the Nazis in 1943 amidst the Second World War and then used briefly by the Soviets and by the post-war communist Polish government until 1956.
Jean-Claude Pressac (1944 – 23 July 2003) was a French chemist and pharmacist by profession, who became a published authority on the Auschwitz concentration camp homicidal gas chambers deployed during the Holocaust in World War II.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jerzy Bielecki (28 March 1921 – 20 October 2011, Nowy Targ) was a Polish Catholic social worker, best known as one of the few inmates of the Auschwitz concentration camp who managed to escape successfully.
The Jewish question was a wide-ranging debate in 19th- and 20th-century European society pertaining to the appropriate status and treatment of Jews in society.
The Jewish skeleton collection was an attempt by the Nazis to create an anthropological display to showcase the alleged racial inferiority of the "Jewish race" and to emphasize the Jews' status as Untermenschen ("sub-humans"), in contrast to the German race, which the Nazis considered to be Aryan Übermenschen.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Josef Kramer (10 November 1906 – 13 December 1945) was the Commandant of Auschwitz-Birkenau (from May 8, 1944 to November 25, 1944) and of the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp (from December 1944 to its liberation, April 15, 1945).
Josef Mengele (16 March 19117 February 1979) was a German Schutzstaffel (SS) officer and physician in Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II.
A kapo or prisoner functionary (Funktionshäftling, see) was a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp who was assigned by the SS guards to supervise forced labor or carry out administrative tasks.
Karl Bischoff (9 August 1897 – 2 October 1950) was a German architect, engineer and SS-Sturmbannführer.
Karl Weinbacher (23 June 1898 in Stettin – 16 May 1946 in Hamelin) was a German manager and war criminal who was executed after conviction by a British war tribunal.
Kazimierz Piechowski (3 October 1919 – 15 December 2017) was a Polish engineer, a Boy Scout during the Second Polish Republic, a political prisoner of the German Nazis at Auschwitz concentration camp, a soldier of the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa) then a prisoner for seven years of the post war communist government of Poland.
A Kommando ("unit" or "command") is a general term for special police and military forces in German, Dutch, and Afrikaans speaking nations.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.
Kurt Heissmeyer (December 26, 1905 – August 29, 1967) was a Nazi SS physician involved in medical experimentation on concentration camp inmates including children.
Laurence Rees (born 1957) is a British historian.
The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums, shortened to Berufsbeamtengesetz), also known as Civil Service Law, Civil Service Restoration Act, and Law to Re-establish the Civil Service, was a law passed by the National Socialist regime on 7 April 1933, two months after Adolf Hitler attained power.
The German concept of Lebensraum ("living space") comprises policies and practices of settler colonialism which proliferated in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s.
This article presents a partial list of the most prominent Nazi German concentration camps set up across Europe during the course of World War II and the ensuing Holocaust.
This is the fragmentary list of all of the victims and survivors of Auschwitz concentration camp. This list represents only a sample portion of the 1.1 million victims and some survivors of the Auschwitz death camp and is not intended to be viewed as a representative count by any means.
The following are lists of World Heritage Sites in Europe.
Lucy Schildkret Dawidowicz (June 16, 1915 – December 5, 1990) was an American historian and writer.
The Madagascar Plan was a proposal by the Nazi German government to relocate the Jewish population of Europe to the island of Madagascar.
Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
Malka Zimetbaum, also known as "Mala" Zimetbaum or "Mala the Belgian" (26 January 1918 – 15 September 1944), was a Belgian woman of Polish Jewish descent, known for her escape from the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp and the resistance she displayed at her execution following the escape's failure.
Man's Search for Meaning is a 1946 book by Viktor Frankl chronicling his experiences as an Auschwitz concentration camp inmate during World War II, and describing his psychotherapeutic method, which involved identifying a purpose in life to feel positively about, and then immersively imagining that outcome.
The March of the Living (Hebrew: Mits'ad HaKhayim) is an annual educational program which brings students from around the world to Poland, where they explore the remnants of the Holocaust.
Maria Mandl (also spelled Mandel; 10 January 1912 – 24 January 1948) was an Austrian SS-Helferin infamous for her key role in the Holocaust as a top-ranking official at the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp where she is believed to have been directly complicit in the deaths of over 500,000 female prisoners.
Sir Martin John Gilbert (25 October 1936 – 3 February 2015) was a British historian and honorary Fellow of Merton College, University of Oxford.
The Mass or Eucharistic Celebration is the central liturgical ritual in the Catholic Church where the Eucharist (Communion) is consecrated.
The master race (die Herrenrasse) is a concept in Nazi and Neo-Nazi ideology in which the Nordic or Aryan races, predominant among Germans and other northern European peoples, are deemed the highest in racial hierarchy.
Saint Maximilian Maria Kolbe (Maksymilian Maria Kolbe; 8 January 1894 – 14 August 1941) was a Polish Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of a stranger in the German death camp of Auschwitz, located in German-occupied Poland during World War II.
The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an American twin-engine, all-weather tactical fighter aircraft designed by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) to gain and maintain air supremacy in all aspects of aerial combat.
Miklós Nyiszli (17 June 1901, Szilágysomlyó, Austria-Hungary – 5 May 1956, Oradea, Romania) was a Jewish prisoner at the Auschwitz concentration camp.
Monowitz (also called Monowitz-Buna or Auschwitz III) was initially established as a subcamp of Nazi Germany's Auschwitz concentration camp.
A mug shot or mugshot (an informal term for police photograph or booking photograph) is a photographic portrait of a person from the waist up, typically taken after a person is arrested.
Mysłowice (German Myslowitz) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Natzweiler-Struthof was a German-run concentration camp located in the Vosges Mountains close to the Alsatian village of Natzwiller (German Natzweiler) in France, and the town of Schirmeck, about 50 km (31 m) south west of the city of Strasbourg.
Nazi concentration camp badges, primarily triangles, were part of the system of identification in Nazi camps.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nazi human experimentation was a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners, including children, by Nazi Germany in its concentration camps in the early to mid 1940s, during World War II and the Holocaust.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
The Neuengamme concentration camp was a German concentration camp, established in 1938 by the SS near the village of Neuengamme in the Bergedorf district of Hamburg, Germany.
Night (1960) is a work by Elie Wiesel about his experience with his father in the Nazi German concentration camps at Auschwitz and Buchenwald in 1944–1945, at the height of the Holocaust toward the end of the Second World War.
Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
Noma is a rapidly progressive, polymicrobial, often gangrenous infection of the mouth or genitals.
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany.
Oświęcim (Auschwitz; אָשפּיצין Oshpitzin) is a town in the Lesser Poland (Małopolska) province of southern Poland, situated west of Cracow, near the confluence of the Vistula (Wisła) and Soła rivers.
Oberführer ("senior leader") was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) dating back to 1921.
Obergruppenführer ("senior group leader") was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was first created in 1932 as a rank of the ''Sturmabteilung'' (SA), and adopted by the Schutzstaffel (SS) one year later.
Obersturmbannführer ("senior assault unit leader") was a paramilitary German Nazi Party (NSDAP) rank used by both the SA and the SS.
Obersturmführer ("senior storm leader") was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was used in several Nazi organisations, such as the SA, SS, NSKK and the NSFK.
The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during the Second World War (1939–1945) began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, and it was formally concluded with the defeat of Germany by the Allies in May 1945.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Oskar Gröning (10 June 1921 – 9 March 2018) was a German SS junior squad leader who was stationed at the Auschwitz concentration camp.
Otto Heinrich Frank (12 May 1889 – 19 August 1980) was a German businessman who later became a resident of the Netherlands and Switzerland.
Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung), also occasionally known as Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea.
Pławy is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Oświęcim, within Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Peter Longerich (born 1955) is a German professor of history.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Following the Invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II, nearly a quarter of the entire territory of the Second Polish Republic was annexed by Nazi Germany and placed directly under the German civil administration.
The Polish government-in-exile, formally known as the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile (Rząd Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na uchodźstwie), was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of September 1939, and the subsequent occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic.
Polish Red Cross (Polski Czerwony Krzyż, abbr. PCK) is the Polish member of International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
The Polish resistance movement in World War II, with the Polish Home Army at its forefront, was the largest underground resistance movement in all of occupied Europe, covering both German and Soviet zones of occupation.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Primo Michele Levi (31 July 1919 – 11 April 1987) was an Italian Jewish chemist, writer, and Holocaust survivor.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a protectorate of Nazi Germany established on 16 March 1939 following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939.
The Province of Upper Silesia (Provinz Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Provinz Oberschläsing; Prowincyjŏ Gōrny Ślōnsk; Prowincja Górny Śląsk) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945.
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
The term racial hygiene was used to describe an approach to eugenics in the early twentieth century, which found its most extensive implementation in Nazi Germany (Nazi eugenics).
Rajsko is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Oświęcim, within Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Raul Hilberg (June 2, 1926 – August 4, 2007) was an Austrian-born Jewish-American political scientist and historian.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Reich Main Security OfficeReichssicherheitshauptamt is variously translated as "Reich Main Security Office", "Reich Security Main Office", "Reich Central Security Main Office", "Reich Security Central Office", "Reich Head Security Office", or "Reich Security Head Office".
Reichsführer-SS ("Reich Leader-SS") was a special title and rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945 for the commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS).
The Reichsuniversität Straßburg (RUS) was founded 1941 by the National Socialists in Alsace, annexed to Nazi Germany, while the regular University of Strasbourg had moved to Clermont-Ferrand since 1940.
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German Nazi official during World War II, and a main architect of the Holocaust.
Richard C. Lukas (born 1937) is an American historian and author of numerous books and articles in military, diplomatic, Polish, and Polish-American history.
(22 April 1889 – 10 May 1945) was a high-ranking Nazi official in the SS.
The Romani genocide or the Romani Holocaust—also known as the Porajmos (Romani pronunciation), the Pharrajimos ("Cutting up", "Fragmentation", "Destruction"), and the Samudaripen ("Mass killing")—was the effort by Nazi Germany and its World War II allies to commit genocide against Europe's Romani people.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Ronald Steven Lauder (born February 26, 1944) is an American businessman, art collector, philanthropist, and political activist.
Rudolf Hermann Brandt (2 June 1909 – 2 June 1948) was a German SS officer from 1933–45 and a civil servant.
Rudolf Höss (also Höß, Hoeß or Hoess; 25 November 1901 – 16 April 1947) was a Nazi German SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and the longest-serving commandant of Auschwitz concentration and extermination camp in World War II.
Rudolf Vrba (born Walter Rosenberg; 11 September 1924 – 27 March 2006) was a Slovak-Jewish biochemist who, as a teenager in 1942, was deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp in German-occupied Poland.
Sachsenhausen ("Saxon's Houses") or Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg was a Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany, used primarily for political prisoners from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May 1945.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
Siemens-Schuckert (or Siemens-Schuckertwerke) was a German electrical engineering company headquartered in Berlin, Erlangen and Nuremberg that was incorporated into the Siemens AG in 1966.
Simone Annie Liline Veil, DBE (Jacob; 13 July 1927 – 30 June 2017) was a French lawyer and politician who served as Minister of Health under Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, President of the European Parliament and member of the Constitutional Council of France.
The Sinti (also Sinta or Sinte; masc. sing. Sinto; fem. sing. Sintesa) are a Romani people of Central Europe.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Sobibór (or Sobibor) was a Nazi German extermination camp built and operated by the SS near the railway station of Sobibór during World War II, within the semi-colonial territory of General Government of the occupied Second Polish Republic.
Sonderkommandos (special unit) were work units made up of German Nazi death camp prisoners.
A spotted fever is a type of tick-borne disease which presents on the skin.
The title of SS and police leader (SS- und Polizeiführer) was used to designate a senior Nazi official who commanded large units of the SS, Gestapo and the German uniformed police (Ordnungspolizei), prior to and during World War II.
The SS Main Economic and Administrative Office (SS-Wirtschafts- und Verwaltungshauptamt), abbreviated SS-WVHA, was a Nazi organization responsible for managing the finances, supply systems and business projects for the Allgemeine-SS.
SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV), rendered in English as Death's Head Units, was the SS organization responsible for administering the Nazi concentration camps for the Third Reich, among similar duties.
A standing cell is a special cell constructed so as to prevent the prisoner from doing anything but stand.
Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.
Stefan Jaracz (24 December 1883 – 11 August 1945) was a Polish actor and theater producer.
Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946) is an American filmmaker.
The Supreme National Tribunal (Najwyższy Trybunał Narodowy, NTN) was a war crime tribunal active in Poland from 1946 to 1948.
Survivor guilt (or survivor's guilt; also called survivor syndrome or survivor's syndrome) is a mental condition that occurs when a person believes they have done something wrong by surviving a traumatic event when others did not.
A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer.
Tadeusz Borowski (12 November 1922 – 1 July 1951) was a Polish writer and journalist.
Tambov (p) is a city and the administrative center of Tambov Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tsna and Studenets Rivers, about south-southeast of Moscow. Population: 280,161 (2010 Census); 293,658 (2002 Census);.
Tarnów (is a city in southeastern Poland with 115,341 inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 269,000 inhabitants. The city is situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999. From 1975 to 1998, it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship. It is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east–west connection from Lviv to Kraków, and two additional lines, one of which links the city with the Slovak border. Tarnów is known for its traditional Polish architecture, which was strongly influenced by foreign cultures and foreigners that once lived in the area, most notably Jews, Germans and Austrians. The entire Old Town, featuring 16th century tenements, houses and defensive walls, has been fully preserved. Tarnów is also the warmest city of Poland, with the highest long-term mean annual temperature in the whole country.
The corporation Tesch & Stabenow (in short Testa) was a market leader in pest control chemicals between 1924 and 1945 in Germany east of the Elbe.
The Destruction of the European Jews is a 1961 book by historian Raul Hilberg.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Perse Upper School is a fee-charging, academically selective, independent secondary co-educational day school in Cambridge, England.
The Third Reich Trilogy is a series of three narrative history books by the British historian Richard J. Evans covering the rise and collapse of Nazi Germany in detail, with a focus on the internal politics and the decision-making process.
This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen, also known as Ladies and Gentlemen, to the Gas Chamber, is a collection of short stories by Tadeusz Borowski, which were inspired by the author's concentration camp experience.
Timothy David Snyder (born 1969) is an American author and historian specializing in the history of Central and Eastern Europe, and the Holocaust.
Totenkopf (i.e. skull, literally dead's head) is the German word for the skull and crossbones and death's head symbols.
Treblinka was an extermination camp, built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Trzebinia (טשעבין Tchebin) is a town in Chrzanów County, Lesser Poland, Poland with an Orlen oil refinery and a major rail junction of the Kraków - Katowice line, with connections to Oświęcim and Spytkowice.
Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Viktor Emil Frankl (26 March 1905 – 2 September 1997) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist as well as a Holocaust survivor.
Vinzenz Schöttl (30 June 1905 in Appersdorf – 28 May 1946 in Landsberg am Lech) was a German Schutzstaffel (SS) officer and high-ranking functionary in the Nazi concentration camps.
Vologda (p) is a city and the administrative, cultural, and scientific center of Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the Vologda River within the watershed of the Northern Dvina.
The Vrba–Wetzler report, also known as the Auschwitz Protocols, the Auschwitz Report and the Auschwitz notebook, is a 40-page document about the Auschwitz concentration camp in German-occupied Poland during the Holocaust.
Walter Eisfeld (born 11 July 1905 in Halle, Saxony-Anhalt – died 3 April 1940 in Dachau) was a German SS functionary and concentration camp commandant during the Nazi era.
The Wannsee Conference (Wannseekonferenz) was a meeting of senior government officials of Nazi Germany and Schutzstaffel (SS) leaders, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
Willem-Alexander (born Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand, 27 April 1967) is the King of the Netherlands, having ascended the throne following his mother's abdication in 2013.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Witold Pilecki (13 May 190125 May 1948;; codenames Roman Jezierski, Tomasz Serafiński, Druh, Witold) was a Polish cavalryman and intelligence officer.
Wodzisław Śląski (Loslau, Vladislavia, Vladislav, Władźisłůw) is a town in Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland with 50,493 inhabitants (2007).
Wolfram Sievers (10 July 1905 – 2 June 1948) was Reichsgeschäftsführer, or managing director, of the Ahnenerbe from 1935 to 1945.
The Women's Orchestra of Auschwitz, or the Girls' Orchestra of Auschwitz, was a female orchestra at Auschwitz concentration camp, which was created in Spring 1943 by order of the SS.
The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Jewish Congress (WJC) was founded in Geneva, Switzerland, in August 1936 as an international federation of Jewish communities and organizations.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Yellow badges (or yellow patches), also referred to as Jewish badges (Judenstern, lit. Jewry star), are badges that Jews and Christians were ordered to sew on their outer garments to mark them as Jews and Christians in public at certain times in certain countries, serving as a badge of shame.
Zofia Kossak-Szczucka (10 August 1889 – 9 April 1968) was a Polish writer and World War II resistance fighter.
Związek Organizacji Wojskowej (Military Organization Union), abbreviated ZOW, was an underground resistance organization formed by Witold Pilecki at Auschwitz concentration camp in 1940.
Zyklon B (translated Cyclone B) was the trade name of a cyanide-based pesticide invented in Germany in the early 1920s.
The 322nd Rifle Division was a standard Red Army rifle division during World War II.
Auchwitz, Aucshwitz, Auschwitch, Auschwitz, Auschwitz (concentration camp), Auschwitz Birkenau, Auschwitz Birkenau concentration camp, Auschwitz Concentration Camp, Auschwitz I, Auschwitz I concentration camp, Auschwitz II, Auschwitz II Birkenau, Auschwitz II extermination camp, Auschwitz II-Birkenau, Auschwitz death camp, Auschwitz extermination camp, Auschwitz, Poland, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp, Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, Auschwitz-Birkenau, German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (1940-1945), Aushwitz, Aushwitz concentration camp, Auswitch, Auswitz, Auswitzch, Birchenau, Birkenau, Birkenau concentration camp, Former Nazi German Concentration Camp of Auschwitz, KZ Auschwitz, Medical experiments at Auschwitz, Medical experiments at aushwitz, The Former Nazi German Concentration Camp of Auschwitz.