130 relations: Access control, Access Control Service, Acuant, Adversary (cryptography), Anthropology, Archaeology, Atomic authorization, Authentication Open Service Interface Definition, Authenticity in art, Authorization, Automated teller machine, Barcode, Basic access authentication, Biometrics, Blind credential, BT Group, CAPTCHA, Chain of custody, Challenge–response authentication, Cheque, Chip Authentication Program, Closed-loop authentication, Computer security, Counterfeit, Counterfeit consumer goods, Counterfeit medications, Credit card, Currency, Delegation (computer security), Detective, Diameter (protocol), Digital identity, Digital signature, DNA, Electronic article surveillance, Electronic authentication, Electronic signature, Email, Encrypted key exchange, Evidence (law), Experiment, Extensible Authentication Protocol, Fact checking, Federal government of the United States, FIDO Alliance, Final good, Fingerprint, Fingerprint Verification Competition, Forgery, Fraud, ..., Geolocation, GNU Privacy Guard, Han van Meegeren, HMAC, Holography, Identification (information), Identity document, Jacques van Meegeren, Java Authentication and Authorization Service, Kantara Initiative, Kerberos (protocol), Key (cryptography), Key signing party, Label, Layer 8, Legal instrument, Literary forgery, Login, Man-in-the-middle attack, Mantrap (access control), Manuscript, Microchip implant (human), Mobile phone, Multi-factor authentication, Nameplate, National Information Assurance Glossary, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Near-field communication, Needham–Schroeder protocol, OAuth, Online banking, OpenAthens, OpenID, OpenID Connect, Packaging and labeling, Passphrase, Passport, Password, Perjury, Personal identification number, Plagiarism, Pretty Good Privacy, Provenance, Public key certificate, Public key infrastructure, Public-key cryptography, Radio-frequency identification, Radiocarbon dating, RADIUS, Reliance authentication, Retina, Seal (emblem), Secret sharing, Secure cryptoprocessor, Secure Remote Password protocol, Secure Shell, Security printing, Security question, Security token, Shared secret, Signature, Software token, Spoofing attack, SQRL, Stationery, Strong authentication, Supply chain, Taggant, Tamper-evident technology, TCP Wrappers, Time-based authentication, Track and trace, Trademark, Truth, United States, United States Department of Commerce, Usability of web authentication systems, Watermark, Web of trust, Woo–Lam. Expand index (80 more) » « Shrink index
In the fields of physical security and information security, access control (AC) is the selective restriction of access to a place or other resource.
Access Control Service, or Windows Azure Access Control Service (ACS) is a Microsoft-owned cloud-based service that provides an easy way of authenticating and authorizing users to gain access to web applications and services while allowing the features of authentication and authorization to be factored out of the application code.
Acuant is an identity verification, document authentication and fraud prevention technology services provider headquartered in Los Angeles, with engineering and development centers in New Hampshire and Israel.
In cryptography, an adversary (rarely opponent, enemy) is a malicious entity whose aim is to prevent the users of the cryptosystem from achieving their goal (primarily privacy, integrity, and availability of data).
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Atomic authorization is the act of securing authorization rights independently from the intermediary applications to which they are granted and the parties to which they apply.
The Authentication Open Service Interface Definition (OSID) is an O.K.I. specification which supports invoking an authentication process.
Authenticity in art is the different ways in which a work of art or an artistic performance may be considered authentic.
Authorization is the function of specifying access rights/privileges to resources related to information security and computer security in general and to access control in particular.
An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff.
A barcode (also bar code) is an optical, machine-readable, representation of data; the data usually describes something about the object that carries the barcode.
In the context of an HTTP transaction, basic access authentication is a method for an HTTP user agent (e.g. a web browser) to provide a user name and password when making a request.
Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations.
A blind credential is a token asserting that someone qualifies under some criteria or has some status or right, without revealing "who" that person is — without including their name or address, for instance.
BT Group plc (trading as BT and formerly British Telecom) is a British multinational telecommunications holding company with head offices in London, United Kingdom.
A CAPTCHA (an acronym for "Completely Automated Public '''T'''uring test to tell Computers and Humans Apart") is a type of challenge–response test used in computing to determine whether or not the user is human.
Chain of custody (CoC), in legal contexts, refers to the chronological documentation or paper trail that records the sequence of custody, control, transfer, analysis, and disposition of physical or electronic evidence.
In computer security, challenge–response authentication is a family of protocols in which one party presents a question ("challenge") and another party must provide a valid answer ("response") to be authenticated.
A cheque, or check (American English; see spelling differences), is a document that orders a bank to pay a specific amount of money from a person's account to the person in whose name the cheque has been issued.
A Gemalto EZIO CAP device with Barclays PINsentry styling The Chip Authentication Program (CAP) is a MasterCard initiative and technical specification for using EMV banking smartcards for authenticating users and transactions in online and telephone banking.
Closed-loop authentication, as applied to computer network communication, refers to a mechanism whereby one party verifies the purported identity of another party by requiring them to supply a copy of a token transmitted to the canonical or trusted point of contact for that identity.
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
The counterfeit means to imitate something.
Counterfeit consumer goods are goods, often of inferior quality, made or sold under another's brand name without the brand owner’s authorization.
A counterfeit medication or a counterfeit drug is a medication or pharmaceutical product which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity or effectiveness.
A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
Delegation is the process of a computer user handing over their authentication credentials to another user.
A detective is an investigator, usually a member of a law enforcement agency.
Diameter is an authentication, authorization, and accounting protocol for computer networks.
A digital identity is information on an entity used by computer systems to represent an external agent.
A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for presenting the authenticity of digital messages or documents.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Electronic article surveillance is a technological method for preventing shoplifting from retail stores, pilferage of books from libraries or removal of properties from office buildings.
Electronic authentication is the process of establishing confidence in user identities electronically presented to an information system.
An electronic signature, or e-signature, refers to data in electronic form, which is logically associated with other data in electronic form and which is used by the signatory to sign.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
Encrypted Key Exchange (also known as EKE) is a family of password-authenticated key agreement methods described by Steven M. Bellovin and Michael Merritt.
The law of evidence, also known as the rules of evidence, encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
Extensible Authentication Protocol, or EAP, is an authentication framework frequently used in wireless networks and point-to-point connections.
Fact checking is the act of checking factual assertions in non-fictional text in order to determine the veracity and correctness of the factual statements in the text.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The FIDO ("Fast IDentity Online") Alliance is an industry consortium launched in February 2013 to address the lack of interoperability among strong authentication devices and the problems users face creating and remembering multiple usernames and passwords.
In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy his current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.
A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.
The Fingerprint Verification Competition (FVC) is an international competition focused on fingerprint verification software assessment.
Forgery is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive for the sake of altering the public perception, or to earn profit by selling the forged item.
In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.
Geolocation is the identification or estimation of the real-world geographic location of an object, such as a radar source, mobile phone, or Internet-connected computer terminal.
GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG or GPG) is a free software replacement for Symantec's PGP cryptographic software suite.
Henricus Antonius "Han" van Meegeren (10 October 1889 – 30 December 1947) was a Dutch painter and portraitist and is considered to be one of the most ingenious art forgers of the 20th century.
In cryptography, an HMAC (sometimes disabbreviated as either keyed-hash message authentication code or hash-based message authentication code) is a specific type of message authentication code (MAC) involving a cryptographic hash function and a secret cryptographic key.
Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.
The function of identification is to map a known quantity to an unknown entity so as to make it known.
An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any document which may be used to prove a person's identity.
Jacques Henri Emil van Meegeren (26 August 1912 – 26 October 1977) was a Dutch illustrator and painter.
Java Authentication and Authorization Service, or JAAS, pronounced "Jazz", is the Java implementation of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) information security framework.
Kantara Initiative, Inc. is a 501 c(6) non-profit industry consortium and professional trade association dedicated to advancing technical & legal innovation and trust framework operations related to digital identity management and data privacy.
Kerberos is a computer network authentication protocol that works on the basis of tickets to allow nodes communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner.
In cryptography, a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm.
In public-key cryptography, a key signing party is an event at which people present their public keys to others in person, who, if they are confident the key actually belongs to the person who claims it, digitally sign the certificate containing that public key and the person's name, etc.
A label (as distinct from signage) is a piece of paper, plastic film, cloth, metal, or other material affixed to a container or product, on which is written or printed information or symbols about the product or item.
Layer 8 is used to refer to "user" or "political" layer on top of the OSI model of computer networking.
Legal instrument is a legal term of art that is used for any formally executed written document that can be formally attributed to its author, records and formally expresses a legally enforceable act, process, or contractual duty, obligation, or right, and therefore evidences that act, process, or agreement.
Literary forgery (also known as literary mystification, literary fraud or literary hoax) is writing, such as a manuscript or a literary work, which is either deliberately misattributed to a historical or invented author, or is a purported memoir or other presumably nonfictional writing deceptively presented as true when, in fact, it presents untrue or imaginary information.
In computer security, logging in (or logging on or signing in or signing on) is the process by which an individual gains access to a computer system by identifying and authenticating themselves.
In cryptography and computer security, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack where the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other.
A mantrap, air lock, sally port or access control vestibule is a physical security access control system comprising a small space with two sets of interlocking doors, such that the first set of doors must close before the second set opens.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
A human microchip implant is typically an identifying integrated circuit device or RFID transponder encased in silicate glass and implanted in the body of a human being.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is a method of confirming a user's claimed identity in which a user is granted access only after successfully presenting 2 or more pieces of evidence (or factors) to an authentication mechanism: knowledge (something they and only they know), possession (something they and only they have), and inherence (something they and only they are).
A nameplate identifies and displays a person or product's name.
Committee on National Security Systems Instruction No.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
Near-field communication (NFC) is a set of communication protocols that enable two electronic devices, one of which is usually a portable device such as a smartphone, to establish communication by bringing them within 4 cm (1.6 in) of each other.
The Needham–Schroeder protocol is one of the two key transport protocols intended for use over an insecure network, both proposed by Roger Needham and Michael Schroeder.
OAuth is an open standard for access delegation, commonly used as a way for Internet users to grant websites or applications access to their information on other websites but without giving them the passwords.
Online banking, also known as internet banking, it is an electronic payment system that enables customers of a bank or other financial institution to conduct a range of financial transactions through the financial institution's website.
OpenAthens is an identity and access management service, supplied by Eduserv, a British not-for-profit information technology services company.
OpenID is an open standard and decentralized authentication protocol.
OpenID Connect (OIDC) is an authentication layer on top of OAuth 2.0, an authorization framework.
Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.
A passphrase is a sequence of words or other text used to control access to a computer system, program or data.
A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel.
A password is a word or string of characters used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a resource (example: an access code is a type of password), which is to be kept secret from those not allowed access.
Perjury is the intentional act of swearing a false oath or falsifying an affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters a generation material to an official proceeding.
A personal identification number (PIN, pronounced "pin"; is often spoken out loud "PIN number" by mistake) is a numeric or alpha-numeric password or code used in the process of authenticating or identifying a user to a system and system to a user.
Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is an encryption program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for data communication.
Provenance (from the French provenir, 'to come from/forth') is the chronology of the ownership, custody or location of a historical object.
In cryptography, a public key certificate, also known as a digital certificate or identity certificate, is an electronic document used to prove the ownership of a public key.
A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a set of roles, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates and manage public-key encryption.
Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) is a networking protocol, operating on port 1812 that provides centralized Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA or Triple A) management for users who connect and use a network service.
Reliance authentication is a part of the trust-based identity attribution process whereby a second entity relies upon the authentication processes put in place by a first entity.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
Secret sharing (also called secret splitting) refers to methods for distributing a secret amongst a group of participants, each of whom is allocated a share of the secret.
A secure cryptoprocessor is a dedicated computer on a chip or microprocessor for carrying out cryptographic operations, embedded in a packaging with multiple physical security measures, which give it a degree of tamper resistance.
The Secure Remote Password protocol (SRP) is an augmented password-authenticated key agreement (PAKE) protocol, specifically designed to work around existing patents.
Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network.
Security printing is the field of the printing industry that deals with the printing of items such as banknotes, cheques, passports, tamper-evident labels, security tapes, product authentication, stock certificates, postage stamps and identity cards.
A security question is form of shared secret used as an authenticator.
Security tokens are physical devices used to gain access to an electronically restricted resource.
In cryptography, a shared secret is a piece of data, known only to the parties involved, in a secure communication.
A signature (from signare, "to sign") is a handwritten (and often stylized) depiction of someone's name, nickname, or even a simple "X" or other mark that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent.
A software token (a.k.a. soft token) is a type of two-factor authentication security device that may be used to authorize the use of computer services.
In the context of network security, a spoofing attack is a situation in which a person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data, to gain an illegitimate advantage.
SQRL (pronounced "squirrel") or Secure, Quick, Reliable Login (formerly Secure QR Login) is a draft open standard for secure website login and authentication.
Stationery is a mass noun referring to commercially manufactured writing materials, including cut paper, envelopes, writing implements, continuous form paper, and other office supplies.
Strong authentication is a notion with several unofficial definitions.
A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.
A taggant can mean a radio frequency microchip used in automated identification and data capture (see RFID).
Tamper-evident describes a device or process that makes unauthorized access to the protected object easily detected.
TCP Wrappers (also known as tcp_wrappers) is a host-based networking ACL system, used to filter network access to Internet Protocol servers on (Unix-like) operating systems such as Linux or BSD.
Time-based authentication is a special procedure to prove an individual's identity and authenticity on appearance simply by detecting its presence at a scheduled time of day or within a scheduled time interval and on a distinct location.
In distribution and logistics of many types of products, track and trace or tracking and tracing, concerns a process of determining the current and past locations (and other information) of a unique item or property.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth.
Usability of web authentication systems refers to the efficiency and user acceptance of online authentication systems.
A watermark is an identifying image or pattern in paper that appears as various shades of lightness/darkness when viewed by transmitted light (or when viewed by reflected light, atop a dark background), caused by thickness or density variations in the paper.
In cryptography, a web of trust is a concept used in PGP, GnuPG, and other OpenPGP-compatible systems to establish the authenticity of the binding between a public key and its owner.
In cryptography, Woo–Lam refers to various computer network authentication protocols designed by Simon S. Lam and Thomas Woo.
AuthN, Authenticate, Authenticated, Authenticated copy, Authenticates, Authenticating, Authentication factor, Authentication factors, Authentications, Authentification, Authn, Client authentication, Forgery detection, Server authentication.