167 relations: Absolute monarchy, Adolf Fischhof, Archduchy of Austria, Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen, Austria-Hungary, Austrian Littoral, Austrian Silesia, Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Austro-Prussian War, Banat, Banat Military Frontier, Baron Alexander von Bach, Battle of Austerlitz, Battle of Bailén, Battle of Marengo, Battle of Ulm, Battle of Wagram, Bratislava, Brixen, Budget, Catholic Church, Censorship, Central Europe, Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden, Charles I of Austria, Cisleithania, Composite monarchy, Concert of Europe, Confederation of the Rhine, Congress of Vienna, County of Tyrol, Croatian language, Croatian Military Frontier, Crown land, Customs, Czech language, Czech National Revival, Czechs, Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, Duchy of Bukovina, Duchy of Carinthia, Duchy of Carniola, Duchy of Salzburg, Duchy of Styria, Economic freedom, Electorate of Baden, Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Emperor of Austria, Empire, Enlightened absolutism, ..., February Patent, Ferdinand I of Austria, First French Empire, First Schleswig War, Former countries in Europe after 1815, France, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Franz Anton von Kolowrat-Liebsteinsky, Franz Joseph I of Austria, Frederick I of Württemberg, Free imperial city, Freedom of the press, Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust, Further Austria, George III of the United Kingdom, German Confederation, German language, Germany, Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser, Grand duke, Great power, Habsburg Monarchy, Hofkriegsrat, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, Hungarian language, Hungarians, Imperial and Royal, Imperial Council (Austria), Imperial Free City of Trieste, Italian language, Italy, Johann Philipp Stadion, Count von Warthausen, Kaiserthum, Karel Havlíček Borovský, Karl Mack von Leiberich, King of Bavaria, Kingdom of Bavaria, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg), Kingdom of Dalmatia, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Kingdom of Hanover, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867), Kingdom of Illyria (1816–49), Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of Slavonia, Kingdom of Württemberg, Klemens von Metternich, Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Liberalism, List of Ministers-President of Austria, List of rulers of Bavaria, List of states in the Holy Roman Empire, List of states of the German Confederation, Lower Austria, Mantovano, March of Istria, Margraviate of Baden, Margraviate of Moravia, Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, Military Frontier, Modern history, Multinational state, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, Nationalism, October Diploma, Peace of Pressburg (1805), Polish language, Prince Felix of Schwarzenberg, Prince-elector, Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, Principality of Transylvania (1711–1867), Proclamation, Prussia, Quadruple Alliance (1815), Queen Victoria, Rastatt, Reactionary, Regensburg, Reichsdeputationshauptschluss, Revolutions of 1848, Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire, Romanian language, Russia, Russian Empire, Rusyn language, Salzach, Second Italian War of Independence, Second Schleswig War, Serbian language, Serbian Vojvodina, Slavonian Military Frontier, Slovak language, Slovakia, Slovene language, Switzerland, Thaler, Theocracy, Transylvanian Military Frontier, Treaty of Campo Formio, Treaty of Lunéville, Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919), Treaty of Schönbrunn, Treaty of Zürich, Ukrainian language, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Upper Austria, Vereinsthaler, Vienna, Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, Vorarlberg. Expand index (117 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Adolf Fischhof (Hungarian: Fischhof Adolf) (8 December 1816 – 23 March 1893) was a Hungarian-Austrian writer and politician of Jewish descent.
The Archduchy of Austria (Erzherzogtum Österreich) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy.
Archduke Charles of Austria, Duke of Teschen (German: Erzherzog Carl Ludwig Johann Joseph Laurentius von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen; 5 September 177130 April 1847) was an Austrian field-marshal, the third son of Emperor Leopold II and his wife, Maria Luisa of Spain.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austrian Littoral (Österreichisches Küstenland, Litorale Austriaco, Avstrijsko primorje, Austrijsko primorje, Osztrák Partvidék) was a crown land (Kronland) of the Austrian Empire, established in 1849.
Austrian Silesia (Österreichisch-Schlesien (historically also Oesterreichisch-Schlesien, Oesterreichisch Schlesien, österreichisch Schlesien); Rakouské Slezsko; Śląsk Austriacki), officially the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia (Herzogtum Ober- und Niederschlesien (historically Herzogthum Ober- und Niederschlesien); Vévodství Horní a Dolní Slezsko), was an autonomous region of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Austrian Empire, from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad south of the Körös/Criș river, and the western part of Mehedinți); the western part in northeastern Serbia (mostly included in Vojvodina, except a part included in the Belgrade Region); and a small northern part lies within southeastern Hungary (Csongrád county).
The Banat Military Frontier or simply Banat Frontier (Банатска крајина/Banatska krajina) was a district of the Habsburg Monarchy's Military Frontier located in the Banat region.
Baron Alexander von Bach (German: Alexander Freiherr von Bach; 4 January 1813, Loosdorf, Austria - 12 November 1893, Schöngrabern, Austria) was an Austrian politician.
The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Bailén was fought in 1808 by the Spanish Army of Andalusia, led by Generals Francisco Castaños and Theodor von Reding, and the Imperial French Army's II corps d'observation de la Gironde under General Pierre Dupont de l'Étang.
The Battle of Marengo was fought on 14 June 1800 between French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte and Austrian forces near the city of Alessandria, in Piedmont, Italy.
The Battle of Ulm on 16–19 October 1805 was a series of skirmishes, at the end of the Ulm Campaign, which allowed Napoleon I to trap an entire Austrian army under the command of Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich with minimal losses and to force its surrender near Ulm in the Electorate of Bavaria.
The Battle of Wagram (5–6 July 1809) was a military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars that ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
Brixen (Bressanone; Ladin: Porsenù or Persenon) is a town in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about north of Bolzano.
A budget is a financial plan for a defined period of time, usually a year.It may also include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities, costs and expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Charles Frederick (22 November 1728 – 10 June 1811) was Margrave, Elector and later Grand Duke of Baden (initially only Margrave of Baden-Durlach) from 1738 until his death.
Charles I or Karl I (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Maria; 17 August 18871 April 1922) was the last reigning monarch of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Cisleithania (Cisleithanien, also Zisleithanien, Ciszlajtánia, Předlitavsko, Predlitavsko, Przedlitawia, Cislajtanija, Цислајтанија, Cislajtanija, Cisleithania, Цислейтанія, transliterated: Tsysleitàniia, Cisleitania) was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.
A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger in 1975 and popularised by J. H. Elliott, that describes early modern states consisting of several countries under one ruler, who governs his territories as if they were separate kingdoms, in accordance with local traditions and legal structures.
The Concert of Europe, also known as the Congress System or the Vienna System after the Congress of Vienna, was a system of dispute resolution adopted by the major conservative powers of Europe to maintain their power, oppose revolutionary movements, weaken the forces of nationalism, and uphold the balance of power.
The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; French: officially États confédérés du Rhin, but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
The Croatian Military Frontier (Hrvatska vojna krajina or Hrvatska vojna granica) was a district of the Military Frontier, a territory in the Habsburg Monarchy, first during the period of the Austrian Empire and then during Austria-Hungary.
Crown land, also known as royal domain or demesne, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown.
Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting tariffs and for controlling the flow of goods, including animals, transports, personal, and hazardous items, into and out of a country.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Czech National Revival was a cultural movement, which took part in the Czech lands during the 18th and 19th century.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire occurred de facto on 6 August 1806, when Emperor Francis II abdicated his title and released all imperial states and officials from their oaths and obligations to the empire.
The Duchy of Bukovina was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire from 1849 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary from 1867 until 1918.
The Duchy of Carinthia (Herzogtum Kärnten; Vojvodina Koroška) was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia.
The Duchy of Carniola (Vojvodina Kranjska, Herzogtum Krain, Krajna) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, established under Habsburg rule on the territory of the former East Frankish March of Carniola in 1364.
The Duchy of Salzburg was a Cisleithanian crown land of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary from 1849–1918.
The Duchy of Styria (Herzogtum Steiermark; Vojvodina Štajerska; Stájer Hercegség) was a duchy located in modern-day southern Austria and northern Slovenia.
Economic freedom or economic liberty is the ability of people of a society to take economic actions.
The Electorate of Baden was a State of the Holy Roman Empire from 1803 to 1806.
The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.
The Emperor of Austria (German: Kaiser von Österreich) was the ruler of the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".
Enlightened absolutism refers to the conduct and policies of European absolute monarchs during the 18th and 19th centuries who were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment.
The February Patent was a constitution of the Austrian Empire promulgated in the form of letters patent on 26 February 1861.
Ferdinand I (19 April 1793 – 29 June 1875) was the Emperor of Austria from 1835 until his abdication in 1848.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The First Schleswig War (Schleswig-Holsteinischer Krieg) or Three Years' War (Treårskrigen) was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark and northern Germany rooted in the Schleswig-Holstein Question, contesting the issue of who should control the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.
This article gives a detailed listing of all the countries, including puppet states, that have existed in Europe since the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to the present day.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis II (Franz; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.
Count Franz Anton von Kolowrat-Liebsteinsky (František Antonín Kolovrat-Libštejnský; 31 January 1778 – 4 April 1861) was Bohemian noble and Austrian statesman from the House of Kolowrat.
Franz Joseph I also Franz Josef I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.
Frederick I (Friedrich Wilhelm Karl; 6 November 1754 – 30 October 1816) was the last Duke of Würtemberg, then briefly Elector of Württemberg, and was later elevated to the status of King of Württemberg, by Napoleon I. He was known for his size: at and about.
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust (Friedrich Ferdinand Graf von Beust) (13 January 1809 – 24 October 1886) was a German and Austrian statesman.
Further Austria, Outer Austria or Anterior Austria (Vorderösterreich, formerly die Vorlande (pl.)) was the collective name for the early (and later) possessions of the House of Habsburg in the former Swabian stem duchy of south-western Germany, including territories in the Alsace region west of the Rhine and in Vorarlberg.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
"italic" (God Save Emperor Francis) is an anthem to Francis II, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and later of the Austrian Empire.
The monarchic title of grand duke (feminine: grand duchess) ranked in order of precedence below emperor and king, and above that of sovereign prince and sovereign duke.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The Hofkriegsrat (or Aulic War Council, sometimes Imperial War Council) established in 1556 was the central military administrative authority of the Habsburg Monarchy, the predecessor of the Austro-Hungarian Ministry of War.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The German phrase kaiserlich und königlich (Imperial and Royal), typically abbreviated as k. u. k., k. und k., k. & k. in German (in all cases the "und" is always spoken unabbreviated), cs.
The Imperial Council (Reichsrat, Říšská rada, Rada Państwa, Consiglio Imperiale, Državni zbor) was the legislature of the Austrian Empire from 1861, and from 1867 the legislature of Cisleithania within Austria-Hungary.
The Imperial Free City of Trieste and its Suburbs was a Habsburg possession from the 14th century to 1918, called in German as Reichsunmittelbare Stadt Triest und ihr Gebiet and in Italian as Città Imperiale di Trieste e Dintorni.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Johann Philipp Carl Joseph, Graf von Stadion-Warthausen (18 June 1763 – 15 May 1824).
Kaiserthum or modern German, Kaisertum, is a German word for Empire in its meaning as a state ruled over by an Emperor, used in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Karel Havlíček Borovský (Borová, today Havlíčkova Borová; 31 October 1821 – 29 July 1856) was a Czech writer, poet, critic, politician, journalist, and publisher.
Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich (25 August 1752 – 22 December 1828) was an Austrian soldier.
King of Bavaria was a title held by the hereditary Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria in the state known as the Kingdom of Bavaria from 1805 until 1918, when the kingdom was abolished.
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The Kingdom of Croatia (Croatian: Kraljevina Hrvatska; Regnum Croatiae Horvát Királyság Königreich Kroatien) was part of the Habsburg Monarchy that existed between 1527 and 1868 (also known between 1804 and 1867 as the Austrian Empire), as well as a part of the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, but was subject to direct Imperial Austrian rule for significant periods of time, including its final years.
The Kingdom of Dalmatia (Kraljevina Dalmacija; Königreich Dalmatien; Regno di Dalmazia) was a crown land of the Austrian Empire (1815–1867) and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918).
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Galicia or Austrian Poland, became a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy as a result of the First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, when it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule.
The Kingdom of Hanover (Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Hungary between 1526 and 1867 was, while outside the Holy Roman Empire, part of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, that became the Empire of Austria in 1804.
The Kingdom of Illyria was a crown land of the Austrian Empire from 1816 to 1849, the successor state of the Napoleonic Illyrian Provinces, reconquered by Austria in the War of the Sixth Coalition and restored according to the Final Act of the Vienna Congress.
The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto, Königreich Lombardo–Venetien; Regnum Langobardiae et Venetiae), commonly called the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, was a constituent land (crown land) of the Austrian Empire.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
The Kingdom of Slavonia (Kraljevina Slavonija; Königreich Slawonien; Regnum Sclavoniae; Szlavón Királyság) was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austrian Empire that existed from 1699 to 1868.
The Kingdom of Württemberg (Königreich Württemberg) was a German state that existed from 1805 to 1918, located within the area that is now Baden-Württemberg.
Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859) was an Austrian diplomat and statesman who was one of the most important of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.
The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, sometimes called Czech lands in modern times, were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the medieval and early modern periods connected by feudal relations under the Bohemian kings.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
The Minister-President of Austria was the head of government of the Austrian Empire from 1848, when the office was created in the course of the March Revolution.
The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria.
This list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacy, as well as many other feudal entities such as lordship, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs.
The states of the German Confederation were those member states that from 20 June 1815 were part of the German Confederation, which lasted, with some changes in the member states, until 24 August 1866, under the presidency of the Austrian imperial House of Habsburg, which was represented by an Austrian presidential envoy to the Federal diet in Frankfurt.
Lower Austria (Niederösterreich; Dolní Rakousy; Dolné Rakúsko) is the northeasternmost state of the nine states in Austria.
Mantovano is an Italian surname.
The March of Istria (or Margraviate of Istria) was originally a Carolingian frontier march covering the Istrian peninsula and surrounding territory conquered by Charlemagne's son Pepin of Italy in 789.
The Margraviate of Baden (Markgrafschaft Baden) was a historical territory of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Margraviate of Moravia (Markrabství moravské; Markgrafschaft Mähren) or March of Moravia was a marcher state existing from 1182 to 1918 and one of the lands of the Bohemian Crown.
Maximilian I Joseph (27 May 1756 – 13 October 1825) was Duke of Zweibrücken from 1795 to 1799, Prince-Elector of Bavaria (as Maximilian IV Joseph) from 1799 to 1806, then King of Bavaria (as Maximilian I Joseph) from 1806 to 1825.
The Military Frontier was a province straddling the southern borderland of the Habsburg Monarchy and later the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
The October Diploma was a constitution of the Austrian Empire adopted by Habsburg Emperor Franz Joseph on 20 October 1860.
The fourth Peace of Pressburg (also known as the Treaty of Pressburg; Preßburger Frieden; Traité de Presbourg) was signed on 26 December 1805 between Napoleon and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II as a consequence of the French victories over the Austrians at Ulm (25 September – 20 October) and Austerlitz (2 December).
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Prince Felix of Schwarzenberg (Felix Prinz zu Schwarzenberg; 2 October 1800 – 5 April 1852) was a Bohemian nobleman and an Austrian statesman who restored the Habsburg Empire as a European great power following the Revolutions of 1848.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca (Gefürstete Grafschaft Görz und Gradisca; Principesca Contea di Gorizia e Gradisca; Poknežena grofija Goriška in Gradiščanska) was a crown land of the Habsburg dynasty within the Austrian Littoral on the Adriatic Sea, in what is now a multilingual border area of Italy and Slovenia.
The Principality of Transylvania, from 1765 Grand Principality of Transylvania, was an Austrian crownland, 1860, Chambers's Encyclopaedia based on Brockhaus Enzyklopädie, 10th Edition and realm of the Hungarian Crown ruled by the Habsburg and Habsburg-Lorraine monarchs of the Habsburg Monarchy (later Austrian Empire). During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Hungarian government proclaimed union with Transylvania in the April Laws of 1848 (after the Transylvanian Diet's confirmation on 30 May and the king's approval on 10 June that Transylvania again become an integral part of Hungary, an initiative rejected by the Romanians and Saxons who formed the majority population of Transylvania). After the failure of the revolution, the March Constitution of Austria decreed that the Principality of Transylvania be a separate crown land entirely independent of Hungary. In 1867, as a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise, the principality was reunited with Hungary proper.
A proclamation (Lat. proclamare, to make public by announcement) is an official declaration issued by a person of authority to make certain announcements known.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Quadruple Alliance was a treaty signed in Paris on 20 November 1815 by the great powers of United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Rastatt is a town with a baroque core, District of Rastatt, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society.
Regensburg (Castra-Regina;; Řezno; Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon; Bavarian: Rengschburg or Rengschburch) is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers.
The Reichsdeputationshauptschluss (formally the Hauptschluss der außerordentlichen Reichsdeputation, or "Principal Conclusion of the Extraordinary Imperial Delegation"), sometimes referred to in English as the Final Recess or the Imperial Recess of 1803, was a resolution passed by the Reichstag (Imperial Diet) of the Holy Roman Empire on 24 March 1803.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
A set of revolutions took place in the Austrian Empire from March 1848 to November 1849.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.
The Salzach is a river in Austria and Germany.
The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.
The Second Schleswig War (2., Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg) was the second military conflict over the Schleswig-Holstein Question of the nineteenth century.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
The Serbian Vojvodina (Српска Војводина / Srpska Vojvodina) was a short-lived self-proclaimed Serb autonomous province within the Austrian Empire during the Revolutions of 1848, which existed until 1849 when it was transformed into the new (official) Austrian province named Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar.
The Slavonian Military Frontier (Slavonska vojna krajina or Slavonska vojna granica) was a district of the Military Frontier, a territory in the Habsburg Monarchy, first during the period of the Austrian Empire and then during the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
The Transylvanian Military Frontier (Graniţa Militară Transilvăneană; Siebenbürgische Militärgrenze; Erdélyi határőrvidék) was a territory in the Habsburg Monarchy.
The Treaty of Campo Formio (today Campoformido) was signed on 18 October 1797 (27 Vendémiaire VI) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Philipp von Cobenzl as representatives of the French Republic and the Austrian monarchy, respectively.
The Treaty of Lunéville was signed in the Treaty House of Lunéville on 9 February 1801.
The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the Republic of German-Austria on the other.
The Treaty of Schönbrunn (Traité de Schönbrunn; Friede von Schönbrunn), sometimes known as the Peace of Schönbrunn or Treaty of Vienna, was signed between France and Austria at Schönbrunn Palace near Vienna on 14 October 1809.
The Treaty of Zurich was signed by the Austrian Empire, the French Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia on November 10, 1859.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
Upper Austria (Oberösterreich; Austro-Bavarian: Obaöstarreich; Horní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria.
The Vereinsthaler (union thaler) was a standard silver coin used in most German states and the Austrian Empire in the years before German unification.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar or Serbian Voivodeship and the Banate of Temes (Woiwodschaft Serbien und Temeser Banat), known simply as the Serbian Voivodeship (Serbische Woiwodschaft), was a province (duchy) of the Austrian Empire that existed between 1849 and 1860.
Vorarlberg is the westernmost federal state (Bundesland) of Austria.
Austrian Empire (1804 - 1867), Austrian empire, Bach absolutism, Bach system, Bach's absolutism, Bach’s absolutism, Empire of Austria, Imperial Austria, Imperial Austrian, Kaiserthum Oesterreich, Kaisertum Österreich, Kingdom of Austria, Neo-absolutism, Neo-absolutist era, Neoabsolutism, The Austrian Empire.