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Austria

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe. [1]

632 relations: Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, Academy Awards, Adalbert Stifter, Adolf Hitler, Adolf Loos, Adolf Schärf, Alban Berg, Albert II of Germany, Alexander Kolowrat, Alexander Van der Bellen, Alfred Adler, Alfred Gusenbauer, Alliance for the Future of Austria, Allied Commission, Allied-occupied Austria, Allies of World War I, Allies of World War II, Almdudler, Alpine climate, Alpine skiing, Alps, Andreas Felder, Andreas Goldberger, Andreas Widhölzl, Annemarie Moser-Pröll, Anschluss, Anton Bruckner, Anton Eiselsberg, Anton Webern, Anton Zeilinger, Apple strudel, Apricot, Archduchy of Austria, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Armin Kogler, Arnold Schoenberg, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Arthur Schnitzler, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Aryanization (Nazism), Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Association football, ATP Rankings, Austria-Hungary, Austria–Prussia rivalry, Austrian Air Force, Austrian Armed Forces, Austrian Civil War, Austrian Empire, Austrian European Union 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Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor

The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor (often referred to as the Oscar for Best Supporting Actor) is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).

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Academy Awards

The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.

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Adalbert Stifter

Adalbert Stifter (23 October 1805 – 28 January 1868) was an Austrian writer, poet, painter, and pedagogue.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Adolf Loos

Adolf Franz Karl Viktor Maria Loos (10 December 1870 – 23 August 1933) was an Austrian and Czech architect and influential European theorist of modern architecture.

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Adolf Schärf

(20 April 1890 – 28 February 1965) was an Austrian politician of the Socialist Party of Austria (SPÖ).

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Alban Berg

Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer of the Second Viennese School.

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Albert II of Germany

Albert the Magnanimous KG (10 August 139727 October 1439) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1437 until his death and member of the House of Habsburg.

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Alexander Kolowrat

Count Alexander "Sascha" Joseph von Kolowrat-Krakowsky (29 January 1886 – December 4, 1927), was an Austrian film producer of Bohemian-Czech descent from the House of Kolowrat.

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Alexander Van der Bellen

Alexander Van der Bellen (born 18 January 1944) is an Austrian politician and economist who serves as the 12th and current President of Austria since 26 January 2017.

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Alfred Adler

Alfred W. Adler(7 February 1870 – 28 May 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology.

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Alfred Gusenbauer

Alfred Gusenbauer (born 8 February 1960) is an Austrian politician who until 2008 spent his entire professional life as an employee of the Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ) or as a parliamentary representative.

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Alliance for the Future of Austria

The Alliance for the Future of Austria (Bündnis Zukunft Österreich; BZÖ) is a right-wing populist and national conservative political party in Austria.

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Allied Commission

Following the termination of hostilities in World War II, the Allied Powers were in control of the defeated Axis countries.

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Allied-occupied Austria

The Allied occupation of Austria lasted from 1945 to 1955.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Almdudler

Almdudler is the brand name of a popular carbonated soft drink from Austria.

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Alpine climate

Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.

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Alpine skiing

Alpine skiing, or downhill skiing, is the pastime of sliding down snow-covered slopes on skis with fixed-heel bindings, unlike other types of skiing (cross-country, Telemark, or ski jumping) which use skis with free-heel bindings.

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Alps

The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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Andreas Felder

Andreas Felder (born 6 March 1962) is an Austrian former ski jumper.

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Andreas Goldberger

Andreas "Andi" Goldberger (born 29 November 1972) is an Austrian former ski jumper who competed from 1991 to 2005.

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Andreas Widhölzl

Andreas "Andi" Widhölzl (born 14 October 1976) is an Austrian former ski jumper.

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Annemarie Moser-Pröll

Annemarie Moser-Pröll (born 27 March 1953) is a former World Cup alpine ski racer from Austria.

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Anschluss

Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.

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Anton Bruckner

Josef Anton Bruckner was an Austrian composer, organist, and music theorist best known for his symphonies, masses, Te Deum and motets.

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Anton Eiselsberg

Anton Freiherr von Eiselsberg was born on July 31, 1860 at Schloss Steinhaus, Upper Austria.

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Anton Webern

Anton Friedrich Wilhelm (von) Webern (3 December 188315 September 1945) was an Austrian composer and conductor.

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Anton Zeilinger

Anton Zeilinger (born 20 May 1945) is an Austrian quantum physicist who in 2008 received the Inaugural Isaac Newton Medal of the Institute of Physics (UK) for "his pioneering conceptual and experimental contributions to the foundations of quantum physics, which have become the cornerstone for the rapidly-evolving field of quantum information".

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Apple strudel

Apple strudel (Apfelstrudel; štrúdl) is a traditional Viennese strudel, a popular pastry in Austria and in many countries in Europe that once belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867–1918).

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Apricot

An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).

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Archduchy of Austria

The Archduchy of Austria (Erzherzogtum Österreich) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy.

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Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.

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Armin Kogler

Armin Kogler (born 4 September 1959) is an Austrian former ski jumper.

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Arnold Schoenberg

Arnold Franz Walter Schoenberg or Schönberg (13 September 187413 July 1951) was an Austrian-American composer, music theorist, teacher, writer, and painter.

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Arnold Schwarzenegger

Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, filmmaker, businessman, investor, author, philanthropist, activist, politician, and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter.

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Arthur Schnitzler

Arthur Schnitzler (15 May 1862 – 21 October 1931) was an Austrian author and dramatist.

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Arthur Seyss-Inquart

Arthur Seyss-Inquart (German:; 22 July 189216 October 1946) was an Austrian Nazi politician who served as Chancellor of Austria for two days – from 11 to 13 March 1938 – before the Anschluss annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany, signing the constitutional law as acting head of state upon the resignation of President Wilhelm Miklas.

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Aryanization (Nazism)

Aryanization (Arisierung) is a term coined during Nazism referring to the forced expulsion of so-called "non-Aryans", mainly Jews, from business life in Nazi Germany and the territories it controlled.

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Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, occurred on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo when they were mortally wounded by Gavrilo Princip.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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ATP Rankings

The ATP Rankings are the objective merit-based method used by the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) for determining the qualification for entry as well as the seeding of players in all singles and doubles tournaments.

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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Austria–Prussia rivalry

Austria and Prussia had a long-standing conflict and rivalry for supremacy in Central Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries, termed Deutscher Dualismus (German dualism) in the German language area.

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Austrian Air Force

The Austrian Air Force (Österreichische Luftstreitkräfte) is a component part of the Austrian armed forces (the Bundesheer).

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Austrian Armed Forces

The Austrian Armed Forces (Bundesheer) are the military forces of the Republic of Austria and the main military organisation responsible for the national defense.

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Austrian Civil War

The Austrian Civil War (Österreichischer Bürgerkrieg), also known as the February Uprising (Februarkämpfe), is a term sometimes used for four days of skirmishes between socialists and the Austrian Army, between 12 February and 16 February 1934, in Austria.

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Austrian Empire

The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.

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Austrian European Union membership referendum, 1994

A referendum on European Union membership was held in Austria on 12 June 1994.

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Austrian Federal Railways

The Austrian Federal Railways (German: Österreichische Bundesbahnen or ÖBB, formerly the Bundesbahn Österreich or BBÖ) is the national railway system of Austria, and the administrator of Liechtenstein's railways.

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Austrian Football Association

The Austrian Football Association (Österreichischer Fußball-Bund; ÖFB) is the governing body of football in Austria.

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Austrian Football Bundesliga

The Austrian Football Bundesliga (italic, Austrian Football Federal League) is the highest-ranking national league club competition in Austrian football.

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Austrian Forces Disaster Relief Unit

The Austrian Forces Disaster Relief Unit (short AFDRU) is an Urban search and rescue (USAR) and disaster relief unit of the Austrian federal army (the Bundesheer).

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Austrian German

Austrian German (Österreichisches Deutsch), Austrian Standard German, Standard Austrian German (Österreichisches Standarddeutsch) or Austrian High German (Österreichisches Hochdeutsch), is the variety of Standard German written and spoken in Austria.

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Austrian Grand Prix

The Austrian Grand Prix (Großer Preis von Österreich) is a Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile sanctioned auto race which was held in 1964, 1970–1987 and 1997–2003.

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Austrian Hockey League

The Austrian Hockey League (also known as the Erste Banke Eishockey Liga, or EBEL) is the top-tier ice hockey league in Austria, although it currently features additional teams in Croatia, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Italy.

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Austrian legislative election, 2013

Legislative elections were held in Austria on 29 September 2013.

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Austrian legislative election, 2017

Legislative elections were held in Austria on 15 October 2017.

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Austrian nationalism

Austrian nationalism is the nationalism that asserts Austrians are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Austrians.

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Austrian Parliament

The Austrian Parliament (Österreichisches Parlament) is the bicameral legislature of Austria.

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Austrian People's Party

The Austrian People's Party (Österreichische Volkspartei; ÖVP) is a Christian democratic and conservative political party in Austria.

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Austrian schilling

The Schilling (German: Österreichischer Schilling) was the currency of Austria from 1925 to 1938 and from 1945 to 1999, and the circulating currency until 2002.

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Austrian School

The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.

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Austrian State Treaty

The Austrian State Treaty (German) or Austrian Independence Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state.

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Austrians

Austrians (Österreicher) are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history.

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Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.

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Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina fell under Austro-Hungarian rule in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin approved the occupation of the Bosnia Vilayet, which officially remained part of the Ottoman Empire.

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Austro-Prussian War

The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.

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Austrofascism

Austrofascism (Austrofaschismus) is a term used to describe the authoritarian system installed in Austria with the May Constitution of 1934, which ceased with the annexation of the newly founded Federal State of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938.

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Away from Rome!

Away from Rome! (Los-von-Rom-Bewegung) was a religious movement founded in Austria by the Pan-German politician Georg Ritter von Schönerer aimed at conversion of all Roman Catholic German-speaking population of Austria to Lutheran Protestantism, or, in some cases, to the Old Catholic Churches.

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Österreichische Basketball Bundesliga

The Österreichische Basketball Bundesliga (ÖBL) (in English: Austrian Basketball League (ABL)) is the top men's professional basketball league in Austria.

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Österreichisches Wörterbuch

The Österreichisches Wörterbuch (English: Austrian Dictionary), abbreviated ÖWB, is the official dictionary of the German language in the Republic of Austria.

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Ötztal Alps

The Ötztal Alps (Alpi Venoste, Ötztaler Alpen) are a mountain range in the Central Eastern Alps, in the State of Tyrol in southern Austria and the Province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.

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Babenberg

Babenberg was a noble dynasty of Austrian margraves and dukes.

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Balkans

The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Banca Comercială Română

Banca Comercială Română (BCR) (SWIFT code: RNCBROBU), a member of Erste Group, is the most important financial group in Romania, including operations of universal bank (retail, corporate & investment banking, treasury and capital markets), as well as specialized companies on the leasing market, assets management, private pensions, housing banks and banking services through mobile phone.

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Bank Austria

UniCredit Bank Austria AG, better known as Bank Austria, is an Austria bank, 96.35% owned by UniCredit Group.

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Baroque

The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.

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Battle of Königgrätz

The Battle of Königgrätz (Schlacht bei Königgrätz), also known as the Battle of Sadowa, Sadová, or Hradec Králové, was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War, in which the Kingdom of Prussia defeated the Austrian Empire.

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Battle of Mohács

The Battle of Mohács (Mohácsi csata, Mohaç Meydan Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history.

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Battle of Vienna

The Battle of Vienna (Schlacht am Kahlen Berge or Kahlenberg; bitwa pod Wiedniem or odsiecz wiedeńska (The Relief of Vienna); Modern Turkish: İkinci Viyana Kuşatması, Ottoman Turkish: Beç Ḳalʿası Muḥāṣarası) took place at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna on 1683 after the imperial city had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months.

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Battle on the Marchfeld

The Battle on the Marchfeld (i.e. Morava Field; Bitva na Moravském poli; Morvamezei csata) at Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen took place on 26 August 1278 and was a decisive event for the history of Central Europe for the following centuries.

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Bavaria

Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.

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Bavarian language

Bavarian (also known as Bavarian Austrian or Austro-Bavarian; Boarisch or Bairisch; Bairisch; bajor) is a West Germanic language belonging to the Upper German group, spoken in the southeast of the German language area, much of Bavaria, much of Austria and South Tyrol in Italy.

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Bavarians

Bavarians (Bavarian: Boarn, Standard German: Bayern) are nation and ethnographic group of Germans of the Bavaria region, a state within Germany.

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BayernLB

BayernLB or Bayerische Landesbank (Bavarian State Bank) is a publicly regulated bank based in Munich, Germany and one of the eight Landesbanken.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Benjamin Raich

Benjamin Raich (born 28 February 1978 in Arzl im Pitztal, Tyrol) is a retired champion World Cup alpine ski racer and Olympic gold medalist from Austria.

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Berlin Philharmonic

The Berlin Philharmonic (Berliner Philharmoniker) is a German orchestra based in Berlin.

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Bezirk

The German term Bezirk (plural Bezirke, derived from circulus, "circle") translated as "district" can refer to the following types of administrative divisions.

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Billy Wilder

Samuel "Billy" Wilder (June 22, 1906March 27, 2002) was an Austrian-American filmmaker, screenwriter, producer, artist, and journalist whose career spanned more than five decades.

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Biomass

Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.

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Bobsleigh

Bobsleigh or bobsled is a winter sport in which teams of two or four teammates make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked, iced tracks in a gravity-powered sleigh.

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Bock

Bock is a strong lager of German origin.

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Bohemia

Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.

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Boreal Kingdom

The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Bosniaks

The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Brandy

Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine.

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Bregenz

Bregenz is the capital of Vorarlberg, the westernmost federal state of Austria.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Burgenland

Burgenland (Őrvidék; Gradišće; Gradiščanska; Hradsko; is the easternmost and least populous state of Austria. It consists of two statutory cities and seven rural districts, with in total 171 municipalities. It is long from north to south but much narrower from west to east (wide at Sieggraben). The region is part of the Centrope Project.

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Burgenland Croatian

Burgenland Croatian (Gradišćanskohrvatski jezik; German: Burgenlandkroatische Sprache; Hungarian: Gradišćei horvát nyelv) is a regional variety of the Chakavian dialect of the Serbo-Croatian language spoken in Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia.

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Calvinism

Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Cannes

Cannes (Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera.

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Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actor

The Best Actor Award (Prix d'interprétation masculine) is an award presented at the Cannes Film Festival.

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Cantharellus

Cantharellus is a genus of popular edible mushrooms, commonly known as chanterelles, a name which can also refer to the type species, Cantharellus cibarius.

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Carinthia

No description.

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Carinthian plebiscite, 1920

The Carinthian plebiscite (Kärntner Volksabstimmung, Koroški plebiscit) was held on 10 October 1920 in the area predominantly settled by Carinthian Slovenes.

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Carinthian Slovenes

Carinthian Slovenes or Carinthian Slovenians (Koroški Slovenci; Kärntner Slowenen) are the indigenous Slovene-speaking population group in the Austrian state of Carinthia.

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Carl Menger

Carl Menger (February 23, 1840 – February 26, 1921) was an Austrian economist and the founder of the Austrian School of economics.

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Carl Moll

Carl Julius Rudolf Moll (23 April 1861 – 13 April 1945) was a prominent art nouveau painter active in Vienna at the start of the 20th century.

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Carnuntum

Carnuntum (Καρνους, Carnous in Ancient Greek according to Ptolemy) was a Roman Legionary Fortress or castrum legionarium and also headquarters of the Pannonian fleet from 50 AD.

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Carpathian Mountains

The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Celts

The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Central Eastern Alps

The Central Eastern Alps (Zentralalpen or Zentrale Ostalpen), also referred to as Austrian Central Alps (Österreichische Zentralalpen) or just Central Alps comprise the main chain of the Eastern Alps in Austria and the adjacent regions of Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Italy and Slovenia.

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Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.

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Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.

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Central European Time

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Chancellor of Austria

The Chancellor of Austria, officially the Federal Chancellor of the Republic of Austria (Bundeskanzler der Republik Österreich, sometimes shortened to Kanzler) is the head of government of the Austrian Republic.

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Charlemagne

Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria (as Charles III) in 1711.

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Christian Doppler

Christian Andreas Doppler (29 November 1803 – 17 March 1853) was an Austrian mathematician and physicist.

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Christoph Waltz

Christoph Waltz (born 4 October 1956) is an Austrian actor.

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Church attendance

Church attendance is a central religious practice for many Christians; some Christian denominations, such as the Catholic Church require church attendance on the Lord's Day (Sunday); the Westminster Confession of Faith is held by the Reformed Churches and teaches first-day Sabbatarianism, thus proclaiming the duty of public worship in keeping with the Ten Commandments.

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Cider

Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.

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Circumboreal Region

The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.

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Cisleithania

Cisleithania (Cisleithanien, also Zisleithanien, Ciszlajtánia, Předlitavsko, Predlitavsko, Przedlitawia, Cislajtanija, Цислајтанија, Cislajtanija, Cisleithania, Цислейтанія, transliterated: Tsysleitàniia, Cisleitania) was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.

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Clemens von Pirquet

Clemens Peter Freiherr von Pirquet (12 May 187428 February 1929) was an Austrian scientist and pediatrician best known for his contributions to the fields of bacteriology and immunology.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe

The Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), also known as the U.S. Helsinki Commission, is an independent U.S. government agency created by Congress in 1975 to monitor and encourage compliance with the Helsinki Final Act and other Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) commitments.

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Common Foreign and Security Policy

The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is the organised, agreed foreign policy of the European Union (EU) for mainly security and defence diplomacy and actions.

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Compulsory education

Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by government.

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Congress of Vienna

The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.

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Conscientious objector

A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.

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Conscription

Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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Constitution of Austria

The Constitution of Austria (Österreichische Bundesverfassung) is the body of all constitutional law of the Republic of Austria on the federal level.

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Count Kasimir Felix Badeni

Count Kasimir Felix Badeni (German: Kasimir Felix Graf von Badeni, Polish: Kazimierz Feliks hrabia Badeni; 14 October 1846 – 9 July 1909), a member of the Polish noble House of Badeni, was an Austrian statesman, who served as Minister-President of Cisleithania from 1895 until 1897.

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County of Burgundy

The Free County of Burgundy (Franche Comté de Bourgogne; Freigrafschaft Burgund) was a medieval county (from 982 to 1678) of the Holy Roman Empire, within the modern region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, whose very name is still reminiscent of the title of its count: Freigraf ('free count', denoting imperial immediacy, or franc comte in French, hence the term franc(he) comté for his feudal principality).

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Creditanstalt

Creditanstalt (sometimes Credit-Anstalt, abbreviated as CA) was an Austrian bank based in Vienna.

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Croatian language

Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.

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Croats

Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.

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Crown of Aragon

The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.

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Crown of Castile

The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.

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Curd Jürgens

Curd Gustav Andreas Gottlieb Franz Jürgens (13 December 191518 June 1982) was a German-Austrian stage and film actor.

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Czech language

Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

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Daniel Kehlmann

Daniel Kehlmann (born 13 January 1975) is a German-language author of both Austrian and German nationality.

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Danube

The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.

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Declaration of Neutrality

The Declaration of Neutrality was a declaration by the Austrian Parliament declaring the country permanently neutral.

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Demographics of Austria

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Austria, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

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Denmark

Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Distillation

Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.

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District (Austria)

In Austrian politics, a district (Bezirk) is a second-level division of the executive arm of the country's government.

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Dominic Thiem

Dominic Thiem (born 3 September 1993) is an Austrian professional tennis player who has a career-high ATP ranking of world No.

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Duchy of Austria

The Duchy of Austria (Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right.

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Duchy of Carinthia

The Duchy of Carinthia (Herzogtum Kärnten; Vojvodina Koroška) was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia.

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Duchy of Schleswig

The Duchy of Schleswig (Hertugdømmet Slesvig; Herzogtum Schleswig; Low German: Sleswig; North Frisian: Slaswik) was a duchy in Southern Jutland (Sønderjylland) covering the area between about 60 km north and 70 km south of the current border between Germany and Denmark.

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Duchy of Styria

The Duchy of Styria (Herzogtum Steiermark; Vojvodina Štajerska; Stájer Hercegség) was a duchy located in modern-day southern Austria and northern Slovenia.

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Duden

The Duden is a dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in 1880.

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East Francia

East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Eastern Alps

Eastern Alps is the name given to the eastern half of the Alps, usually defined as the area east of a line from Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine valley up to the Splügen Pass at the Alpine divide and down the Liro River to Lake Como in the south.

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Eastern Bloc

The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Economy of Germany

The economy of Germany is a highly developed social market economy.

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Egon Schiele

Egon Schiele (12 June 1890 – 31 October 1918) was an Austrian painter.

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Eisenstadt

Eisenstadt (Kismarton, Željezni grad, Željezno, Železno) is a city in Austria, the state capital of Burgenland.

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Elfriede Jelinek

Elfriede Jelinek (born 20 October 1946) is an Austrian playwright and novelist.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Engelbert Dollfuss

Engelbert Dollfuss (Engelbert Dollfuß,; 4 October 1892 – 25 July 1934) was an Austrian Christian Social and Patriotic Front statesman.

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English Teacher Training College

The English Teacher Training College and its associated Bilingual Classroom Initiative (ABCi) is a not-for-profit Austrian college with campuses in Vorchdorf, Pressbaum, Wolfsberg and Bregenz registered with the Federal Ministry of the Interior.

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Ernst Haas

Ernst Haas (March 2, 1921 – September 12, 1986) was a photojournalist and a pioneering color photographer.

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Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Ernst Kaltenbrunner (4 October 190316 October 1946) was an Austrian-born senior official of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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Ernst Mach

Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (18 February 1838 – 19 February 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as study of shock waves.

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Ernst Marischka

Ernst Marischka (2 January 1893 – 12 May 1963) was an Austrian screenwriter and film director.

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Ernst Vettori

Ernst Vettori (born 25 June 1964) is an Austrian former ski jumper.

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Erste Group

Erste Group Bank AG (Erste Group) is one of the largest financial services providers in Central and Eastern Europe serving 15.7 million clients in over 2,700 branches in 7 countries.

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Erwin Schrödinger

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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Eugen Böhm von Bawerk

Eugen Böhm Ritter von Bawerk (born Eugen Böhm, 12 February 1851 – 27 August 1914) was an Austrian economist who made important contributions to the development of the Austrian School of Economics.

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Euro

The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

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Euro sign

The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).

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Eurobarometer

Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.

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Eurofighter Typhoon

The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard-delta wing, multirole fighter.

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European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.

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European Convention on Human Rights

The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.

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European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.

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European Court of Justice

The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Eurostat

Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.

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Eva Ibbotson

Eva Maria Charlotte Michelle Ibbotson (née Wiesner), better known as Eva Ibbotson (21 January 1925 – 20 October 2010), was an Austrian-born British novelist, known for her children's books.

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Extermination camp

Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").

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Falco (musician)

Johann "Hans" Hölzel (19 February 1957 – 6 February 1998), better known by his stage name Falco, was an Austrian singer, songwriter and rapper.

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Fanta

Fanta is a brand of fruit-flavored carbonated drinks created by The Coca-Cola Company and marketed globally.

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FC Red Bull Salzburg

FC Red Bull Salzburg is an Austrian association football club, based in Wals-Siezenheim.

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Federal Assembly (Austria)

The Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung) is the name given to a formal joint session of the two houses of the bicameral Austrian Parliament, the National Council and the Federal Council.

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Federal Council (Austria)

The Federal Council (German: Bundesrat is the second chamber of the Austrian Parliament, representing the nine States of Austria (Bundesländer) on federal level. As part of a bicameral legislature alongside of the National Council (Nationalrat), it can be compared with an upper house or a senate. In fact, however, it is far less powerful than the National Council: although it has to approve every new law decided for by this "lower" chamber, the latter can—in most cases—overrule the Federal Council's refusal to approve. The Bundesrat has its seat at the Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna, in a conclave of the former Herrenhaus chamber of the Imperial Council (Reichsrat). During a major renovation of the Parliament Building the Federal Council meets in the Hofburg.

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Federal republic

A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.

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Federal State of Austria

The Federal State of Austria (Austrian German: Bundesstaat Österreich ; colloquially known as the Ständestaat, "Corporate State") was a continuation of the First Austrian Republic between 1934 and 1938 when it was a one-party state led by the clerico-fascist Fatherland Front.

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Federation

A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.

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Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller

(15 January 1793 in Vienna – 23 August 1865 in Hinterbrühl, Austria) was an Austrian painter and writer.

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Ferdinand Porsche

Ferdinand Porsche (3 September 1875 – 30 January 1951) was an automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche car company.

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Fighter aircraft

A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.

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Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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First Austrian Republic

The First Austrian Republic (Republik Österreich) was created after the signing of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 10, 1919—the settlement after the end of World War I which ended the Habsburg rump state of Republic of German-Austria—and ended with the establishment of the Austrofascist Federal State of Austria based upon a dictatorship of Engelbert Dollfuss and the Fatherland's Front in 1934.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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FK Austria Wien

Fußballklub Austria Wien (known in English as Austria Vienna, and usually shortened to Austria in German-speaking countries), is an Austrian association football club from the capital city of Vienna.

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Foreign worker

A foreign worker or guest worker is a human who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen.

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Formula One

Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.

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Franz Antel

Franz Antel (28 June 1913 – 11 August 2007) was a veteran Austrian filmmaker.

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Franz Grillparzer

Franz Seraphicus Grillparzer (15 January 1791 – 21 January 1872) was an Austrian writer who is chiefly known for his dramas.

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Franz Joseph I of Austria

Franz Joseph I also Franz Josef I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.

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Franz Klammer

Franz Klammer (born 3 December 1953) is a former champion alpine ski racer from Austria.

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Franz Liszt

Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.

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Franz Schubert

Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras.

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Franz Stangl

Franz Paul Stangl (26 March 1908 – 28 June 1971) was an Austrian-born police officer who became an employee of the T-4 Euthanasia Program and an SS commander in Nazi Germany.

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Franz Vranitzky

Franz Vranitzky (born 4 October 1937) is an Austrian politician.

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Franz Werfel

Franz Viktor Werfel (10 September 1890 – 26 August 1945) was an Austrian-Bohemian novelist, playwright, and poet whose career spanned World War I, the Interwar period, and World War II.

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Fred Zinnemann

Alfred Zinnemann (April 29, 1907March 14, 1997) was an Austrian-born American film director.

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Frederick II, Duke of Austria

Frederick II (Friedrich II.; 25 April 1211 – 15 June 1246), known as Frederick the Quarrelsome (Friedrich der Streitbare), was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1230 until his death.

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Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick III (21 September 1415 – 19 August 1493), was Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death.

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Frederick William IV of Prussia

Frederick William IV (Friedrich Wilhelm IV.; 15 October 17952 January 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Friedensreich Hundertwasser

Friedrich Stowasser (December 15, 1928 – February 19, 2000), better known by his pseudonym Friedensreich Regentag Dunkelbunt Hundertwasser, was an Austrian-born New Zealand artist and architect who also worked in the field of environmental protection.

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Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.

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Fritz Lang

Friedrich Christian Anton "Fritz" Lang (December 5, 1890 – August 2, 1976) was an Austrian-German-American filmmaker, screenwriter, and occasional film producer and actor.

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Frucade

Frucade is a soft drink created in 1953 in Rosenheim, Bavaria by Adalbert Conrads and Karl Grün.

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Gavrilo Princip

Gavrilo Princip (Гаврило Принцип,; 28 April 1918) was a Bosnian Serb member of Young Bosnia, a Yugoslavist organization seeking an end to Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Georg Ritter von Schönerer

Georg Ritter von Schönerer (17 July 1842 – 14 August 1921) was an Austrian landowner and politician of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy active in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Georg Trakl

Georg Trakl (3 February 1887 – 3 November 1914) was an Austrian poet and brother of the pianist Grete Trakl.

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Gerhard Berger

Gerhard Berger (born 27 August 1959) is an Austrian former Formula One racing driver.

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German Confederation

The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.

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German election and referendum, 1938

Parliamentary elections were held in Germany (including recently annexed Austria) on 10 April 1938.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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German nationalism in Austria

German nationalism (Deutschnationalismus) is a political ideology and historical current in Austrian politics.

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German Question

The German Question was a debate in the 19th century, especially during the Revolutions of 1848, over the best way to achieve the unification of Germany.

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German-speaking Switzerland

The German-speaking part of Switzerland (Deutschschweiz, Suisse alémanique, Svizzera tedesca, Svizra tudestga) comprises about 65 percent of Switzerland (North Western Switzerland, Eastern Switzerland, Central Switzerland, most of the Swiss Plateau and the greater part of the Swiss Alps).

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Germans

Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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Germans of Romania

The Germans of Romania or Rumäniendeutsche are an ethnic group of Romania.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Glocknerwand

The Glocknerwand is a mountain in the Glockner Group in the Austrian Central Alps in the central region of the High Tauern.

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Golden Globe Award

Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association beginning in January 1944, recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign.

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Government of Austria

The Austrian Federal Government (Österreichische Bundesregierung) is a collective body that exercises supreme executive power in the Republic of Austria.

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Grand coalition

A grand coalition is an arrangement in a multi-party parliamentary system in which the two largest political parties of opposing political ideologies unite in a coalition government.

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Granite

Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Graz

Graz is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna.

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Grüner Veltliner

Grüner Veltliner (Green Veltliner) is a white wine grape variety grown primarily in Austria, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic.

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Great power

A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

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Great Turkish War

The Great Turkish War (Der Große Türkenkrieg) or the War of the Holy League (Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Gregor Mendel

Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.

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Gregor Schlierenzauer

Gregor Schlierenzauer (born 7 January 1990) is an Austrian ski jumper.

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Grossglockner

The Grossglockner (Großglockner or just Glockner is, at 3,798 metres above the Adriatic (12,461 ft), the highest mountain in Austria and the highest mountain in the Alps east of the Brenner Pass. It is part of the larger Glockner Group of the Hohe Tauern range, situated along the main ridge of the Central Eastern Alps and the Alpine divide. The Pasterze, Austria's most extended glacier, lies on the Grossglockner's eastern slope. The characteristic pyramid-shaped peak actually consists of two pinnacles, the Grossglockner and the Kleinglockner (from German: gross, "big", klein, "small"), separated by the Glocknerscharte col.

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Gustav Klimt

Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement.

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Gustav Nossal

Sir Gustav Victor Joseph Nossal,, FRS (born 4 June 1931) is a distinguished Australian research biologist.

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Gymnasium (school)

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.

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Habsburg Monarchy

The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.

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Hallstatt

Hallstatt is a small village in the district of Gmunden, in the Austrian state of Upper Austria.

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Hans Asperger

Johann "Hans" Friedrich Karl Asperger (18 February 1906 – 21 October 1980) was an Austrian pediatrician, medical theorist, and medical professor.

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Hans Hollein

Hans Hollein (30 March 1934 – 24 April 2014) was an Austrian architect and designer, in Frankfurter Rundshau, 24 April 2014 and key figure of postmodern architecture.

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Hans Makart

Hans Makart (28 May 1840 – 3 October 1884) was a 19th-century Austrian academic history painter, designer, and decorator; most well known for his influence on Gustav Klimt and other Austrian artists, but in his own era considered an important artist himself and a celebrity figure in the high culture of Vienna, attended with almost cult-like adulation.

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Hauptschule

A Hauptschule ("general school") is a secondary school in Germany, starting after four years of elementary schooling, which offers Lower Secondary Education (Level 2) according to the International Standard Classification of Education.

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Höhere Technische Lehranstalt

A Höhere Technische Lehranstalt (HTL, Higher Technical Education Institute, or in a transferred sense Technical College) is an engineering-focused secondary school in Austria.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Hedy Lamarr

Hedy Lamarr (born Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler, November 9, 1914 January 19, 2000) was an Austrian-born American film actress and inventor.

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Heiligenblut am Großglockner

Heiligenblut am Großglockner (Sveta Kri, Holy Blood) is a municipality in the district of Spittal an der Drau in Carinthia, Austria.

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Heinz-Christian Strache

Heinz-Christian Strache (born 12 June 1969) is an Austrian politician serving as the Vice-Chancellor of Austria since 2017.

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Heldenplatz

Heldenplatz (Heroes' Square) is a public space in front of the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria.

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Helmut Berger

Helmut Berger (born Helmut Steinberger; 29 May 1944) is an Austrian film and television actor.

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Herbert von Karajan

Herbert von Karajan (born Heribert Ritter von Karajan; 5 April 1908 – 16 July 1989) was an Austrian conductor.

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Hermann Maier

Hermann Maier (born 7 December 1972) is an Austrian former World Cup champion alpine ski racer and Olympic gold medalist.

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High Tauern

The High Tauern (pl.; Hohe Tauern, Alti Tauri) are a mountain range on the main chain of the Central Eastern Alps, comprising the highest peaks east of the Brenner Pass.

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High-speed rail

High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks.

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History of Austria

The history of Austria covers the history of Austria and its predecessor states, from the early Stone Age to the present state.

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History of Germans in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union

The German minority in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union was created from several sources and in several waves.

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Holstein

Holstein (Northern Low Saxon: Holsteen, Holsten, Latin and historical Holsatia) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Horst Skoff

Horst Skoff (22 August 1968 – 7 June 2008) was a professional tennis player from Austria, who won four tournaments at the top-level.

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House of Habsburg

The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.

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Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Humid continental climate

A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.

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Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

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Hungarians

Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.

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Hungary

Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Hydropower

Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.

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Hypo Alpe Adria Bank

Heta Asset Resolution A.G. is a "bad bank" that was the residual asset of the original Hypo Alpe-Adria-Bank International A.G., which was dismantled in 2014.

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HypoVereinsbank

UniCredit Bank Aktiengesellschaft, better known under its brand name Hypovereinsbank (HVB), is the fifth-largest of the German financial institutions, ranked according to its total assets, and the fourth largest bank in Germany according to the number of its employees.

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Ice cap climate

An ice cap climate is a polar climate where the temperature never exceeds.

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Ice hockey

Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.

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Illegal immigration

Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.

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Index of Austria-related articles

Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Austria include.

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Individual psychology

Individual psychology is the psychological method or science founded by the Viennese psychiatrist Alfred Adler.

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Inge Morath

Ingeborg Hermine "Inge" Morath (May 27, 1923 – January 30, 2002) was an Austrian-born American photographer.

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Inglourious Basterds

Inglourious Basterds is a 2009 war film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino and starring Brad Pitt, Christoph Waltz, Michael Fassbender, Eli Roth, Diane Kruger, Til Schweiger, and Mélanie Laurent.

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Innsbruck

Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria.

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International Futures

International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Iron Curtain

The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.

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Irreligion

Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Italian Fascism

Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jörg Haider

Jörg Haider (26 January 1950 – 11 October 2008) was an Austrian politician.

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Jürgen Melzer

Jürgen Melzer (born 22 May 1981 in Vienna) is an Austrian professional tennis player.

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Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.

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Jews

Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Joanna of Castile

Joanna (6 November 1479 – 12 April 1555), known historically as Joanna the Mad (Juana la Loca), was Queen of Castile from 1504, and of Aragon from 1516.

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Jochen Rindt

Karl Jochen Rindt (18 April 1942 – 5 September 1970) was a German-born racing driver who represented Austria during his career.

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Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach

Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (20 July 1656 – 5 April 1723) was an Austrian architect, sculptor, and architectural historian whose Baroque architecture profoundly influenced and shaped the tastes of the Habsburg Empire.

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Johann Strauss I

Johann Strauss I (also Johann Baptist Strauss, Johann Strauss Sr., the Elder, the Father; March 14, 1804 – September 25, 1849) was an Austrian Romantic composer.

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Johann Strauss II

Johann Strauss II (October 25, 1825 – June 3, 1899), also known as Johann Strauss Jr., the Younger, the Son (Sohn), Johann Baptist Strauss, son of Johann Strauss I, was an Austrian composer of light music, particularly dance music and operettas.

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John III Sobieski

John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski; Jonas III Sobieskis; Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Josef von Sternberg

Josef von Sternberg, (29 May 1894 – 22 December 1969) was an Austrian-American film director.

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Joseph Haydn

(Franz) Joseph HaydnSee Haydn's name.

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Joseph Schumpeter

Joseph Alois Schumpeter (8 February 1883 – 8 January 1950) was an Austrian political economist.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Judaism

Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Kaiserschmarrn

Kaiserschmarrn or Kaiserschmarren (Emperor's Mess) is a shredded pancake, which has its name from the Austrian emperor (Kaiser) Franz Joseph I, who was very fond of this kind of fluffy shredded pancake.

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Karawanks

The Karawanks or Karavankas or Karavanks (Karavanke, Karawanken) are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps on the border between Slovenia to the south and Austria to the north.

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Karl Kraus (writer)

Karl Kraus (April 28, 1874 – June 12, 1936) was an Austrian writer and journalist, known as a satirist, essayist, aphorist, playwright and poet.

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Karl Lueger

Karl Lueger (24 October 1844 – 10 March 1910) was an Austrian politician, mayor of Vienna, and leader and founder of the Austrian Christian Social Party.

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Karl Popper

Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.

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Karl Renner

Karl Renner (14 December 1870 – 31 December 1950) was an Austrian politician of the Socialist Party.

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Kölnbrein Dam

The Kölnbrein Dam is an arch dam in the Hohe Tauern range within Carinthia, Austria.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Kingdom of Hungary

The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).

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Kingdom of Yugoslavia

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.

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Klagenfurt

Klagenfurt am WörtherseeLandesgesetzblatt 2008 vom 16.

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Klaus Maria Brandauer

Klaus Maria Brandauer (born Klaus Georg Steng; 22 June 1943) is an Austrian actor and director.

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Kleinglockner

At the height of the Kleinglockner is the third highest mountain in Austria.

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Knödel

Knödel, or Klöße are boiled dumplings commonly found in Central European and East European cuisine.

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Konrad Lorenz

Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (7 November 1903 – 27 February 1989) was an Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist.

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Kosovo

Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).

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Krems an der Donau

Krems an der Donau is a town of 23,992 inhabitants in Austria, in the federal state of Lower Austria.

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Kurds

The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).

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Kurt Gödel

Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.

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Kurt Schuschnigg

Kurt Alois Josef Johann Schuschnigg (between his family's ennoblement in 1898 and the 1919 abolition of the Austrian nobility, he bore the title Edler von Schuschnigg;; 14 December 1897 – 18 November 1977) was an Austrian politician who was the Chancellor of the Federal State of Austria from the 1934 assassination of his predecessor Engelbert Dollfuss until the 1938 Anschluss with Nazi Germany.

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Kurt Waldheim

Kurt Josef Waldheim (21 December 1918 – 14 June 2007) was an Austrian diplomat and politician.

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Labour movement

The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (British English) or labor union movement (American English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.

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Lager

Lager is a type of beer conditioned at low temperatures.

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Land der Berge, Land am Strome

"Land der Berge, Land am Strome" (Land of mountains, land by the river) is the national anthem of Austria.

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Landlocked country

A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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Leopard 2

The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the 1970s for the West German Army.

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Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor

Leopold I (name in full: Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician; I.; 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia.

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Leopold I, Margrave of Austria

Leopold I (also Luitpold; – 10 July 994), known as the Illustrious (der Erlauchte), a member of the House of Babenberg, was Margrave of Austria from 976 until his death.

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Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.

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Liechtensteiners

Liechtensteiners are a Germanic people native to Liechtenstein.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Linz

Linz (Linec) is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich).

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Lise Meitner

Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.

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List of cities and towns in Austria

The following is a list of cities and towns in Austria with population of over 10,000 inhabitants.

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita

The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.

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List of countries by Human Development Index

This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.

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Lists of ATP number 1 ranked players

Lists of ATP number 1 ranked players are found in the following articles.

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Long Turkish War

The Long Turkish War or Thirteen Years' War was an indecisive land war between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire, primarily over the Principalities of Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldavia.

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Lower Austria

Lower Austria (Niederösterreich; Dolní Rakousy; Dolné Rakúsko) is the northeasternmost state of the nine states in Austria.

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Ludwig Boltzmann

Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher whose greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms (such as mass, charge, and structure) determine the physical properties of matter (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion).

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Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.

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Ludwig von Mises

Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian-American theoretical Austrian School economist.

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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.

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Luge

A luge is a small one- or two-person sled on which one sleds supine (face up) and feet-first.

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Lute

A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.

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Lutheranism

Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.

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Macedonian language

Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.

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Main battle tank

A main battle tank (MBT), also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the armor-protected direct fire and maneuver role of many modern armies.

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Manner (confectionery)

Manner is a line of confectionery from the Austrian conglomerate, Josef Manner & Comp AG.

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Marcel Hirscher

Marcel Hirscher (born 2 March 1989) is an Austrian World Cup alpine ski racer.

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Margraviate of Austria

The Margraviate of Austria was a southeastern frontier march of the Holy Roman Empire created in 976 out of the territory on the border with the Principality of Hungary.

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Maria Theresa

Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.

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Mario Kunasek

Mario Kunasek (born 29 June 1976) is an Austrian politician and military officer.

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Marlies Schild

Marlies Raich (née Schild, born 31 May 1981) is a retired Austrian World Cup alpine ski racer.

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Matura

Matura or its translated terms (Mature, Matur, Maturita, Maturità, Maturität, Maturité, Mатура) is a Latin name for the secondary school exit exam or "maturity diploma" in various countries, including Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine.

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Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp complex

The Mauthausen–Gusen concentration camp complex consisted of the Mauthausen concentration camp on a hill above the market town of Mauthausen (roughly east of Linz, Upper Austria) plus a group of nearly 100 further subcamps located throughout Austria and southern Germany.

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Max Reinhardt

Max Reinhardt (September 9, 1873 – October 30, 1943) was an Austrian-born theatre and film director, intendant, and theatrical producer.

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Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor

Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.

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Mödling

Mödling is the capital of the Austrian district of the same name located approximately 14 km south of Vienna.

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Medieval Latin

Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.

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Medieval Times

Medieval Times Dinner and Tournament is a family dinner theater featuring staged medieval-style games, sword-fighting, and jousting.

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Mergers and acquisitions

Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.

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Michael Haneke

Michael Haneke (born 23 March 1942) is an Austrian film director and screenwriter best known for films such as Funny Games (1997), Caché (2005), The White Ribbon (2009) and Amour (2012).

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Michael Haydn

Johann Michael Haydn (14 September 173710 August 1806) was an Austrian composer of the Classical period, the younger brother of Franz Joseph Haydn.

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Military service

Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).

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Milk-cream strudel

The milk-cream strudel (Viennese: Millirahmstrudel, German: Milchrahmstrudel) is a traditional Viennese strudel.

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Ministry of Education (Austria)

In Austrian politics, the Ministry of Education (German: Bildungsministerium, historically also Unterrichtsminiterium) is the ministry in charge of schools, universities, and arts policy.

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Minority group

A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.

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Moscow Declarations

The Moscow Declarations were four declarations signed during the Moscow Conference on October 30, 1943.

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Motion of no confidence

A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.

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Mountain range

A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.

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Mozartkugel

A Mozartkugel (English: Mozart ball), is a small, round sugar confection made of pistachio marzipan and nougat that is covered with dark chocolate.

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Museum of Military History, Vienna

The Museum of Military History – Military History Institute (Heeresgeschichtliches Museum – Militärhistorisches Institut) in Vienna is the leading museum of the Austrian Armed Forces.

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Music of Austria

Vienna has been an important center of musical innovation.

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Name of Austria

The German name of Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German word Ostarrîchi "eastern realm", recorded in the so-called Ostarrîchi Document of 996, applied to the Margraviate of Austria, a march, or borderland, of the Duchy of Bavaria created in 976.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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National anthem

A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.

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National Council (Austria)

The National Council (Nationalrat) is one of the two houses of the Austrian Parliament and is frequently referred to as the lower house.

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National identity

National identity is one's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation.

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National language

A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.

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Nationality

Nationality is a legal relationship between an individual person and a state.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Natural disaster

A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Neutral country

A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).

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New World

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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Niki Lauda

Andreas Nikolaus "Niki" Lauda (born 22 February 1949) is an Austrian former Formula One driver and a three-time F1 World Drivers' Champion, winning in 1975, 1977 and 1984.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Noricum

Noricum is the Latin name for a Celtic kingdom, or federation of tribes, that included most of modern Austria and part of Slovenia.

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North German Confederation

The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) was the German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870.

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Northern Limestone Alps

The Northern Limestone Alps (Nördliche Kalkalpen), also called the Northern Calcareous Alps, are the ranges of the Eastern Alps north of the Central Eastern Alps located in Austria and the adjacent Bavarian lands of southeastern Germany.

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Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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Odilo Globočnik

Odilo Globočnik (21 April 1904 – 31 May 1945) was an Austrian war criminal.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Oesterreichische Nationalbank

The Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) is the central bank of Austria and, as such, an integral part of both the European System of Central Banks (ESCB) and the Eurozone.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Old High German

Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.

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Olympic Sliding Centre Innsbruck

The Olympic Sliding Centre Innsbruck is a venue for bobsleigh, luge and skeleton located in Igls, Austria (southeast of Innsbruck).

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Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.

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Oskar Kokoschka

Oskar Kokoschka (1 March 188622 February 1980) was an Austrian artist, poet and playwright best known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes.

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Oskar Werner

Oskar Werner (13 November 1922 23 October 1984) was an Austrian stage and cinema actor whose prominent roles include two 1965 films, The Spy Who Came in from the Cold and Ship of Fools.

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Ostmark (Austria)

Ostmark ("Eastern March") was the name used by Nazi propaganda from 1938 to 1942 to replace that of the formerly independent Federal State of Austria after the Anschluss with Nazi Germany.

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Otto Bauer

Otto Bauer (5 September 1881 – 4 July 1938) was an Austrian Social Democrat who is considered one of the leading thinkers of the left-socialist Austro-Marxist grouping.

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Otto Schenk

Otto Schenk (born 12 June 1930 in Vienna) is an Austrian actor, and theater and opera director.

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Otto Wagner

Otto Koloman Wagner (13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect and urban planner, known for his lasting impact on the appearance of his home town Vienna, to which he contributed many landmarks.

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Ottokar II of Bohemia

Ottokar II (Přemysl Otakar II; c. 1233 – 26 August 1278), the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until 1278.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman–Habsburg wars

The Ottoman–Habsburg wars were fought from the 16th through the 18th centuries between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg (later Austrian) Empire, which was at times supported by the Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Habsburg Spain.

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Ottoman–Hungarian wars

The Ottoman–Hungarian Wars were a series of battles between the Ottoman Empire and the medieval Kingdom of Hungary.

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Outline of Austria

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Austria: Austria – landlocked sovereign country located in Central Europe.

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Pannonian Avars

The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...

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Pannonian Basin

The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe.

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Paracelsus

Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Partitions of Poland

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

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Partnership for Peace

The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.

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Paul Lazarsfeld

Paul Felix Lazarsfeld (February 13, 1901 – August 30, 1976) was an Austrian-American sociologist.

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Paul Watzlawick

Paul Watzlawick (July 25, 1921 – March 31, 2007) was an Austrian-American family therapist, psychologist, communication theorist, and philosopher.

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Peacekeeping

Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.

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Perry

Perry is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented pears, similar to the way cider is made from apples.

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Peter Drucker

Peter Ferdinand Drucker (November 19, 1909 – November 11, 2005) was an Austrian-born American management consultant, educator, and author, whose writings contributed to the philosophical and practical foundations of the modern business corporation.

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Peter Handke

Peter Handke (born 6 December 1942) is an Austrian novelist, playwright and translator.

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Peter Lorre

Peter Lorre (born László Löwenstein; 26 June 1904 – 23 March 1964) was an Austro-Hungarian-born American actor.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Pez

Pez (trademarked PEZ in capitals) is the brand name of an Austrian candy and associated mechanical candy dispensers.

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Philip I of Castile

Philip I (22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506) called the Handsome or the Fair, was the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile.

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Phytogeography

Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.

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Plateau

In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.

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Porsche

Dr.-Ing.

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Pragmatic sanction

A pragmatic sanction is a sovereign's solemn decree on a matter of primary importance and has the force of fundamental law.

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Preschool

A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school.

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President of Austria

The President of Austria, officially the Federal President of the Republic of Austria (Bundespräsident der Republik Österreich) is the head of state of the Austrian Republic.

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President of the National Council (Austria)

The President of the National Council is the presiding officer of the National Council, the first chamber of the Austrian Parliament.

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Pritzker Architecture Prize

The Pritzker Architecture Prize is awarded annually "to honor a living architect or architects whose built work demonstrates a combination of those qualities of talent, vision and commitment, which has produced consistent and significant contributions to humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture." Founded in 1979 by Jay A. Pritzker and his wife Cindy, the award is funded by the Pritzker family and sponsored by the Hyatt Foundation.

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Privatization

Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.

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Privilegium Minus

The Privilegium Minus is the denotation of a deed issued by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa on 17 September 1156.

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Proporz

Proporz (from Proportionalität) is a long-standing doctrine within the politics of the second Austrian republic that government posts be allocated to parties in proportion to their electoral support.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Province of German Bohemia

The Province of German Bohemia (German:; Německé Čechy) was a province in Bohemia, now the Czech Republic, established for a short period of time after the First World War, as part of the Republic of German-Austria.

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Provisional government

A provisional government, also called a morning or transitional government, is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition, generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous governing administration.

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Prussia

Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Quantum teleportation

Quantum teleportation is a process by which quantum information (e.g. the exact state of an atom or photon) can be transmitted (exactly, in principle) from one location to another, with the help of classical communication and previously shared quantum entanglement between the sending and receiving location.

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Rainer Maria Rilke

René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 – 29 December 1926), better known as Rainer Maria Rilke, was a Bohemian-Austrian poet and novelist.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Red Bull

Red Bull is an energy drink sold by Red Bull GmbH, an Austrian company created in 1987.

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Red Bull Ring

The Red Bull Ring is a motorsport race track in Spielberg, Styria, Austria.

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Referendum

A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.

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Renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Republic

A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

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Republic of German-Austria

The Republic of German-Austria (Republik Deutschösterreich or Deutsch-Österreich) was a country created following World War I as the initial rump state for areas with a predominantly German-speaking population within what had been the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

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Republikanischer Schutzbund

The Republikanischer Schutzbund (Republican Protection League) was an Austrian paramilitary organization established in 1923 by the Social Democratic Party (SDAPÖ) to secure power in the face of rising political radicalization after World War I. It had a Czech section associated with the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Workers Party in the Republic of Austria.

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Revolutions of 1848

The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.

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Robert Musil

Robert Musil (or; 6 November 1880 – 15 April 1942) was an Austrian philosophical writer.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romani language

Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Romani people

The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.

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Rowan

The rowans or mountain-ashes are shrubs or trees in the genus Sorbus of the rose family, Rosaceae.

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Rudolf I of Germany

Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (Rudolf von Habsburg, Rudolf Habsburský; 1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and the elected King of the Romans from 1273 until his death.

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Rudolf von Alt

Rudolf Ritter von Alt (28 August 1812 – 12 March 1905) was an Austrian landscape and architectural painter.

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Rusyns

Rusyns, also known as Ruthenes (Rusyn: Русины Rusynŷ; also sometimes referred to as Руснакы Rusnakŷ – Rusnaks), are a primarily diasporic ethnic group who speak an East Slavic language known as Rusyn.

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Sachertorte

Sachertorte is a specific type of chocolate cake, or torte, invented by Austrian Franz Sacher in 1832 for Prince Wenzel von Metternich in Vienna, Austria.

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Salzburg

Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.

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Salzburg (state)

Salzburg (literally "Salt Fortress") is a state (Land) of Austria.

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Sankt Pölten

Sankt Pölten, mostly abbreviated to the official name St.

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Sarajevo

Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.

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Schengen Agreement

The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.

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Schengen Area

The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.

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Schnapps

Schnapps or schnaps is a type of alcoholic beverage that may take several forms, including distilled fruit brandies, herbal liqueurs, infusions, and "flavored liqueurs" made by adding fruit syrups, spices, or artificial flavorings to neutral grain spirits.

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Schoppernau

Schoppernau is a town in the Bregenz district in the Austrian state of Vorarlberg.

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Schutzstaffel

The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.

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Search and rescue

Search and rescue (SAR) is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger.

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Sebastian Kurz

Sebastian Kurz (born 27 August 1986) is an Austrian politician serving as the 25th and current Chancellor of Austria since 18 December 2017, as well as Chairman of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) since 15 May 2017.

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Second Constitutional Era

The Second Constitutional Era (ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى; İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire established shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore the constitutional monarchy by the revival of the Ottoman Parliament, the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire and the restoration of the constitution of 1876.

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Second Viennese School

The Second Viennese School (Zweite Wiener Schule, Neue Wiener Schule) is the group of composers that comprised Arnold Schoenberg and his pupils and close associates in early 20th century Vienna, where he lived and taught, sporadically, between 1903 and 1925.

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Self-elimination of the Austrian Parliament

The "self-elimination of Parliament" (German: Selbstausschaltung des Parlaments) was an event that occurred in Austria on March 4, 1933, when all three presidents of the National Council resigned after irregularities occurred during a session concerning a strike by the railway workers.

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Senta Berger

Senta Berger (born 13 May 1941) is an Austrian film, stage and television actress, producer and author.

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Serbs

The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.

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Serbs in Austria

The Serbs in Austria are the second largest ethnic minority group in Austria, after Germans.

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Shopping City Süd

The Shopping City Süd (SCS) is a shopping centre located in Vösendorf and Wiener Neudorf, south of Vienna, Austria.

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Siege of Vienna

The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria.

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Siegfried Marcus

Siegfried Samuel Marcus (18 September 1831 – 1 July 1898) was a German inventor.

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Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor

Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

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Sinti

The Sinti (also Sinta or Sinte; masc. sing. Sinto; fem. sing. Sintesa) are a Romani people of Central Europe.

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SK Rapid Wien

Sportklub Rapid Wien, commonly known as Rapid Vienna, is an Austrian football club playing in the country's capital city of Vienna.

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SK Sturm Graz

Sportklub Sturm Graz is an Austrian association football club, based in Graz, Styria, playing in the Austrian Football Bundesliga.

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Skeleton (sport)

Skeleton is a winter sliding sport in which a person rides a small sled, known as a skeleton bobsled (or -sleigh), down a frozen track while lying face down and head-first.

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Ski jumping

Ski jumping is a winter sport in which competitors aim to achieve the longest jump after descending from a specially designed ramp on their skis.

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Slavs

Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.

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Slovak language

Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).

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Slovakia

Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.

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Slovene language

Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.

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Slovenes

The Slovenes, also called as Slovenians (Slovenci), are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak Slovenian as their first language.

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Slovenia

Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.

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Snowboarding

Snowboarding is a recreational activity and Olympic and Paralympic sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet.

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Social Democratic Party of Austria

The Social Democratic Party of Austria (Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, SPÖ) is a social-democratic political party in Austria and alongside the People's Party one of the two traditional major parties.

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Social market economy

The social market economy (SOME; soziale Marktwirtschaft), also called Rhine capitalism, is a socioeconomic model combining a free market capitalist economic system alongside social policies which establish both fair competition within the market and a welfare state.

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Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.

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Solar power

Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.

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South Tyrol

South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy.

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Southern Limestone Alps

The Southern Limestone Alps (Italian: Alpi Sud-orientali) are the ranges of the Eastern Alps south of the Central Eastern Alps mainly located in northern Italy and the adjacent lands of Austria and Slovenia.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spanish Riding School

The Spanish Riding School (Spanische Hofreitschule) of Vienna, Austria, is a traditional riding school for Lipizzan horses, which perform in the Winter Riding School (Winterreitschule) in the Hofburg.

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Square kilometre

Square kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or square kilometer (American spelling), symbol km2, is a multiple of the square metre, the SI unit of area or surface area.

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States of Austria

Austria is a federal republic made up of nine states, known in German as Länder.

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Statistik Austria

Statistik Austria (or Statistics Austria for international purposes) is the name with which the Bundesanstalt Statistik Österreich, which is the Austrian statistical office, appears in public matters.

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Statutory city (Austria)

In Austrian politics, a statutory city (German: Stadt mit eigenem Statut or Statutarstadt) is a city that is vested, in addition to its purview as a municipality, with the powers and duties of a district administrative authority.

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Stefan Ruzowitzky

Stefan Ruzowitzky (born 25 December 1961) is an Austrian film director and screenwriter.

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Stefan Zweig

Stefan Zweig (28 November 1881 – 22 February 1942) was an Austrian novelist, playwright, journalist and biographer.

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Styria

Styria (Steiermark,, Štajerska, Stájerország, Štýrsko) is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria.

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Subarctic climate

The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.

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Suffrage

Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).

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Swiss people

The Swiss (die Schweizer, les Suisses, gli Svizzeri, ils Svizzers) are the citizens of Switzerland, or people of Swiss ancestry. The number of Swiss nationals has grown from 1.7 million in 1815 to 7 million in 2016. More than 1.5 million Swiss citizens hold multiple citizenship. About 11% of citizens live abroad (0.8 million, of whom 0.6 million hold multiple citizenship). About 60% of those living abroad reside in the European Union (0.46 million). The largest groups of Swiss descendants and nationals outside Europe are found in the United States and Canada. Although the modern state of Switzerland originated in 1848, the period of romantic nationalism, it is not a nation-state, and the Swiss are not usually considered to form a single ethnic group, but a confederacy (Eidgenossenschaft) or Willensnation ("nation of will", "nation by choice", that is, a consociational state), a term coined in conscious contrast to "nation" in the conventionally linguistic or ethnic sense of the term. The demonym Swiss (formerly in English also Switzer) and the name of Switzerland, ultimately derive from the toponym Schwyz, have been in widespread use to refer to the Old Swiss Confederacy since the 16th century.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Tafelspitz

Tafelspitz (German Tafelspitz, literally meaning tip (of meat) for the table) is boiled veal or beef in broth, served with a mix of minced apples and horseradish.

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Team sport

A team sport includes any sport which involves two or more players working together towards a shared objective.

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Telephone numbers in Austria

This article details the use of telephone numbers in Austria.

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Tennis

Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).

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The three Rs

The three Rs (as in the letter R) refers to the foundations of a basic skills-oriented education program in schools: '''''r'''''eading, w'''''r'''''iting and a'''''r'''''ithmetic.

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The White Ribbon

The White Ribbon is a 2009 black-and-white German-language drama film written and directed by Michael Haneke.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Theodor Billroth

Christian Albert Theodor Billroth (26 April 18296 February 1894) was a Prussian-born Austrian surgeon and amateur musician.

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Thomas Bernhard

Thomas Bernhard (born Nicolaas Thomas Bernhard; 9 February 1931 – 12 February 1989) was an Austrian novelist, playwright and poet.

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Thomas Morgenstern

Thomas Morgenstern (born 30 October 1986) is an Austrian former ski jumper who competed from 2002 to 2014.

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Thomas Muster

Thomas Muster (born 2 October 1967) is a former World No. 1 tennis player from Austria.

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Toni Sailer

Anton Engelbert "Toni" Sailer (17 November 1935 – 24 August 2009) was an Austrian alpine ski racer, considered among the best in the sport.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Tour of Austria

The Tour of Austria (Internationale Österreich Rundfahrt) is a stage cycling race held in Austria.

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Tracking (education)

Tracking is separating pupils by academic ability into groups for all subjects or certain classes and curriculum within a school.

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Train

A train is a form of transport consisting of a series of connected vehicles that generally runs along a rail track to transport cargo or passengers.

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Treaty of Karlowitz

The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci, in modern-day Serbia, concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–97 in which the Ottoman side had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta.

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Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919)

The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the Republic of German-Austria on the other.

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Treaty of Trianon

The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement of 1920 that formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary.

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Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.

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Tundra

In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkish people

Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.

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Turks in Austria

Austrian Turks (Türken in Österreich; Avusturya Türkleri) are people of Turkish ethnicity living in Austria who form the second largest ethnic group in the country after Austrians.

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Tyrol (state)

Tyrol (Tirol; Tirolo) is a federal state (Bundesland) in western Austria.

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UEFA Euro 2008

The 2008 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2008 or simply Euro 2008, was the 13th UEFA European Football Championship, a quadrennial football tournament contested by European nations.

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Ultramontanism

Ultramontanism is a clerical political conception within the Catholic Church that places strong emphasis on the prerogatives and powers of the pope.

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Unification of Germany

The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 109

United Nations Security Council Resolution 109, adopted on December 14, 1955, after being instructed by the General Assembly to consider the applications for membership of Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Ceylon, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Laos, Libya, Nepal, Portugal, Romania, and Spain the Council recommended all of the above-named countries for admission to the United Nations.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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United States of Greater Austria

The United States of Greater Austria (Vereinigte Staaten von Groß-Österreich) was a proposal, conceived by a group of scholars surrounding Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, that never came to pass.

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Upper Austria

Upper Austria (Oberösterreich; Austro-Bavarian: Obaöstarreich; Horní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria.

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Vice-Chancellor of Austria

The Vice-Chancellor of Austria (German: Vizekanzler) is a member of the Federal Government and the deputy of the Chancellor.

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Victor Francis Hess

Victor Franz Hess (24 June 188317 December 1964) was an Austrian-American physicist, and Nobel laureate in physics, who discovered cosmic rays.

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Vienna

Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Vienna Basin

The Vienna Basin (Wiener Becken, Vídeňská pánev, Viedenská kotlina) is a sedimentary basin between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathian Mountains.

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Vienna International Airport

Vienna International Airport (Flughafen Wien-Schwechat) is the international airport of Vienna, the capital of Austria, located in Schwechat, southeast of central Vienna and 57 km west of Bratislava.

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Vienna Offensive

The Vienna Offensive was launched by the Soviet 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian Fronts in order to capture Vienna, Austria during World War II.

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Viktor Frankl

Viktor Emil Frankl (26 March 1905 – 2 September 1997) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist as well as a Holocaust survivor.

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Vojvodina

Vojvodina (Serbian and Croatian: Vojvodina; Војводина; Pannonian Rusyn: Войводина; Vajdaság; Slovak and Czech: Vojvodina; Voivodina), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; see Names in other languages), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.

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Volksschule

The German term Volksschule generally refers to compulsory education, denoting an educational institution every person (i.e. the people, Volk) is required to attend.

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Volkswagen Group

Volkswagen AG, known internationally as the Volkswagen Group, is a German multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Vorarlberg

Vorarlberg is the westernmost federal state (Bundesland) of Austria.

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Wachau

The Wachau is an Austrian valley with a picturesque landscape formed by the Danube river.

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Wall Street Crash of 1929

The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday"), and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects.

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Weißkugel

Weißkugel or Weißkogel is the second highest mountain in the Ötztal Alps and the third highest mountain in Austria.

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Weimar Republic

The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.

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Werner Faymann

Werner Faymann (born 4 May 1960) is a former Austrian politician who was Chancellor of Austria and chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ) from 2008 to 2016.

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Wheat beer

Wheat beer is a beer, usually top-fermented, which is brewed with a large proportion of wheat relative to the amount of malted barley.

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Wiener Neudorf

Wiener Neudorf is an Austrian town in the eastern part of the Mödling district, south of Vösendorf and Maria Enzersdorf, west of Biedermannsdorf, and north of Guntramsdorf.

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Wiener schnitzel

Wiener schnitzel, sometimes spelled Wienerschnitzel, as in Austrian, is a type of schnitzel made of a thin, breaded, pan-fried veal cutlet.

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Wildspitze

Wildspitze is the highest mountain in the Ötztal Alps and in North Tyrol, as well as the second highest mountain in Austria after the Großglockner and in terms of prominence (2261 m) is the fourth summit of the Alps and the fifteenth of Europe.

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Willi Forst

Willi Forst, born Wilhelm Anton Frohs (7 April 1903 – 11 August 1980) was an Austrian actor, screenwriter, film director, film producer and singer.

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William I, German Emperor

William I, or in German Wilhelm I. (full name: William Frederick Louis of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Hohenzollern, 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888), of the House of Hohenzollern was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first Head of State of a united Germany.

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Wind power

Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

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Wolfgang Pauli

Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.

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Wolfgang Sobotka

Wolfgang Sobotka (born 5 January 1956) is an Austrian teacher, conductor and politician (ÖVP).

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World Tourism rankings

The World Tourism rankings are compiled by the United Nations World Tourism Organization as part of their World Tourism Barometer publication, which is released three times throughout the year.

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World war

A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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World Wide Fund for Nature

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.

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Yugoslav Wars

The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.

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Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.

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Yugoslavs

Yugoslavs or Yugoslavians (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslaveni/Југославени, Jugosloveni/Југословени; Macedonian: Југословени; Slovene: Jugoslovani) is a designation that was originally designed to refer to a united South Slavic people.

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Zeltweg Air Base

Zeltweg Air Base, now known as Fliegerhorst Hinterstoisser, is a military airfield in Styria, Austria near Zeltweg.

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Zivildienst in Austria

The Zivildienst (German, translated verbatim to "Civilian Service", but "compulsory paid community service" is more contextually equivalent) is the alternative service for national military service in the Austrian Armed Forces.

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Zweigelt

Zweigelt is a red wine grape variety developed in 1922, at the Federal Institute for Viticulture and Pomology at Klosterneuburg, Austria, by Fritz Zweigelt.

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Zwentendorf

Zwentendorf an der Donau is a small market municipality in the Austrian state of Lower Austria.

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.at

.at is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Austria.

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.eu

.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).

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18th meridian east

The meridian 18° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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1934 FIFA World Cup

The 1934 FIFA World Cup was the second FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.

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1954 FIFA World Cup

The 1954 FIFA World Cup, the fifth staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in Switzerland from 16 June to 4 July.

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1964 Winter Olympics

The 1964 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IX Olympic Winter Games (French: Les IXes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (German: Olympische Winterspiele 1964), was a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in Innsbruck, Austria, from January 29 to February 9, 1964.

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1976 Winter Olympics

The 1976 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XII Olympic Winter Games (XIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver, Olympische Winterspiele 1976), were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated February 4–15, 1976 in Innsbruck, Austria.

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1978 FIFA World Cup

The 1978 FIFA World Cup, the 11th staging of the FIFA World Cup, quadrennial international football world championship tournament, was held in Argentina between 1 and 25 June.

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1995 enlargement of the European Union

The 1995 enlargement of the European Union saw Austria, Finland, and Sweden accede to the European Union (EU).

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1995 French Open

The 1995 French Open was a tennis tournament that took place on the outdoor clay courts at the Stade Roland Garros in Paris, France.

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20 Minuten

20 Minuten (20 Minutes) is a free daily newspaper in Switzerland.

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2012 Winter Youth Olympics

The 2012 Winter Youth Olympic Games (German: Olympische Jugend-Winterspiele 2012), officially known as the I Winter Youth Olympic Games (YOG), were an international multi-sport event for youths that took place in Innsbruck, on 13–22 January 2012.

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46th parallel north

The 46th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 46 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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49th parallel north

The 49th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 49° north of Earth's equator.

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9th meridian east

The meridian 9° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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Redirects here:

AUSTRIA, Administrative divisions of Austria, Alpine Deutschen, Architecture of Austria, Austrian Republic, Austrian architecture, Austurriki, Austurríki, Autriche, Avstria, Easterrealm, Eastreach, Etymology of Austria, ISO 3166-1:AT, Oesterreich, Oostenrijk, Osterreich, Ostria, Republic of Austria, Republik Oesterreich, Republik Osterreich, Republik Österreich, The Republic of Austria, Österreich, Österrike.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria

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