265 relations: Acehnese language, Adriaan Reland, Afroasiatic languages, Agar, Ainu language, Aklanon language, Alexander Vovin, Amis language, Andaman Islands, Applicative voice, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Asia, Atayal language, Atayalic languages, Austric languages, Austro-Tai languages, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesia, Austronesian alignment, Austronesian Formal Linguistics Association, Austronesian languages, Austronesian peoples, Austronesian–Ongan languages, Avoiuli, Đông Yên Châu inscription, Babuza language, Bali, Balinese language, Balinese script, Banjar language, Basay language, Batak, Batak languages, Batak script, Baybayin, Bikol languages, Bima language, Boholano dialect, Borneo, Borneo–Philippine languages, Brahmi script, Braille, Buginese language, Buhid alphabet, Buhid language, Bunun language, Cambodia, Carolinian language, Cebuano language, ..., Central Bikol language, Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages, Cham alphabet, Cham language, Chamic languages, Chamorro language, Champa, Chams, Chuukese language, Cia-Cia language, Coastal Kadazan dialect, Cognate, Comparative linguistics, Comparative method, Cook Islands Māori, Definiteness, Dialect continuum, Dictionary, Dusun language, East Asia, East Formosan languages, East Timor, Easter Island, Edmund Weiner, Eskayan language, Eskayan script, Favorlang language, Fijian language, Filipino language, Focus (linguistics), Formosan languages, Gaddang language, Genetic relationship (linguistics), Genetics, Gilbertese language, Greek language, Hainan, Hangul, Hanunó'o alphabet, Hanunó'o language, Hawaii, Hawaiian language, Herman Neubronner van der Tuuk, Hiligaynon language, Hindu, Historical linguistics, Hmong–Mien languages, Iban language, Ibanag language, Ilocano language, Indigenous language, Indo-European languages, Indonesia, Indonesian language, Ivatan language, Japanese language, Japonic languages, Javanese language, Javanese script, Jawi alphabet, John Lynch (linguist), John Simpson (lexicographer), Kanakanabu language, Kapampangan language, Karay-a language, Kavalan language, Kawi language, Kawi script, Kedukan Bukit inscription, Kelantan-Pattani Malay, Kendayan language, Kerinci language, Ketagalan language, Komering language, Kra–Dai languages, Kulitan alphabet, Lampung language, Language family, Languages of the Philippines, Latin, Latin script, Laurent Sagart, Lawangan language, Li'o language, List of Austronesian regions, List of major and official Austronesian languages, Lontara script, Lun Bawang language, Madagascar, Madurese language, Mainland Southeast Asia, Makassarese language, Malagasy language, Malay Archipelago, Malay language, Malayo-Polynesian languages, Malaysia, Malaysian language, Malcolm Ross (linguist), Maranao language, Margaret Florey, Mariana Islands, Maritime Southeast Asia, Marshallese language, Masbateño language, Māori language, Minangkabau language, Miyako-jima, Moken language, Momogun language, Motu language, New Zealand, Nicobarese languages, Niger–Congo languages, Niuean language, Northern Formosan languages, Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages, Oceania, Oceanic languages, Official language, Old Javanese, Ongan languages, Onhan language, Otto Dempwolff, Oxford University Press, Pacific Ocean, Paiwan language, Palawan languages, Pancasila (politics), Pancawarna, Pangasinan language, Papora-Hoanya language, Papua Region, Papuan languages, Paul Jen-kuei Li, Paul K. Benedict, Pazeh language, PDF, Pegon script, Penghu, Philippines, Phoneme, Phonotactics, Proto-Austronesian language, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, Puyuma language, Raga language, Rapa Nui language, Reduplication, Rejang language, Rejang script, Rencong script, Rinconada Bikol language, Robert Blust, Roger Blench, Romblomanon language, Rongorongo, Rotuman language, Rukai language, Saaroa language, Saisiyat language, Sakizaya language, Samoan language, Sangirese language, Sanskrit, Sarawak Malay, Sasak language, Seediq language, Sino-Tibetan languages, Sinology, Siraya language, Sorabe alphabet, Southeast Asia, Spanish language, Sri Lanka, Stratum (linguistics), Sukarno, Sulawesi, Sunda–Sulawesi languages, Sundanese language, Sundanese script, Tagalog language, Tagbanwa script, Tahitian language, Taivoan language, Taiwan, Tausug language, Tboli language, Temuan language, Terengganu Malay, Terry Crowley (linguist), Tetum language, Thailand, Thao language, Thematic relation, Toba Batak language, Tolai language, Tombonuwo language, Tongan language, Tsat language, Tsou language, Tsouic languages, Tuvalu, Tuvaluan language, Urheimat, Varieties of Chinese, Vietnam, Waray language, WikiWikiWeb, Wilhelm Schmidt (linguist), Wilhelm von Humboldt, Woleai script, Yami language, Yogad language, 1. Expand index (215 more) » « Shrink index
Acehnese language (Achinese) is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by Acehnese people natively in Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia.
Adriaan Reland (also known as Adriaen Reeland/Reelant, Hadrianus Relandus) (17 July 1676, De Rijp, North Holland5 February 1718, Utrecht John Gorton, A General Biographical Dictionary, 1838, Whittaker & Co.) was a noted Dutch Orientalist scholar, cartographer and philologist.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.
Ainu (Ainu: アイヌ・イタㇰ Aynu.
Aklanon (Akeanon), also known as Aklan, is a regional Visayan language spoken in the province of Aklan on the island of Panay in the Philippines.
Alexander Vladimirovich Vovin (Александр Владимирович Вовин, born 1961 in Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian-American linguist and philologist, currently directeur d'études at the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS)) in Paris, France.
Amis is the Formosan language of the Amis (or Ami), an indigenous people living along the east coast of Taiwan (see Taiwanese aborigines).
The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.
The applicative voice (abbreviated or) is a grammatical voice that promotes an oblique argument of a verb to the (core) object argument, and indicates the oblique role within the meaning of the verb.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Atayal language is spoken by the Atayal people of Taiwan.
The Atayalic languages are a group of Formosan languages spoken in northern Taiwan.
Austric is a large hypothetical grouping of languages primarily spoken in Southeast Asia and Pacific.
Austro-Tai is a hypothesis that the Austronesian, Kra–Dai, and Japonic language families have a common origin.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
Austronesia, in historical terms, refers to the homeland of the peoples who speak Austronesian languages, including Malay (Malaysian-Indonesian), Filipino, the Visayan languages, Ilocano, Javanese, Malagasy, the Polynesian languages, Fijian, Taiwan's Formosan languages, Tetum and around ten-thousand other languages.
Austronesian alignment, commonly known as the Philippine-type voice system, is a typologically unusual kind of morphosyntactic alignment in which "one argument can be marked as having a special relationship to the verb".
The Austronesian Formal Linguistics Association (AFLA) is a learned society that provides forums for collaborative research of Austronesian languages.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
The Austronesian peoples are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages that are under the Austronesian language super-family.
Austronesian–Ongan is a proposed connection between the Ongan and Austronesian language families, published in Blevins (2007).
Avoiuli (from Raga avoi "talk about" and uli "draw" or "paint") is a writing system used by the Turaga indigenous movement on Pentecost Island in Vanuatu.
The Đông Yên Châu inscription is a Cham inscription written in an Old Southern Brahmi script, found in 1936 at Đông Yên Châu, northwest of Trà Kiệu near the old Champa capital of Indrapura, Vietnam.
Babuza is a Formosan language of the Babuza and Taokas, indigenous peoples of Taiwan.
Bali (Balinese:, Indonesian: Pulau Bali, Provinsi Bali) is an island and province of Indonesia with the biggest Hindu population.
Balinese, or simply Bali, is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by 3.3 million people on the Indonesian island of Bali as well as northern Nusa Penida, western Lombok and eastern Java.
The Balinese script, natively known as Aksara Bali and Hanacaraka, is an alphabet used in the island of Bali, Indonesia, commonly for writing the Austronesian Balinese language, Old Javanese, and the liturgical language Sanskrit.
Banjar (Banjar:, Indonesian: Bahasa Banjar, Jawi: بهاس بنجر) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Banjar people of South Kalimantan province of Indonesia.
Basay was a Formosan language spoken around modern-day Taipei in northern Taiwan by the Basay, Qauqaut, and Trobiawan peoples.
Batak is a collective term used to identify a number of closely related Austronesian ethnic groups predominantly found in North Sumatra, Indonesia who speak Batak languages.
The Batak languages are spoken by the Batak people of North Sumatra, Indonesia.
The Batak script, natively known as surat Batak, surat na sampulu sia (the nineteen letters), or si-sia-sia, is a writing system used to write the Austronesian Batak languages spoken by several million people on the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
Baybayin (pre-kudlit:, post-kudlit:, kudlit + pamudpod), is an ancient script used primarily by the Tagalog people.
The Bikol languages are a group of Central Philippine languages spoken mostly in the Bicol Peninsula in the island of Luzon, the neighboring island province of Catanduanes and the island of Burias of Masbate.
The Bima language, or Bimanese (Bima: Nggahi Mbojo, Malay: Bahasa Bima) is an Austronesian language spoken on the eastern half of Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, which it shares with speakers of the Sumbawa language.
Boholano (Binol-anon) is a variant of the Cebuano language spoken in the island province of Bohol in the Visayas and a major portion of Southern Leyte, as well as parts of Mindanao, particularly in Northern Mindanao and Caraga Region.
Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.
The Borneo–Philippines languages (also known as Outer Hesperonesian or Outer Western Malayo-Polynesian languages) are a paraphyletic group of the Austronesian languages which includes the languages of the Philippines, much of Borneo, the northern peninsula of Sulawesi, and Madagascar.
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
Braille is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired.
Buginese or Bugis (Basa Ugi, elsewhere also Bahasa Bugis, Bugis, Bugi, De) is a language spoken by about five million people mainly in the southern part of Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Buhid is a Brahmic suyat script of the Philippines, closely related to Baybayin and Hanunó'o, and is used today by the Mangyans, found mainly on island of Mindoro, to write their language, Buhid.
The Buhid language (Buhid) is a language spoken by Mangyans in the island of Mindoro, Philippines.
The Bunun language is spoken by the Bunun people of Taiwan.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Carolinian is an Austronesian language originating in Caroline Islands, but spoken in the Northern Mariana Islands, where it is an official language along with English, by the Carolinian people.
The Cebuano or Cebuan language, also often colloquially albeit informally referred to by most of its speakers simply as Bisaya (English translation: "Visayan", not to be confused with other Visayan languages), is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 21 million people in Central Visayas, western parts of Eastern Visayas and most parts of Mindanao, most of whom belong to various Visayan ethnolinguistic groups, mainly the Cebuanos.
Central Bikol, commonly called Bikol Naga, is the most-spoken language in the Bicol Region of southern Luzon, Philippines.
The Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (CEMP) languages form a proposed branch of the Malayo-Polynesian languages consisting of over 700 languages.
The Cham alphabet is an abugida used to write Cham, an Austronesian language spoken by some 230,000 Chams in Vietnam and Cambodia.
Cham is the language of the Cham people of Southeast Asia, and formerly the language of the kingdom of Champa in central Vietnam.
The Chamic languages, also known as Aceh–Chamic and Achinese–Chamic, are a group of ten languages spoken in Aceh (Sumatra, Indonesia) and in parts of Cambodia, Vietnam and Hainan, China.
Chamorro (Finu' Chamoru) is an Austronesian language spoken by about 58,000 people (about 25,800 people on Guam and about 32,200 in the Northern Mariana Islands and the rest of the United States).
Champa (Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832.
The Chams, or Cham people (Cham: Urang Campa, người Chăm or người Chàm, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia.
Chuukese, also rendered Trukese, is a Trukic language of the Austronesian language family spoken primarily on the islands of Chuuk in the Caroline Islands in Micronesia.
Cia-Cia (Bahasa Ciacia), also known as Buton(ese), is an Austronesian language spoken principally around the town of Baubau on the southern tip of Buton Island off the southeast coast of Sulawesi in Indonesia.
Coastal Kadazan, also known as Kadazan Tangaa, is a dialect of the Kadazan Dusun language as well as a minority language primarily spoken in Sabah, Malaysia.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.
In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.
Cook Islands Māori is an Eastern Polynesian language.
In linguistics, definiteness is a semantic feature of noun phrases (NPs), distinguishing between referents/entities that are identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases).
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.
Central Dusun, also known as Bunduliwan (Dusun: Boros Dusun), is one of the more widespread languages spoken by the Dusun and Kadazan peoples of Sabah, Malaysia.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The East Formosan languages consist of various Formosan languages scattered across Taiwan, including Kavalan, Amis, and the extinct Siraya language.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.
Edmund Weiner (born 27 August 1950 in Oxford, England) was co-editor (with John A. Simpson) of the Second Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary (1985–1989) and Deputy Chief Editor of the Oxford English Dictionary (1993–present).
Eskayan is an artificial auxiliary language of the Eskaya clan of Bohol, an island province of the Philippines.
Eskayan is the constructed script of the auxiliary Eskayan language of the island of Bohol in the Philippines.
Favorlang is an extinct Formosan language closely related to Babuza.
Fijian (Na Vosa Vakaviti) is an Austronesian language of the Malayo-Polynesian family spoken by some 350,000–450,000 ethnic Fijians as a native language.
Filipino (Wikang Filipino), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines.
Focus (abbreviated) is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.
"Formosan languages" is a cover term for the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, all of which belong to the Austronesian language family.
The Gaddang language (also Gaddang or Cagayan) is spoken by up to 30,000 speakers (the Gaddang people) in the Philippines, particularly along the Magat and upper Cagayan rivers in the Region II provinces of Nueva Vizcaya and Isabela and by overseas migrants to countries in Asia, Australia, Canada, Europe, in the Middle East, United Kingdom and the United States.
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Taetae ni Kiribati or Gilbertese, also Kiribati (sometimes Kiribatese), is a Micronesian language of the Austronesian language family.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
Hanunó’o is one of the indigenous suyat scripts of the Philippines and is used by the Mangyan peoples of southern Mindoro to write the Hanunó'o language.
The Hanunó'o language is a language spoken by Mangyans in the island of Mindoro, Philippines.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
Herman Neubronner van der Tuuk (23 February 1824 – 17 August 1894) was a Bible translator and linguist specialising in the languages of the Dutch East Indies.
The Hiligaynon language, also colloquially referred often by most of its speakers simply as Ilonggo, is an Austronesian regional language spoken in the Philippines by about 9.1 million people, mainly in Western Visayas and SOCCSKSARGEN, most of whom belong to the Visayan ethnic group, mainly the Hiligaynons.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
The Hmong–Mien (also known as Miao–Yao) languages are a highly tonal language family of southern China and northern Southeast Asia.
The Iban language (jaku Iban) is spoken by the Iban, a branch of the Dayak ethnic group formerly known as "Sea Dayak" who live in the Malaysian state of Sarawak, the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan and in Brunei.
The Ibanag language (also Ybanag or Ibanak) is spoken by up to 500,000 speakers, most particularly by the Ibanag people, in the Philippines, in the northeastern provinces of Isabela and Cagayan, especially in Tuguegarao, Solana, Abulug, Cabagan, and Ilagan and with overseas immigrants in countries located in the Middle East, United Kingdom and the United States.
Ilocano (also Ilokano;; Ilocano: Pagsasao nga Ilokano) is the third most-spoken native language of the Philippines.
An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
The Ivatan (Ibatan) language, also known as Chirin nu Ibatan ("language of the Ivatan people"), is an Austronesian language spoken in the Batanes Islands.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
The Japonic or Japanese-Ryukyuan language family includes the Japanese language spoken on the main islands of Japan as well as the Ryukyuan languages spoken in the Ryukyu Islands.
Javanese (colloquially known as) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.
The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia.
Jawi (Jawi: Jāwī; Pattani: Yawi; Acehnese: Jawoë) is an Arabic alphabet for writing Malay, Acehnese, Banjarese, Minangkabau, Tausūg and several other languages in Southeast Asia.
John Lynch, born 8 July 1946, in Sydney, Australia, is a linguist specializing in Oceanic languages.
John Simpson OBE (born 13 October 1953) is an English lexicographer and was Chief Editor of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) from 1993 to 2013.
Kanakanavu (also spelled Kanakanabu) is a Southern Tsouic language is spoken by the Kanakanavu people, an indigenous people of Taiwan (see Taiwanese aborigines).
Kapampangan, Pampango, or the Pampangan language is one of the major languages of the Philippines.
The Karay-a language, or Kinaray-a (Karay-a + the infix -in-) (ISO: krj), is an Austronesian regional language spoken by the Karay-a people, mainly in Antique in the Philippines as well as Iloilo and other provinces on the island of Panay.
Kavalan (Kebalan/kbalan) was formerly spoken in the Northeast coast area of Taiwan by the Kavalan people (噶瑪蘭).
Kawi (from Sanskrit: कवि "kavi" lit. "poet") is a literary and prose language on the islands of Java, Bali, and Lombok.
Aksara Kawi (from Sanskrit: कवि "kavi" lit. "poet") or Aksara Jawa Kuna ("Old Javanese script") is the name given to the writing system originating in Java and used across much of Maritime Southeast Asia from the 8th century to around 1500 AD.
The Kedukan Bukit Inscription was discovered by the Dutchman M. Batenburg on 29 November 1920 at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, Indonesia, on the banks of the River Tatang, a tributary of the River Musi.
Kelantan-Pattani Malay, often referred to in Thailand as Yawi (in Thai) or Jawi (in Patani Malay), and in Kelantan as Baso Kelate, is a Malayan language spoken in the Malaysian state of Kelantan and the neighbouring southernmost provinces of Thailand.
Kendayan, or Salako (Selako), is a Malayic Dayak language of Borneo.
Kerinci (Karinchi or Kincai) is a Malayan language spoken in Jambi Province, Sumatra especially in Kerinci Regency and Sungai Penuh city.
Ketagalan (Ketangalan, Tangalan) was a Formosan language spoken south of modern-day Taipei in northern Taiwan by the Ketagalan people.
Komering is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in Indonesia, in the southern part of Sumatra.
The Kra–Dai languages (also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic and Kadai) are a language family of tonal languages found in southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia.
Kulitan (also known as Culitan, Súlat Kapampángan, and Pamagkulit) is one of the various indigenous suyat writing systems in the Philippines.
Lampung is the language of the Indonesian province of Lampung at the southern tip of Sumatra.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
There are some 120 to 187 languages and dialects in the Philippines, depending on the method of classification.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Laurent Sagart (born 1951) is a senior researcher at the Centre de recherches linguistiques sur l'Asie orientale (CRLAO – UMR 8563) unit of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS).
Lawangan is an Austronesian language of the East Barito group.
Li'o, Kéo, or Ende-Li'o, is a Malayo-Polynesian dialect cluster spoken on Flores in Indonesia.
Below is a list of countries that are home to Austronesian languages along with the most notable languages in each country.
This is a list of major and official Austronesian languages, a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia and Madagascar.
The Lontara script is a Brahmic script traditionally used for the Bugis, Makassarese and Mandar languages of Sulawesi in Indonesia.
The language spoken by the Lun Bawangs (or Lundayeh) belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian family.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Madurese is a language of the Madurese people of Madura Island and eastern Java, Indonesia; it is also spoken on the neighbouring small Kangean Islands and Sapudi Islands, as well as by migrants to other parts of Indonesia, namely the eastern salient of Java (comprising Pasuruan, Surabaya, Malang to Banyuwangi), the Masalembu Islands, and even some on Kalimantan.
Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as the Indochinese Peninsula and previously as Indochina, is the continental portion of Southeast Asia east of India and south of China that is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east.
Makassarese (sometimes spelled Makasar, Makassar, or Macassar) is a language of the Makassarese people, spoken in South Sulawesi province of Indonesia.
Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar.
The Malay Archipelago (Malaysian & Indonesian: Kepulauan Melayu/Nusantara, Tagalog: Kapuluang Malay, Visayan: Kapupud-ang Malay) is the archipelago between mainland Indochina and Australia.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Malaysian language (bahasa Malaysia), or Malaysian Malay (bahasa Melayu Malaysia) is the name regularly applied to the Malay language used in Malaysia.
Malcolm David Ross (born 1942) is an emeritus professor of linguistics at the Australian National University.
Maranao is an Austronesian language spoken by the Maranao people in the provinces of Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur in the Philippines, and in Sabah, Malaysia.
Margaret Florey is an Australian linguist whose work focuses on the revitalization and maintenance of Indigenous Australian languages.
The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas) are a crescent-shaped archipelago comprising the summits of fifteen mostly dormant volcanic mountains in the western North Pacific Ocean, between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east.
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste.
The Marshallese language (Marshallese: new orthography Kajin M̧ajeļ or old orthography Kajin Majōl), also known as Ebon, is a Micronesian language spoken in the Marshall Islands.
Masbateño or Minasbate is a Bicol-Visayan language spoken by more than 600,000 people, primarily in the province of Masbate in the Philippines.
Māori, also known as te reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand.
Minangkabau (autonym: Baso Minang(kabau); Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, the western part of Riau, South Aceh Regency, the northern part of Bengkulu and Jambi, also in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau.
is the largest and the most populous island among the Miyako Islands of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.
The Moken language is a half dozen closely related varieties spoken by the Moken "Sea Gypsies" off the coast of Burma and Thailand.
Kimaragang (Marigang), Tobilung, and Rungus are varieties of a single Austronesian language of Sabah, Malaysia.
Motu (sometimes called Pure Motu or True Motu to distinguish it from Hiri Motu) is one of many Central Papuan Tip languages and is spoken by the Motuans, native inhabitants of Papua New Guinea.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Nicobarese languages, or Nicobaric languages, form an isolated group of about half a dozen closely related Austroasiatic languages, spoken by the majority of the inhabitants of the Nicobar Islands of India.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
Niuean (ko e vagahau Niuē) is a Polynesian language, belonging to the Malayo-Polynesian subgroup of the Austronesian languages.
The Northern Formosan languages is a proposed grouping of Formosan languages that includes the Atayalic languages, the Western Plains languages (Papora, Hoanya, Babuza, and Taokas), and the Northwest Formosan languages (Pazeh and Saisiyat; Li places Western Plains with this grouping).
The Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages are a putative branch of the Austronesian family, proposed by Wouk & Ross (2002), that are thought to have dispersed from a possible homeland in Sulawesi.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
The approximately 450 Oceanic languages are a well-established branch of the Austronesian languages.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Javanese is the oldest phase of the Javanese language that was spoken in areas in what is now the eastern part of Central Java and the whole of East Java.
Ongan, also called South Andamanese or Jarawa–Onge, is a phylum of two Andamanese languages, Önge and Jarawa, spoken in the southern Andaman Islands.
Onhan is a regional Western Visayan language spoken, along with the Romblomanon and Asi languages, in the province of Romblon, Philippines.
Otto Dempwolff (25 May 1871 in Pillau, Province of Prussia – 27 November 1938, in Hamburg) was a German linguist and anthropologist who wrote about Austronesian languages.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Paiwan is a native language of Taiwan, spoken by the Paiwan, a Taiwanese indigenous people.
The Palawan languages are the languages of the island of Palawan and nearby islets in the Philippines.
Pancasila is the official, foundational philosophical theory of the Indonesian state.
Pancawarna is the fifth studio album from Malaysian pop singer Siti Nurhaliza released in 1999.
The Pangasinan language or Salitan Pangasinan is one of the major languages of the Philippines.
The Sinicized Papora and Hoanya dialects constituted a Formosan language of Taiwan.
Papua Region is one of four regions of Papua New Guinea.
The Papuan languages are the non-Austronesian and non-Australian languages spoken on the western Pacific island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands, by around 4 million people.
Paul Jen-kuei Li (20 September 1936&ndash) is a research fellow at the Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica in Taipei, Taiwan.
Paul King Benedict (July 5, 1912 – July 21, 1997) was an American anthropologist, mental health professional, and linguist who specialized in languages of East and Southeast Asia.
Pazeh (also spelled Pazih, Pazéh) is an almost extinct language of the Pazeh, a Taiwanese aboriginal people.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Pegon is an Arabic alphabet used to write the Javanese and Sundanese languages, as an alternative to the Roman alphabet or the Javanese script and the old Sundanese script.
The Penghu or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.
The Proto-Austronesian language (PAN) is the reconstructed ancestor of the Austronesian languages, one of the world's major language families.
The Proto-Malayo-Polynesian language (PMP) is the reconstructed ancestor of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is by far the largest branch (by current speakers) of the Austronesian language family.
The Puyuma language, or Pinuyumayan, is the language of the Puyuma, an indigenous people of Taiwan (see Taiwanese aborigines).
Raga (also known as Hano) is the language of northern Pentecost island in Vanuatu.
Rapa Nui or Rapanui also known as Pascuan, or Pascuense, is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken on the island of Rapa Nui, also known as Easter Island.
Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.
Rejang (baso Jang, baso Hɕjang) is an Austronesian language predominantly spoken by the Rejangs people in southwestern height of Sumatra (Bengkulu), Indonesia.
The Rejang script, sometimes spelt Redjang and locally known as Surat Ulu ('upstream script'), is an abugida of the Brahmic family, and is related to other scripts of the region, like Batak, Buginese, and others.
Rencong, or "Rentjong," is a general term used to refer to any native writing systems found in central and south Sumatra, including Kerinci, Bengkulu, Palembang and Lampung.
Rinconada Bikol or simply Rinconada, spoken in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines, is one of several languages that compose the Inland Bikol (or Southern Bicol) group of the Bikol macrolanguage.
Robert A. Blust (born 1940) is a prominent linguist in several areas, including historical linguistics, lexicography and ethnology.
Roger Marsh Blench (born 1953) is a British linguist, ethnomusicologist and development anthropologist.
Romblomanon is an Austronesian regional language spoken, along with Asi and Onhan, in the province of Romblon in the Philippines.
Rongorongo (Rapa Nui) is a system of glyphs discovered in the 19th century on Easter Island that appear to contain writing or proto-writing.
Rotuman, also referred to as Rotunan, Rutuman or Fäeag Rotuma, is an Austronesian language spoken by the indigenous people of the South Pacific island group of Rotuma, an island with a Polynesian-influenced culture that was incorporated as a dependency into the Colony of Fiji in 1881.
Rukai is a Formosan language spoken by the Rukai people in Taiwan.
Saaroa or Hla'alua is a Southern Tsouic language is spoken by the Saaroa (Hla'alua) people, an indigenous people of Taiwan.
Saisiyat is the language of the Saisiyat, a Taiwanese indigenous people.
Sakizaya is a Formosan language closely related to Amis.
Samoan (Gagana faʻa Sāmoa or Gagana Sāmoa – IPA) is the language of the Samoan Islands, comprising the Independent State of Samoa and the United States territory of American Samoa.
Sangirese, also known as Sangihé, Sangi, and Sangih, is an Austronesian language spoken on the islands linking northern Sulawesi, Indonesia, with Mindanao, Philippines by the Sangirese people.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarawak Malay (Standard Malay: Bahasa Melayu Sarawak or Bahasa Sarawak, Jawi: بهاس ملايو سراوق, Sarawak Malay: Kelakar Sarawak) is a Malayan language native to the State of Sarawak, Malaysia.
The Sasak language is spoken by the Sasak ethnic group, which make up the majority of the population of Lombok in Indonesia.
Seediq (pronounced) is an Atayalic language spoken in the mountains of Northern Taiwan by the Seediq and Truku people.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
Siraya is a Formosan language spoken until the end of the 19th century by the indigenous Siraya people of Taiwan, derived from Proto-Siraya.
Sorabe, or Sora-be, is an alphabet based on Arabic formerly used to transcribe the Malagasy language (belonging to the Malayo-Polynesian language family) and the Antemoro Malagasy dialect in particular dating from the 15th century.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
Sukarno (born Kusno Sosrodihardjo; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia, serving in office from 1945 to 1967.
Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia.
The Sunda–Sulawesi languages (also known as Inner Hesperonesian or Inner Western Malayo-Polynesian languages) are a putative branch of the Austronesian family posited in Wouk and Ross (2002).
Sundanese (in Sundanese script ᮘᮞ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ, literally "language of Sunda") is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Sundanese.
Sundanese script (Aksara Sunda) is a writing system which is used by the Sundanese people.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
Tagbanwa, also known as Apurahuano, is one of the suyathttp://newsinfo.inquirer.net/985669/protect-all-ph-writing-systems-heritage-advocates-urge-congress writing systems of the Philippines used by the Tagbanwa people as their ethnic writing system and script.
Tahitian (autonym Reo Tahiti, part of Reo Mā'ohi, languages of French Polynesia)Reo Mā'ohi correspond to “languages of natives from French Polynesia”, and may in principle designate any of the seven indigenous languages spoken in French Polynesia.
Taivoan or Taivuan, is a Formosan language spoken until the end of the 19th century by the indigenous Taivoan people of Taiwan.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tausug (Tausug: Bahasa Sūg, Bahasa Suluk) is a regional language spoken in the province of Sulu in the Philippines, in the eastern area of the state of Sabah, Malaysia, and in North Kalimantan, Indonesia by the Tausūg people.
Tboli, also Tagabili or T'boli, is an Austronesian language spoken in the southern Philippine island of Mindanao, mainly in the province of South Cotabato but also in the neighboring provinces of Sultan Kudarat and Sarangani.
Temuan language (Temuan: Benua,Bual Uwang Hutarn, bual Mutan, Niap, Bahasak Temuan, Bahasa Temuan) is a Malayan language (part of the Austronesian language family) spoken by the Temuan people, one of the Orang Asli or indigenous peoples of Peninsular Malaysia which can be found in the states of Selangor, Pahang, Johor, Malacca and Negeri Sembilan.
Terengganu Malay (Bahasa Melayu Terengganu, Terengganu Malay: Base Tranung/Ganu) is a variety of Malay spoken in the Malaysian state of Terengganu all the way southward to coastal Pahang and Mersing, Johor and historically spoken in the Anambas and Natuna islands of Riau Islands, Indonesia but its speakers are fastly diminishing and replaced by the local Malay dialects on the islands.
Terence Michael "Terry" Crowley (1 April 1953 – 14/15 January 2005) was a linguist specializing in Oceanic languages as well as Bislama, the English-lexified Creole recognized as a national language in Vanuatu.
Tetum, also Tetun, is an Austronesian language spoken on the island of Timor.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Thao (Thao: Thaw a lalawa), pronunciation, also known as Sao, is the language of the Thao people, a tribe of Taiwanese aborigines in the region of Sun Moon Lake in central Taiwan.
In linguistics, thematic relations, within certain theories, are the various roles that a noun phrase may play with respect to the action or state described by a governing verb, commonly the sentence's main verb.
Batak Toba is an Austronesian language spoken in North Sumatra province in Indonesia.
The Tolai language, or Kuanua, is spoken by the Tolai people of Papua New Guinea, who live on the Gazelle Peninsula in East New Britain Province.
Tombonuwo (Tambonuo) is a Paitanic language spoken in the Pitas and Labuk-Sugut Districts of northwest Sabah.
Tongan (lea fakatonga) is an Austronesian language of the Polynesian branch spoken in Tonga.
Tsat, also known as Utsat, Utset, Hainan Cham, or Huíhuī, is a language spoken by 4,500 Utsul people in Yanglan and Huixin villages near Sanya, Hainan, China.
Tsou is a divergent Austronesian language spoken by the Tsou people of Taiwan.
The Tsouic languages (also known as the Central Formosan languages) are three Formosan languages, Tsou proper and the Southern languages Kanakanabu and Saaroa.
Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, about midway between Hawaii and Australia, lying east-northeast of the Santa Cruz Islands (belonging to the Solomons), southeast of Nauru, south of Kiribati, west of Tokelau, northwest of Samoa and Wallis and Futuna and north of Fiji.
Tuvaluan, often called Tuvalu, is a Polynesian language of or closely related to the Ellicean group spoken in Tuvalu.
In historical linguistics, the term homeland (also Urheimat;; from a German compound of ur- "original" and Heimat "home, homeland") denotes the area of origin of the speakers of a proto-language, the (reconstructed or known) parent language of a group of languages assumed to be genetically related.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Waray is the fifth-most-spoken native regional language of the Philippines, native to Eastern Visayas.
The WikiWikiWeb is the first-ever wiki, or user-editable website.
Wilhelm Schmidt SVD (February 16, 1868 – February 10, 1954) was an Austrian linguist, anthropologist, and ethnologist.
Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a Prussian philosopher, linguist, government functionary, diplomat, and founder of the Humboldt University of Berlin, which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, Alexander von Humboldt, a naturalist).
The Woleai or Caroline Island script, thought to have been a syllabary, was a partially Latin-based script indigenous to Woleai Atoll and nearby islands of Micronesia and used to write the Woleaian language until the mid 20th century.
Yami, also known as Tao, is a Malayo-Polynesian language.
Yogad is an Austronesian language spoken primarily in Echague, Isabela and other nearby towns in the province in northern Philippines.
1 (one, also called unit, unity, and (multiplicative) identity) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
Austronesian, Austronesian Dispersal, Austronesian Languages, Austronesian family, Austronesian homeland, Austronesian language, Austronesian language family, Austronsian language, Austronsian languages, Hispano-Austronesian, ISO 639:map, Nuclear Austronesian.