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Alan John Percivale Taylor (25 March 1906 – 7 September 1990) was an English historian who specialised in 19th- and 20th-century European diplomacy.
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
The Act Zluky (Акт Злуки,, "Unification Act") was an agreement signed on January 22, 1919, by the Ukrainian People's Republic and the West Ukrainian People's Republic on the St. Sophia Square in Kiev.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Eurasia (Europe and Asia), Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved.
Alan Sked (born 22 August 1947) is a British academic and politician.
Alois Lexa Graf von Aehrenthal (27 September 1854 – 17 February 1912) was an Austrian diplomat.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
The anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo consisted of large-scale anti-Serb violence in Sarajevo on 28 and 29 June 1914 following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Arad (Arad; Арад/Arad) is the capital city of Arad County, historically situated in the region of Crișana, and having recently extended on the left bank of the Mureș river, in Banat region of western Romania.
Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen (Friedrich Maria Albrecht Wilhelm Karl; 4 June 1856 – 30 December 1936) was a member of the House of Habsburg and the Supreme Commander of the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I.
Archduke Joseph August Viktor Klemens Maria of Austria, Prince of Hungary and Bohemia (9 August 1872 – 6 July 1962) was a Feldmarschall (Field Marshal) of the Austro-Hungarian Army and for a short period head of state of Hungary.
Archduke Leopold Salvator, Prince of Tuscany (Leopold Salvator Maria Joseph Ferdinand Franz von Assisi Karl Anton von Padua Johann Baptist Januarius Aloys Gonzaga Rainer Wenzel Galius von Österreich-Toskana) (15 October 1863 – 4 September 1931), was the son of Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria and Princess Maria Immaculata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.
Armando Diaz, 1st Duke of the Victory, (5 December 1861 – 28 February 1928) was an Italian general and a Marshal of Italy.
The Armistice of Villa Giusti ended warfare between Italy and Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front during World War I. The armistice was signed on 3 November 1918 in the Villa Giusti, outside Padua in the Veneto, northern Italy, and took effect 24 hours later.
Asiago (Cimbrian: Slege, German: Schlägen) is the name of both a major Italian PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) cheese and a minor township (population roughly 6,500) in the surrounding plateau region (the Altopiano di Asiago or Altopiano dei Sette Comuni, Asiago plateau) in the Province of Vicenza in the Veneto region of Northeastern Italy.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, occurred on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo when they were mortally wounded by Gavrilo Princip.
The Aster Revolution or Chrysanthemum Revolution (Őszirózsás forradalom) was a revolution in Hungary led by Count Mihály Károlyi in the aftermath of World War I which led to the foundation of the short-lived First Hungarian People's Republic.
The ASTRA Automobile & Waggon Factory in Arad, Romania, was between 1891-1918 an Austro-Hungarian manufacturer of vehicles (as Johann Weitzer’sche Maschinen-Waggonfabrik), and between 1921-1998, as ASTRA Arad, a Romanian manufacturer of railroad cars.
Aszód is a town in Pest county, Hungary.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
Austrian German (Österreichisches Deutsch), Austrian Standard German, Standard Austrian German (Österreichisches Standarddeutsch) or Austrian High German (Österreichisches Hochdeutsch), is the variety of Standard German written and spoken in Austria.
The Austrian Littoral (Österreichisches Küstenland, Litorale Austriaco, Avstrijsko primorje, Austrijsko primorje, Osztrák Partvidék) was a crown land (Kronland) of the Austrian Empire, established in 1849.
The Austrian nobility (österreichischer Adel) is a status group that was officially abolished in 1919 after the fall of Austria-Hungary.
Austrian Silesia (Österreichisch-Schlesien (historically also Oesterreichisch-Schlesien, Oesterreichisch Schlesien, österreichisch Schlesien); Rakouské Slezsko; Śląsk Austriacki), officially the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia (Herzogtum Ober- und Niederschlesien (historically Herzogthum Ober- und Niederschlesien); Vévodství Horní a Dolní Slezsko), was an autonomous region of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Austrian Empire, from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary.
Austro-Daimler was an Austrian automaker company, from 1899 until 1934.
The Austro-Hungarian Army (Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
The Gulden or forint (Gulden, forint, forinta/florin, zlatý) was the currency of the lands of the House of Habsburg between 1754 and 1892 (known as the Austrian Empire from 1804 to 1867 and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy after 1867), when it was replaced by the Krone/korona as part of the introduction of the gold standard.
The Krone or korona (Krone, Hungarian and Polish korona, krona, kruna, Czech and koruna) was the official currency of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1892 (when it replaced the gulden, forint, florén or zlatka as part of the adoption of the gold standard) until the dissolution of the empire in 1918.
The Austro-Hungarian Navy (German: kaiserliche und königliche Kriegsmarine, Hungarian: Császári és Királyi Haditengerészet "Imperial and Royal War Navy") was the naval force of Austria-Hungary.
Bosnia and Herzegovina fell under Austro-Hungarian rule in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin approved the occupation of the Bosnia Vilayet, which officially remained part of the Ottoman Empire.
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers.
České Budějovice (Budweis or Böhmisch Budweis, Budovicium) is a statutory city in the Czech Republic.
The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad south of the Körös/Criș river, and the western part of Mehedinți); the western part in northeastern Serbia (mostly included in Vojvodina, except a part included in the Belgrade Region); and a small northern part lies within southeastern Hungary (Csongrád county).
Banat, Bačka and Baranja (Serbian: Banat, Bačka i Baranja / Банат, Бачка и Барања) was a de facto province of the Kingdom of Serbia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes between November 1918 and 1922.
Baranya or Baranja (Baranya,; Baranja,; Branau, Барања/Baranja) is a geographical region between the Danube and the Drava rivers.
Baranya (Baranya, Baranja, Барања, Branau) was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Battle of Asiago (Battle of the Plateaux) or the Trentino Offensive (in Italian: Battaglia degli Altipiani), nicknamed Strafexpedition ("Punitive expedition") by the Austrians, was a counteroffensive launched by the Austro-Hungarians on the Italian Front on 15 May 1916, during World War I. It was an unexpected attack that took place near Asiago in the province of Vicenza (now in northeast Italy, then on the Italian side of the border between the Kingdom of Italy and Austria-Hungary) after the Fifth Battle of the Isonzo (March 1916).
The Battle of Caporetto (also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Kobarid or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers) was a battle on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. The battle was fought between the Entente and the Central Powers and took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid (now in north-western Slovenia, then part of the Austrian Littoral).
The Battle of Galicia, also known as the Battle of Lemberg, was a major battle between Russia and Austria-Hungary during the early stages of World War I in 1914.
The Battle of Königgrätz (Schlacht bei Königgrätz), also known as the Battle of Sadowa, Sadová, or Hradec Králové, was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War, in which the Kingdom of Prussia defeated the Austrian Empire.
The Battle of Vittorio Veneto was fought from 24 October to 3 November 1918 near Vittorio Veneto on the Italian Front during World War I. The Italian victory marked the end of the war on the Italian Front, secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and contributed to the end of the First World War just one week later.
The Battle of Zborov (Зборовское сражение in Russian, Schlacht bei Zborów in German, bitva u Zborova in Czech, bitka pri Zborove in Slovak) was a part of the Kerensky Offensive, (the last Russian offensive in World War I, taking place in July 1917).
The Battles of the Isonzo (known as the Isonzo Front by historians, soška fronta) were a series of 12 battles between the Austro-Hungarian and Italian armies in World War I mostly on the territory of present-day Slovenia, and the remainder in Italy along the Isonzo River on the eastern sector of the Italian Front between June 1915 and November 1917.
The Bay of Kotor (Montenegrin: Бока Которска, Boka Kotorska); Bocche di Cattaro), known simply as Boka ("the Bay"), is the name of the winding bay of the Adriatic Sea in southwestern Montenegro and the region of Montenegro concentrated around the bay. The bay has been inhabited since antiquity. Its well-preserved medieval towns of Kotor, Risan, Tivat, Perast, Prčanj and Herceg Novi, along with their natural surroundings, are major tourist attractions. Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor has been a World Heritage Site since 1979. Its numerous Orthodox and Catholic churches and monasteries make it a major pilgrimage site.
Béla Kun (20 February 1886 – 29 August 1938), born Béla Kohn, was a Hungarian Communist revolutionary and politician who was the de facto leader of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
BHÉV (Budapesti Helyiérdekű Vasút, "Budapest Railway of Local Interest") is a system of four commuter rail lines (Szentendre HÉV, Gödöllő HÉV, Csömör HÉV and Ráckeve HÉV) and rapid transit (Csepel HÉV and Békásmegyer HÉV (part of the Szentendre HÉV)) lines in and around Budapest, Hungary.
Bielsko-Biała (Bílsko-Bělá; Bielitz-Biala) is a city in Southern Poland with the population of approximately 174,000 (December 2013).
Bihać is a city and the administrative center of Una-Sana Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Unification or Death (Уједињење или смрт / Ujedinjenje ili smrt), popularly known as the Black Hand (Црна рука / Crna ruka), was a secret military society formed on 9 May 1911 by officers in the Army of the Kingdom of Serbia, originating in the conspiracy group that assassinated the Serbian royal couple (1903), led by captain Dragutin Dimitrijević "Apis".
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bosnian crisis of 1908–09, also known as the Annexation crisis or the First Balkan Crisis, erupted when on 8 October 1908, Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, territories formally within the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
Brno (Brünn) is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia.
The Brusilov Offensive (Брусиловский прорыв Brusilovskiĭ proryv, literally: "Brusilov's breakthrough"), also known as the "June Advance", of June to September 1916 was the Russian Empire’s greatest feat of arms during World War I, and among the most lethal offensives in world history.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Buda was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 has been the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest, on the west bank of the Danube.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
The Budapest Metro (Budapesti metró) is the rapid transit system in the Hungarian capital Budapest.
Budapest Stock Exchange (BSE) (Budapesti Értéktőzsde (BÉT)) is the 2nd largest stock exchange in Central and Eastern Europe by market capitalization and liquidity.
Budva (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Будва, or; Italian and Albanian: Budua) is a Montenegrin town on the Adriatic Sea, former bishopric and present Latin Catholic titular see.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
Burgenland (Őrvidék; Gradišće; Gradiščanska; Hradsko; is the easternmost and least populous state of Austria. It consists of two statutory cities and seven rural districts, with in total 171 municipalities. It is long from north to south but much narrower from west to east (wide at Sieggraben). The region is part of the Centrope Project.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Carlile Aylmer Macartney (1895–1978) was a British academic specialising in the history of central Europe and in particular the history of Hungary.
Carniola (Slovene, Kranjska; Krain; Carniola; Krajna) was a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Charles I or Karl I (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Maria; 17 August 18871 April 1922) was the last reigning monarch of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
After Miklós Horthy was chosen Regent of Hungary on 1 March 1920, Charles I of Austria, who had also reigned as Charles IV of Hungary, returned to Hungary twice, to try unsuccessfully to retake his throne.
Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.
Charles University, known also as Charles University in Prague (Univerzita Karlova; Universitas Carolina; Karls-Universität) or historically as the University of Prague (Universitas Pragensis), is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities. Its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia. It is surrounded by the inscription, Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis (Seal of the Prague academia).
Chernivtsi (Černivci; see also other names) is a city in western Ukraine, situated on the upper course of the River Prut.
Chernivtsi Oblast (Чернівецька область, Černivećka oblasť, Regiunea Cernăuți) is an oblast (province) in western Ukraine, consisting of the northern parts of the regions of Bukovina and Bessarabia.
The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Sir Christopher Munro Clark, FBA (born 14 March 1960) is an Australian historian working in England.
Cisleithania (Cisleithanien, also Zisleithanien, Ciszlajtánia, Předlitavsko, Predlitavsko, Przedlitawia, Cislajtanija, Цислајтанија, Cislajtanija, Cisleithania, Цислейтанія, transliterated: Tsysleitàniia, Cisleitania) was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.
A civil ensign is an ensign used by civilian vessels to denote their nationality.
Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg; Kolozsvár,; Medieval Latin: Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis; and קלויזנבורג, Kloiznburg), commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania, and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country.
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".
The coat of arms of Austria-Hungary was that country's symbol during its existence from the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 to its dissolution in 1918.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.
The Common Army (Gemeinsame Armee), as it was officially designated by the Imperial and Royal Military Administration, was the largest part of the Austro-Hungarian land forces from 1867 to 1914, the other two elements being the Imperial-Royal Landwehr (of Austria) and the Royal Hungarian Landwehr (or Magyar Királyi Honvédség, colloquially the Honved).
The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany), the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro).
In political science, a constitutional crisis is a problem or conflict in the function of a government that the political constitution or other fundamental governing law is perceived to be unable to resolve.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
The Corfu Declaration is the agreement that made the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia possible.
Corporative federalism is a system of federalism not based on the common federalist idea of relative land area or nearest spheres of influence for governance, but on fiduciary jurisdiction to corporate personhood in which groups that are considered incorporated members of their own prerogative structure by willed agreement can delegate their individual effective legislature within the overall government.
Count Anton Alexander von Auersperg, also known under the name Anastasius Grün (11 April 180612 September 1876), was an Austrian poet and liberal politician from Carniola.
Count Kasimir Felix Badeni (German: Kasimir Felix Graf von Badeni, Polish: Kazimierz Feliks hrabia Badeni; 14 October 1846 – 9 July 1909), a member of the Polish noble House of Badeni, was an Austrian statesman, who served as Minister-President of Cisleithania from 1895 until 1897.
Leopold (Anton Johann Sigismund Josef Korsinus Ferdinand) Graf Berchtold von und zu Ungarschitz, Frättling und Püllütz (Gróf Berchtold Lipót, Leopold hrabě Berchtold z Uherčic) (18 April 1863 – 21 November 1942), was an Austro-Hungarian politician, diplomat and statesman who served as Imperial Foreign Minister at the outbreak of World War I.
The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Croatia proper (Hrvatska) is one of the four historical regions of the Republic of Croatia, together with Dalmatia, Slavonia, and Istria.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement (Hrvatsko-ugarska nagodba, Horvát–magyar kiegyezés, Kroatisch-Ungarischer Ausgleich) was a pact signed in 1868, that governed Croatia's political status in the Hungarian-ruled part of Austria-Hungary.
Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.
For the defunct Hungarian automaker see: Csepel (automobile) Csepel (Tschepele) is the 21st district and a neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary.
A customs union was defined by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff.
Cvjetko Popović (Serbian Cyrillic: Цвјетко Поповић; 1896 – 9 June 1980) was a Bosnian Serb who was involved in the 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
The Czechoslovak Legion (Československé legie in Czech and Slovak) were volunteer armed forces composed predominantly of Czechs with a small number of Slovaks (approximately 8 percent) fighting together with the Entente powers during World War I. Their goal was to win the Allied Powers' support for the independence of Bohemia and Moravia from the Austrian Empire and of Slovak territories from the Kingdom of Hungary, which were then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Debrecen is Hungary's second largest city after Budapest.
In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies.
The Diet of Hungary or originally: Parlamentum Publicum / Parlamentum Generale (Országgyűlés) became the supreme legislative institution in the medieval kingdom of Hungary from the 1290s, and in its successor states, Royal Hungary and the Habsburg kingdom of Hungary throughout the Early Modern period.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
The Diplomatic history of World War I covers the non-military interactions among the major players during World War I. For the domestic histories see Home front during World War I. For a longer-term perspective see International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) and Causes of World War I. For the following era see International relations (1919–1939).
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
The Erste Donaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaft (First Danube Steamboat Shipping Company) or DDSG was a shipping company founded in 1829 by the Austrian government for transporting passengers and cargo on the Danube.
In heraldry and vexillology, the double-headed eagle is a charge associated with the concept of Empire.
Dual monarchy occurs when two separate kingdoms are ruled by the same monarch, follow the same foreign policy, exist in a customs union with each other and have a combined military but are otherwise self-governing.
Dubrovnik (historically Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea.
The Duchy of Bukovina was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire from 1849 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary from 1867 until 1918.
The Duchy of Carinthia (Herzogtum Kärnten; Vojvodina Koroška) was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia.
The Duchy of Carniola (Vojvodina Kranjska, Herzogtum Krain, Krajna) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, established under Habsburg rule on the territory of the former East Frankish March of Carniola in 1364.
The Duchy of Salzburg was a Cisleithanian crown land of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary from 1849–1918.
The Duchy of Styria (Herzogtum Steiermark; Vojvodina Štajerska; Stájer Hercegség) was a duchy located in modern-day southern Austria and northern Slovenia.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I (Восточный фронт, Vostochnıy front, sometimes called the Second Fatherland War or Second Patriotic War (Вторая Отечественная война, Vtoraya Otechestvennaya voyna) in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France. During 1910, Russian General Yuri Danilov developed "Plan 19" under which four armies would invade East Prussia. This plan was criticised as Austria-Hungary could be a greater threat than the German Empire. So instead of four armies invading East Prussia, the Russians planned to send two armies to East Prussia, and two Armies to defend against Austro-Hungarian forces invading from Galicia. In the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theater, only to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the same time, in the south, they successfully invaded Galicia, defeating the Austro-Hungarian forces there. In Russian Poland, the Germans failed to take Warsaw. But by 1915, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties in Galicia and in Poland, forcing it to retreat. Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by the Tsar himself. Several offensives against the Germans in 1916 failed, including Lake Naroch Offensive and the Baranovichi Offensive. However, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensive, which saw the Russian Army make large gains. The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August 1916. The Entente promised the region of Transylvania (which was part of Austria-Hungary) in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had initial successes, but was forced to stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Bulgaria attacked them in the south. Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February 1917 (one of the several causes being the hardships of the war). Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a Russian Provisional Government was founded, with Georgy Lvov as its first leader, who was eventually replaced by Alexander Kerensky. The newly formed Russian Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania and the rest of the Entente until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917. Kerensky oversaw the July Offensive, which was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army. The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out of the war and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treaty, though both of the treaties were nullified with the surrender of the Central Powers in November 1918.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
An economic and monetary union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of an economic union (common market and customs union) with a monetary union.
Eduard Franz Joseph Graf von Taaffe, 11th Viscount Taaffe (24 February 1833 – 29 November 1895) was an Austrian statesman, who served for two terms as Minister-President of Cisleithania, leading cabinets from 1868 to 1870 and 1879 to 1893.
Edvard Rusjan (6 June 1886 – 9 January 1911) was a Slovenian flight pioneer and airplane constructor.
The Eight-Nation Alliance was an international military coalition set up in response to the Boxer Rebellion in China.
An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electricity from overhead lines, a third rail or on-board energy storage such as a battery or a supercapacitor.
The electric power industry covers the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electric power to the general public and industry.
The Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway (Kaiser Ferdinands-Nordbahn, KFNB; Severní dráha císaře Ferdinanda, SDCF) was the name of a former railway company during the time of the Austrian Empire.
The Emperor of Austria (German: Kaiser von Österreich) was the ruler of the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The ethno-linguistic composition of Austria-Hungary according to the census of 31 December 1910 was as follows.
Ethnic violence refers to violence expressly motivated by ethnic hatred and ethnic conflict.
Ferenc Deák de Kehida (archaically English: Francis Deak, Franjo Deák; 17 October 180328 January 1876) was a Hungarian statesman and Minister of Justice.
A finance minister is an executive or cabinet position in charge of one or more of government finances, economic policy and financial regulation.
The First Austrian Republic (Republik Österreich) was created after the signing of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 10, 1919—the settlement after the end of World War I which ended the Habsburg rump state of Republic of German-Austria—and ended with the establishment of the Austrofascist Federal State of Austria based upon a dictatorship of Engelbert Dollfuss and the Fatherland's Front in 1934.
The first Czechoslovak Republic (Czech / Československá republika) was the Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938.
The First Hungarian Republic (Első magyar köztársaság) or by its contemporary name Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a short-lived people's republic that existed, apart from a 133-day interruption, from late 1918 until mid-1919.
The national flag of Croatia (Zastava Hrvatske) or The Tricolor (Trobojnica) is one of the state symbols of Croatia.
The flag of Hungary (Magyarország zászlaja) is a horizontal tricolour of red, white and green.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
This article gives a detailed listing of all the countries, including puppet states, that have existed in Europe since the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to the present day.
U.S. President Woodrow Wilson The Fourteen Points was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I. The principles were outlined in a January 8, 1918 speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress by President Woodrow Wilson.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
K.u.k. Feldmarschall Franz Xaver Joseph Conrad Graf von Hötzendorf Franz Xaver Josef Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf (11 November 1852 – 25 August 1925), sometimes anglicised as Hoetzendorf, was an Austrian Field Marshal and Chief of the General Staff of the military of the Austro-Hungarian Army and Navy 1906–1917.
Franz Joseph I also Franz Josef I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.
Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust (Friedrich Ferdinand Graf von Beust) (13 January 1809 – 24 October 1886) was a German and Austrian statesman.
Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Friûl-Vignesie Julie; Furlanija-Julijska krajina, Friaul-Julisch Venetien; Friul-Venesia Julia; Friul-Unieja Julia) is one of the 20 regions of Italy, and one of five autonomous regions with special statute.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
The Ganz Works or Ganz (or Ganz Művek, Ganz enterprises or Ganz companies) was a group of companies operating between 1845 and 1949 in Budapest, Hungary.
Gavrilo Princip (Гаврило Принцип,; 28 April 1918) was a Bosnian Serb member of Young Bosnia, a Yugoslavist organization seeking an end to Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Noble Gábor Baross de Bellus (6 July 1848 – 8 May 1892) was a Hungarian statesman, was born at Barossháza now Pružina near Trencsén (now Trenčín, Slovakia).
Gödöllő (Getterle; Jedľovo) is a town in Pest county, Budapest metropolitan area, Hungary, about northeast from the outskirts of Budapest.
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Gorizia (Gorica, colloquially stara Gorica 'old Gorizia'; Görz, Standard Friulian: Gurize; Southeastern Friulian: Guriza; Bisiacco: Gorisia) is a town and comune in northeastern Italy, in the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia.
The Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive during World War I was initially conceived as a minor German offensive to relieve Russian pressure on the Austro-Hungarians to their south on the Eastern Front, but resulted in the Central Powers' chief offensive effort of 1915, causing the total collapse of the Russian lines and their retreat far into Russia.
The Grand Trianon is a château (palace) situated in the northwestern part of the Domain of Versailles.
Graz is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna.
Gräf & Stift was an Austrian manufacturer of automobiles, trucks, buses and trolleybuses, from 1902 until 2001, latterly as a subsidiary of MAN.
The Great Hungarian Plain (also known as Alföld or Great Alföld, Alföld, Nagy Alföld) is a plain occupying the majority of Hungary.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
Greater Bulgaria is a term to identify the territory associated with a historical national state and a modern Bulgarian irredentist nationalist movement which would include most of Macedonia, Thrace and Moesia.
A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand.
Győr (Raab, Ráb, names in other languages) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron County and Western Transdanubia region, and—halfway between Budapest and Vienna—situated on one of the important roads of Central Europe.
Count Gyula Andrássy de Csíkszentkirály et Krasznahorka (8 March 1823 – 18 February 1890) was a Hungarian statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Hungary (1867–1871) and subsequently as Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary (1871–1879).
The Habsburg Law (Habsburgergesetz (in full, the Law concerning the Expulsion and the Takeover of the Assets of the House Habsburg-Lorraine) Gesetz vom 3. April 1919 betreffend die Landesverweisung und die Übernahme des Vermögens des Hauses Habsburg-Lothringen) was a law originally passed by the Constitutional Assembly (Konstituierende Nationalversammlung) of German Austria, one of the successor states of dismantled Austria-Hungary, on 3 April 1919.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Hajógyári Island (Shipyard Island, for the shipyard that once operated there) or Óbudai-sziget (Óbuda Island, or Island of Old Buda) is the largest Danubian island in Budapest.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.
The heavy machine gun or HMG is a class of machine gun implying greater characteristics than general purpose or medium machine guns.
Heinrich Lammasch (21 May 1853 – 6 January 1920) was an Austrian jurist.
Herceg Novi (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Херцег Нови) is a coastal town in Montenegro located at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor and at the foot of Mount Orjen.
The history of rail transport began in 6th century BC in Ancient Greece.
The history of the Jews in Austria probably begins with the exodus of Jews from Judea under Roman occupation.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary (also known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire).
Hlučín Region (Hlučínsko (familiarly Prajzsko), Hultschiner Ländchen, Kraik hulczyński) is a historically significant part of Czech Silesia, today a part of the Moravian-Silesian Region in the Czech Republic, named after its largest town Hlučín.
The Holy Crown of Hungary (Szent Korona, also known as the Crown of Saint Stephen) was the coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hungary for most of its existence; kings have been crowned with it since the twelfth century.
A horsecar, or horse-drawn tram, is an animal-powered (usually horse) tram or streetcar.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Lorraine (Haus Lothringen) originated as a cadet branch of the House of Metz.
The House of Magnates (Főrendiház) was the upper chamber of the Diet of Hungary.
Hungarian Defence Forces (Magyar Honvédség) is the national defence force of Hungary.
MÁG (later known as Magomobil) stands for "Magyar Általános Gépgyár Rt" (Hungarian General Machine Factory Corp.), the most important Hungarian vehicle manufacturer before World War II, based in Budapest.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
The Hungarian nobility consisted of a privileged group of people, most of whom owned landed property, in the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 ("1848–49 Revolution and War") was one of the many European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas.
The Hungarian Soviet Republic or literally Republic of Councils in Hungary (Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság or Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság) was a short-lived (133 days) communist rump state.
The Hungarian–Romanian War was fought between the First Hungarian Republic and the Hungarian Soviet Republic and the Kingdom of Romania.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The German phrase kaiserlich und königlich (Imperial and Royal), typically abbreviated as k. u. k., k. und k., k. & k. in German (in all cases the "und" is always spoken unabbreviated), cs.
The Imperial Council (Reichsrat, Říšská rada, Rada Państwa, Consiglio Imperiale, Državni zbor) was the legislature of the Austrian Empire from 1861, and from 1867 the legislature of Cisleithania within Austria-Hungary.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The adjective kaiserlich-königlich (usually abbreviated to k. k.) is German for Imperial-Royal and was applied to the authorities and state institutions of the Austrian Empire until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which established the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Imperial-Royal Landwehr (kaiserlich-königliche Landwehr or k.k. Landwehr), also called the Austrian Landwehr, was the territorial army of the Cisleithanian or Austrian half of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1869 to 1918.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Indro Alessandro Raffaello Schizogene Montanelli Knight Grand Cross OMRI (22 April 1909 – 22 July 2001) was an Italian journalist and historian.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
In aviation, an inline engine is a reciprocating engine with banks of cylinders, one behind another, rather than rows of cylinders, with each bank having any number of cylinders, but rarely more than six.
Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria.
The Iron Gates (Porțile de Fier, Đerdapska klisura, Железни врата, Eisernes Tor, Vaskapu) is a gorge on the river Danube.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Count István Széchenyi de Sárvár-Felsővidék (21 September 1791 – 8 April 1860) was a Hungarian politician, political theorist, and writer.
Count István Tisza de Borosjenő et Szeged (archaically English: Stephen Tisza; 22 April 1861 – 31 October 1918) was a Hungarian politician, prime minister, political scientist and member of Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (Івано-Франківська область, translit. Ivano-Frankivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Prykarpattia – Прикарпаття or formerly as Stanislavshchyna or Stanislavivshchyna – Ukrainian: Станіславщина or Станиславівщина) is an oblast (region) in western Ukraine.
Ivo Andrić (Иво Андрић,; born Ivan Andrić; 9 October 1892 – 13 March 1975) was a Yugoslav novelist, poet and short story writer who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1961.
Count János Hadik de Futak (23 November 1863, Pálócz – 10 December 1933, Budapest) was a Hungarian landowner and politician who served for 17 hours as Prime Minister of Hungary, beginning on 30 October 1918.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The July Crisis was a series of interrelated diplomatic and military escalations among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914 that was the penultimate cause of World War I. The crisis began on June 28, 1914, when Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian and Yugoslavic partisan, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
The Karst Plateau or the Karst region (Carso; Kras), also simply known as the Karst, is a limestone plateau region extending across the border of southwestern Slovenia and northeastern Italy.
The King of Hungary (magyar király) was the ruling head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 (or 1001) to 1918.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (Kraljevina Hrvatska i Slavonija; Horvát-Szlavón Királyság; Königreich Kroatien und Slawonien) was a nominally autonomous kingdom within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, created in 1868 by merging the kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement.
The Kingdom of Dalmatia (Kraljevina Dalmacija; Königreich Dalmatien; Regno di Dalmazia) was a crown land of the Austrian Empire (1815–1867) and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918).
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Galicia or Austrian Poland, became a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy as a result of the First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, when it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Hungary between 1526 and 1867 was, while outside the Holy Roman Empire, part of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, that became the Empire of Austria in 1804.
The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság), also known as the Regency, existed from 1920 to 1946 as a de facto country under Regent Miklós Horthy.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнa Горa / Kraljevina Crna Gora), was a monarchy in southeastern Europe, present day Montenegro, during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist in practice.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Košice is the largest city in eastern Slovakia and in 2013 was the European Capital of Culture (together with Marseille, France).
Kopřivnice (Nesselsdorf, Koprzywnica) is a town in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, sometimes called Czech lands in modern times, were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the medieval and early modern periods connected by feudal relations under the Bohemian kings.
The official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" ("a Szent Korona Országai") denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary during the totality of the existence of the latter (30 March 1867 – 16 November 1918).
In German-speaking countries, the term Landsturm was historically used to refer to militia or military units composed of troops of inferior quality.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
Laurin & Klement was a Czech automobile, motorcycle and bicycle manufacturer brand founded 1895 in Mladá Boleslav, Kingdom of Bohemia by automotive pioneers Václav Laurin and Václav Klement.
Count László Szőgyény-Marich de Magyar-Szőgyén et Szolgaegyháza (Ladislaus Freiherr (from 1910, Graf) von Szögyény-Marich von Magyar-Szögyén und Szolgaegyháza) (12 November 1841 – 11 June 1916) was an Austro-Hungarian diplomat of Hungarian origin who was a long serving Ambassador at Berlin.
The Three Caesars' Alliance or Union of the Three Emperors (Dreikaiserbund, Союз трёх императоров) was an alliance between the German Empire, the Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary, from 1873 to 1887.
Lesser Poland Voivodeship or Lesser Poland Province (in Polish, województwo małopolskie), also known as Małopolska Voivodeship or Małopolska Province, is a voivodeship (province), in southern Poland.
A liberal autocracy is a non-democratic government that follows the principles of liberalism.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
Light industry is industries that usually are less capital-intensive than heavy industry and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented, as it typically produces smaller consumer goods.
Linz (Linec) is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich).
The following lists show the administrative divisions of the lands belonging to the Hungarian crown (1000–1920) at selected points of time.
The Minister-President of Austria was the head of government of the Austrian Empire from 1848, when the office was created in the course of the March Revolution.
The following is a list of Prime Ministers of Hungary (Magyarország miniszterelnöke, literally Ministers-President) from when the first Prime Minister (in the modern sense), Lajos Batthyány, took office in 1848 (during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848) until the present day.
Ljubljana (locally also; also known by other, historical names) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia.
Lodomeria is a derivative name (Latinized) of Vladimir (Old Slavic: Володимѣръ, Wolodymer) which was a name of the Ruthenian duchy, Volhyn a western Kievan Rus' principality founded by the Rurik dynasty in 987 centered in the region of Volhynia, straddling the borders of modern-day Poland, Ukraine and Belarus.
Lohner-Werke or simply Lohner, was a Viennese luxury coachbuilding firm founded in the 19th century by Jacob Lohner.
In 1839 the Lokomotivfabrik der StEG became the first Austro-Hungarian locomotive works to be founded and it produced many influential locomotive designs.
Lokomotivfabrik Floridsdorf (Floridsdorf locomotive factory) was an Austrian locomotive works founded on 6 September 1869 that achieved a pre-eminent place amongst European locomotive builders thanks to the quality and diversity of its designs.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
Louis I, also Louis the Great (Nagy Lajos; Ludovik Veliki; Ľudovít Veľký) or Louis the Hungarian (Ludwik Węgierski; 5 March 132610 September 1382), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1342 and King of Poland from 1370.
Lovran (Laurana, Lauran) is a town in Istria, Croatia.
Lower Austria (Niederösterreich; Dolní Rakousy; Dolné Rakúsko) is the northeasternmost state of the nine states in Austria.
Marshal of Italy Luigi Cadorna, (4 September 1850 – 21 December 1928) was an Italian General and Marshal of Italy, most famous for being the Chief of Staff of the Italian Army during the first part of World War I.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
Lviv Oblast (Львівська область, translit. L’vivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as L’vivshchyna, Львівщина) is an oblast (province) in western Ukraine.
The Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonica Front (after Thessaloniki), was a military theatre of World War I formed as a result of an attempt by the Allied Powers to aid Serbia, in the fall of 1915, against the combined attack of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria.
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.
Magyarization (also Magyarisation, Hungarization, Hungarisation, Hungarianization, Hungarianisation), after "Magyar", the autonym of Hungarians, was an assimilation or acculturation process by which non-Hungarian nationals came to adopt the Hungarian culture and language, either voluntarily or due to social pressure, often in the form of a coercive policy.
Mali Skočaj (Cyrillic: Мали Скочај) is a village in the municipality of Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Margraviate of Moravia (Markrabství moravské; Markgrafschaft Mähren) or March of Moravia was a marcher state existing from 1182 to 1918 and one of the lands of the Bohemian Crown.
Mariánské Lázně (Marienbad) is a spa town in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic.
Martin (Turčiansky Svätý Martin until 1950, Turócszentmárton, German: Turz-Sankt Martin, Latin: Sanctus Martinus / Martinopolis) is a city in northern Slovakia, situated on the Turiec river, between the Malá Fatra and Veľká Fatra mountains, near the city of Žilina.
Matthias Corvinus, also called Matthias I (Hunyadi Mátyás, Matija Korvin, Matia Corvin, Matej Korvín, Matyáš Korvín), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1458 to 1490.
Maximilian I (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.
MÁVAG (Magyar Királyi Államvasutak Gépgyára; Hungarian Royal State Railroads' Machine Factory) was a Hungarian rail vehicle producer.
A variety of measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate total economic activity in a country or region, including gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), net national income (NNI), and adjusted national income also called as NNI at factor cost (NNI* adjusted for natural resource depletion).
Međimurje County (Međimurska županija) is a triangle-shaped county in the northernmost part of Croatia, roughly corresponding to the historical and geographical region of Međimurje.
Count Mihály Ádám György Miklós Károlyi de Nagykároly (4 March 1875 – 19 March 1955) was briefly Hungary's leader from 1918 to 1919 during the short-lived First Hungarian People's Republic.
Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya (Vitéz"Vitéz" refers to a Hungarian knightly order founded by Miklós Horthy ("Vitézi Rend"); literally, "vitéz" means "knight" or "valiant".;; English: Nicholas Horthy; Nikolaus Horthy Ritter von Nagybánya; 18 June 18689 February 1957) was a Hungarian admiral and statesman, who became the Regent of Hungary.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
Misha Glenny (born 25 April 1958) is a multilingual British journalist, specialising in southeast Europe, global organised crime, and cybersecurity.
Miskolc (Slovak/Czech: Miškovec, German: Mischkolz, Romanian: Mișcolț, מישקאָלץ Mishkoltz) is a city in northeastern Hungary, known for its heavy industry.
Mladá Boleslav (Jungbunzlau) is a city in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic, on the left bank of the Jizera river about northeast of Prague.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
Muhamed Mehmedbašić (Мухамед Мехмедбашић; 1887–29 May 1943) was a Bosnian revolutionary and conspirator in the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.
A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
A national flag is a flag that represents and symbolizes a country.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nedeljko Čabrinović (Недељко Чабриновић; 2 February 1895 – 20 January 1916) was a Bosnian Serb member of the pro-Yugoslav Young Bosnia movement and one of seven young men of a secret society known as the Black Hand who conspired to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria during his June 1914 visit to Sarajevo.
Neue Freie Presse ("New Free Press") was a Viennese newspaper founded by Adolf Werthner together with the journalists Max Friedländer and Michael Etienne on 1 September 1864 after the staff had split from the newspaper Die Presse.
In historical contexts, New Imperialism characterizes a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Novi Sad (Нови Сад,; Újvidék; Nový Sad; see below for other names) is the second largest city of Serbia, the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina and the administrative center of the South Bačka District.
Nyíregyháza is a city in northeastern Hungary and the county capital of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Opatija (Abbazia, German: Sankt Jakobi) is a town in Primorje-Gorski Kotar County in western Croatia.
Oradea (Großwardein, Nagyvárad, Hungarian pronunciation:, colloquially also Várad, former Varat, גרויסווארדיין Groysvardeyn) the capital city of Bihor County and Crișana region, is one of the important centers of economic, social and cultural development in the western part of Romania, retaining these characteristics throughout history.
Orava is the traditional name of a region situated in northern Slovakia (as Orava) and partially also in southern Poland (as Orawa).
Ostrava (Ostrawa, Ostrau or Mährisch Ostrau) is a city in the north-east of the Czech Republic and is the capital of the Moravian-Silesian Region.
Oszkár Jászi (born as Oszkár Jakobuvits, March 2, 1875, Nagykároly – February 13, 1957, Oberlin, Ohio), also known in English as Oscar Jászi, was a Hungarian social scientist, historian, and politician.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.
Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century, is the political ideology concerned with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic-speaking peoples.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Partium (from Latin partium, the genitive of pars "part, portion") or Részek (in Hungarian) was a historical and geographical region in the Kingdom of Hungary during the early modern and modern periods.
Pécs (known by alternative names) is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Pest is the eastern, mostly flat part of Budapest, Hungary, comprising about two thirds of the city's territory.
Petrovac (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Петровац), also known as Petrovac na Moru (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Петровац на Мору, "Petrovac on Sea"; Castellastua), is a coastal town in Montenegro, within Budva Municipality.
The Piave (Plavis) is a river in northern Italy.
Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.
Plzeň, also called Pilsen in English and German, is a city in western Bohemia in the Czech Republic.
Podkarpackie Voivodeship or Podkarpackie Province (in Polish: województwo podkarpackie), also known as Subcarpathian Voivodeship or Subcarpathia Province, is a voivodeship, or province, in extreme-southeastern Poland.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg.
The Pragmatic Sanction (Sanctio Pragmatica) was an edict issued by Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, on 19 April 1713 to ensure that the Habsburg hereditary possessions, which included the Archduchy of Austria, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Croatia, the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Kingdom of Sicily and the Austrian Netherlands, could be inherited by a daughter.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Precision mechanics (also "fine mechanics") is an engineering discipline that deals with the design and construction of smaller precision machines, often including measuring and control mechanisms of different kinds.
Prekmurje (dialectically: Prèkmürsko or Prèkmüre; Muravidék) is a geographically, linguistically, culturally and ethnically defined region settled by Slovenes and a Hungarian minority, lying between the Mur River in Slovenia and the Rába Valley (the watershed of the Rába) (Porabje) in the most western part of Hungary.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Private schools, also known to many as independent schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, are not administered by local, state or national governments.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Province of Belluno (Provincia di Belluno; Provinz Belluno) is a province in the Veneto region of Italy.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Pula or Pola (Italian and Istro-Romanian: Pola; Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea; Slovene and Chakavian: Pulj, Hungarian: Póla, Polei, Ancient Greek: Πόλαι, Polae) is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia and the eighth largest city in the country, situated at the southern tip of the Istria peninsula, with a population of 57,460 in 2011.
A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to punish a state or any group of persons outside the borders of the punishing state.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
The Rába was a Hungarian automobile manufactured from 1912 to 1914.
The RÁBA Automotive Group (Rába Járműipari Holding Nyrt.), commonly known as Rába, is a Hungarian public limited company, listed on the Budapest Stock Exchange.
Ráckeve (Serbian: Српски Ковин / Srpski Kovin) is a town on Csepel Island in the county of Pest, Hungary.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
The Reinsurance Treaty, (June 18, 1887), a secret agreement between Germany and Russia arranged by the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck after the German-Austrian-Russian Dreikaiserbund or League of the Three Emperors, collapsed in 1887, because of competition between Austria-Hungary (Franz Joseph I) and Russia (Alexander III) for spheres of influence in the Balkans.
The Republic of German-Austria (Republik Deutschösterreich or Deutsch-Österreich) was a country created following World War I as the initial rump state for areas with a predominantly German-speaking population within what had been the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
Rhaeto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a traditional subfamily of the Romance languages that is spoken in north and north-eastern Italy and in Switzerland.
Rijeka (Fiume; Reka; Sankt Veit am Flaum; see other names) is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia (after Zagreb and Split).
Robert Lansing (October 17, 1864 – October 30, 1928) was an American lawyer and Conservative Democratic politician who served as Legal Advisor to the State Department at the outbreak of World War I, and then as United States Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson from 1915 to 1920.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Romanian Land Forces (Forțele Terestre Române) is the army of Romania, and the main component of the Romanian Armed Forces.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Royal Hungarian Honvéd (Magyar Királyi Honvédség) or Royal Hungarian Landwehr (königlich ungarische Landwehr), commonly known as the Honvéd, was one of the four armed forces (Bewaffnete Macht or Wehrmacht) of Austria-Hungary from 1867 to 1918.
The Royal Italian Army (Italian: Regio Esercito Italiano) was the army of the Kingdom of Italy from the unification of Italy in 1861 to the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946.
Rudolf IV der Stifter ("the Founder") (1 November 1339 – 27 July 1365) was a scion of the House of Habsburg and Duke (self-proclaimed Archduke) of Austria and Duke of Styria and Carinthia from 1358, as well as Count of Tyrol from 1363 and first Duke of Carniola from 1364 until his death.
Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria (Rudolf Franz Karl Joseph; 21 August 1858 – 30 January 1889) was the only son of Emperor Franz Joseph I and Elisabeth of Bavaria.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.
Ruthenian or Old Ruthenian (see other names) was the group of varieties of East Slavic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Sandžak (Санџак) or Sanjak is a historical geo-political region, now divided by the border between Serbia and Montenegro.
The Sanjak of Novi Pazar (Novopazarski sandžak; Новопазарски санџак; Yeni Pazar sancağı) was an Ottoman sanjak (second-level administrative unit) that was created in 1865.
Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.
Satu Mare (Szatmárnémeti; Sathmar; סאטמאר or סאַטמער) is a city with a population of 102,400 (2011) and the capital of Satu Mare County, Romania, as well as the center of the Satu Mare metropolitan area.
Schönbrunn Palace (Schloss Schönbrunn) is a former imperial summer residence located in Vienna, Austria.
The Schutzkorps (Šuckor; lit. "Protection Corps") was an auxiliary volunteer militia established by Austro-Hungarian authorities in the newly annexed province of Bosnia and Herzegovina to track down Bosnian Serb opposition (members of the Chetniks and the Komiti), while its main victims were civilians.
The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 (O.S.) / 29 (N.S.) June 1913.
The Second Battle of the Piave River, fought between 15 and 23 June 1918, was a decisive victory for the Italian Army against the Austro-Hungarian Empire during World War I. Though the battle proved to be a decisive blow to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and by extension the Central Powers, its full significance was not initially appreciated in Italy.
The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th.
The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
The Serbian Orthodox Church (Српска православна црква / Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
Shtetlekh (שטעטל, shtetl (singular), שטעטלעך, shtetlekh (plural)) were small towns with large Jewish populations, which existed in Central and Eastern Europe before the Holocaust.
Sibiu (antiquated Sibiiu; Hermannstadt, Transylvanian Saxon: Härmeschtat, Nagyszeben) is a city in Transylvania, Romania, with a population of 147,245.
The Siege of Przemyśl was the longest siege of the First World War, and a crushing defeat for Austria-Hungary against the Russian attackers.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Silesian Voivodeship, or Silesia Province (województwo śląskie), Woiwodschaft Schlesien) is a voivodeship, or province, in southern Poland, centered on the historic region known as Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk), with Katowice serving as its capital. Despite the Silesian Voivodeship's name, most of the historic Silesia region lies outside the present Silesian Voivodeship — divided among Lubusz, Lower Silesian, and Opole Voivodeships — while the eastern half of Silesian Voivodeship (and, notably, Częstochowa in the north) was historically part of Lesser Poland. The Voivodeship was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Katowice, Częstochowa and Bielsko-Biała Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. It is the most densely populated voivodeship in Poland and within the area of 12,300 squared kilometres, there are almost 5 million inhabitants. It is also the largest urbanised area in Central and Eastern Europe. In relation to economy, over 13% of Poland’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is generated here, making the Silesian Voivodeship one of the wealthiest provinces in the country.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slavonia (Slavonija) is, with Dalmatia, Croatia proper and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The Slovaks or Slovak people (Slováci, singular Slovák, feminine Slovenka, plural Slovenky) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovak language.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
Slovene literature is the literature written in the Slovene language.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
The Soča (in Slovene) or Isonzo (in Italian; other names Lusinç, Sontig, Aesontius or Isontius) is a long river that flows through western Slovenia and northeastern Italy.
Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in certain respects, including civil rights, freedom of speech, property rights and equal access to certain social goods and services.
Sopron (Ödenburg, Šopron) is a city in Hungary on the Austrian border, near the Lake Neusiedl/Lake Fertő.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy.
The Spanish flu (January 1918 – December 1920), also known as the 1918 flu pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
Spiš (Latin: Cips/Zepus/Scepus, Zips, Szepesség, Spisz) is a region in north-eastern Slovakia, with a very small area in south-eastern Poland (14 villages).
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba/Држава Словенаца, Хрвата и Срба; Država Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov) was a short-lived entity formed at the end of World War I by Slovenes, Croats and Serbs residing in what were the southernmost parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Stephan Burián von Rajecz (rajeczi gróf Burián István) (16 January 1851 – 20 October 1922), commonly called: "Baron von Burian" or "Count Burian" in English language press reports (titles from 1900, Freiherr; from 1918, Graf) was an Austro-Hungarian politician, diplomat and statesman of Hungarian origin and served as Imperial Foreign Minister during World War I.
Subotica (Суботица, Szabadka) is a city and the administrative center of the North Bačka District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
Suceava is a county (județ) of Romania.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Sutomore (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Сутоморе; Venetian: Spizza) is a small coastal town in Bar Municipality, Montenegro.
Sutorina is a village and a river in southwestern Montenegro.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Szeged (see also other alternative names) is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county seat of Csongrád county.
Szentendre is a riverside town in Pest county, Hungary, near the capital city Budapest.
Szombathely (see also other alternative names) is the 10th largest city in Hungary.
Tatra is a Czech vehicle manufacturer in Kopřivnice.
Technological change (TC), technological development, technological achievement, or technological progress is the overall process of invention, innovation and diffusion of technology or processes.
The Telefon Hírmondó (also Telefonhírmondó, generally translated as "Telephone Herald") was a "telephone newspaper" located in Budapest, Hungary, which, beginning in 1893, provided news and entertainment to subscribers over telephone lines.
A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises.
Ternopil Oblast (Тернопільська область, translit. Ternopilska oblast; also referred to as Ternopilshchyna - Тернопільщина, Obwód Tarnopolski) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine.
In linguistics, a corpus (plural corpora) or text corpus is a large and structured set of texts (nowadays usually electronically stored and processed).
Theobald Theodor Friedrich Alfred von Bethmann-Hollweg (29 November 1856 – 1 January 1921) was a German politician who was the Chancellor of the German Empire from 1909 to 1917.
Timișoara (Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Temesvár,; טעמשוואר; Темишвар / Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár; Temeşvar; Temešvár) is the capital city of Timiș County, and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.
The Tisza or Tisa is one of the main rivers of Central Europe.
The Lviv tram (Львівський Трамвай, translit.: L’vivs’kyi Tramvai) is an electric tramway in Lviv, Ukraine.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the Republic of German-Austria on the other.
The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano (Russian: Сан-Стефанский мир; Peace of San-Stefano, Сан-Стефанский мирный договор; Peace treaty of San-Stefano, Turkish: Ayastefanos Muahedesi or Ayastefanos Antlaşması) was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at San Stefano, then a village west of Constantinople, on by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Aleksandr Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Safvet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire.
The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement of 1920 that formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary.
Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
Trentino, officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an autonomous province of Italy, in the country's far north.
In the history of the Austria-Hungary trialism refers to the political movement that aimed to reorganize the bipartite Empire into a tripartite one, creating a Croatian state equal in status to Austria and Hungary.
A tricolour or tricolor is a type of flag or banner design with a triband design which originated in the 16th century as a symbol of republicanism, liberty or indeed revolution.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
Trifun "Trifko" Grabež (Трифун "Трифко" Грабеж; – 21 October 1916) was a Bosnian Serb member of the organization the Black Hand involved in the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.
The Triple Alliance was a secret agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
The Triune Kingdom (Trojedna kraljevina) was a formal Croatian entity within the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Turnip Winter (German: Steckrübenwinter) of 1916 to 1917 was a period of profound civilian hardship in Germany during World War I.
Ungarische Flugzeugfabrik A.G., commonly known as Ufag, was an aircraft manufacturer formed by Freiherr Karl von Škoda in Budapest during World War I. It built Lohner aircraft under licence.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic (abbreviated to УНР), was a predecessor of modern Ukraine declared on 10 June 1917 following the Russian Revolution.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Unitarian Church of Transylvania (Erdélyi Unitárius Egyház; Biserica Unitariană din Transilvania) is a church of the Unitarian denomination, based in the city of Cluj, Transylvania, Romania.
Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States of Greater Austria (Vereinigte Staaten von Groß-Österreich) was a proposal, conceived by a group of scholars surrounding Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, that never came to pass.
The University of Vienna (Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria.
Upper Austria (Oberösterreich; Austro-Bavarian: Obaöstarreich; Horní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria.
Upper Hungary is the usual English translation of Felvidék (lit.: "Upland"), the Hungarian term for the area that was historically the northern part of the Kingdom of Hungary, now mostly present-day Slovakia.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Vaso Čubrilović (Васо Чубриловић; 14 January 1897 – 11 June 1990) was a Bosnian Serb scholar and Yugoslav politician.
Vác (Waitzen; Vacov; ווייצען) is a town in Pest county in Hungary with approximately 35,000 inhabitants.
Veliki Skočaj is a village in the municipality of Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (19 May 1860 – 1 December 1952) was an Italian statesman, known for representing Italy in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference with his foreign minister Sidney Sonnino.
Vojvodina (Serbian and Croatian: Vojvodina; Војводина; Pannonian Rusyn: Войводина; Vajdaság; Slovak and Czech: Vojvodina; Voivodina), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; see Names in other languages), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.
Vorarlberg is the westernmost federal state (Bundesland) of Austria.
The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages.
The West Ukrainian People's Republic (Західноукраїнська Народна Республіка., Zakhidnoukrayins’ka Narodna Respublika, ZUNR) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
The Wiener Börse AG (also known as the Vienna Stock Exchange) is the only stock exchange in Vienna, Austria, and one of the most established exchanges in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Wiener Neustadt is a city located south of Vienna, in the state of Lower Austria, in north-east Austria.
The Wiener Neustädter Lokomotivfabrik (Wiener Neustadt locomotive factory) was the largest locomotive and engineering factory in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Young Bosnia (Mlada Bosna/Млада Босна) was a revolutionary movement active in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina before World War I. The members were predominantly school students, primarily Bosnian Serbs, but also Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats.
Yugoslav Committee (Jugoslavenski odbor) was a political interest group formed by South Slavs from Austria-Hungary during World War I aimed at joining the existing south Slavic nations in an independent state.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
The Zakarpattia Oblast (Закарпатська область, translit.; see other languages) is an administrative oblast (province) located in southwestern Ukraine, coterminous with the historical region of Carpathian Ruthenia.
Zala was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary.
Zavalje is a village in the municipality of Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Austo-Hungarian empire, Austria Hungary, Austria-Hungarian, Austria-Hungarian Empire, Austria-Hungary Empire, Austria-Hungary during World War I, Austria-Hungary empire, Austria-hungary, Austriahungary, Austrialia-Hungary, Austrialia–Hungary, Austrian Hungarian Kingdom, Austrian-Hungarian, Austrian-Hungarian Empire, Austrian-Hungarian empire, Austria–Hungary, Austro - Hungary, Austro Hungarian Empire, Austro Hungarian empire, Austro Hungary, Austro hungarian, Austro hungarian monarchy, Austro-Hungaria, Austro-Hungarian, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Austro-Hungarian empire, Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Austro-Hungarians, Austro-Hungary, Austro-hungarian empire, Austro-hungary, Austro–Hungarian Empire, Autro-Hungarian empire, Avstro-Ogrska, Dissolution of Austria-Hungary, Dual State, History of Austria-Hungary, History of Austria-Hungary during World War I, Osztrák-Magyar Birodalom, Prison of nations, The Dual Monarchy, The Dual monarchy, The dual monarchy, Österreich-Ungarn, Österreich-ungarn, Österreichisch-Ungarisches Reich.