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Index Authoritarianism

Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms. [1]

220 relations: Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, Accountability, Adam Przeworski, Adaptation, Advocacy group, Al Jazeera, Alexander Lukashenko, Ali Bongo Ondimba, Ali Khamenei, Allegiance, Amartya Sen, Amnesty International, Andrew J. Nathan, Antanas Smetona, António de Oliveira Salazar, Anti-fascism, Anwar Sadat, Apartheid, Argentina, Argentine Revolution, Augusto Pinochet, Authoritarianism, Authority, Autocracy, Bashar al-Assad, Beat Generation, Bohemianism, Brazil, Brazilian military government, Burma Socialist Programme Party, Cambridge University Press, Carl Joachim Friedrich, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carnegie Middle East Center, Catholic Church, Centralisation, Centralized government, Charisma, Chun Doo-hwan, Civil liberties, Civil society, Civil war, Clientelism, Collectivism, Communist Party of China, Communist Party of Vietnam, Conformity, Corporatism, Council on Foreign Relations, ..., Counterculture, Criticism of democracy, Cult of personality, Democide, Democracy, Democratization, Denis Sassou Nguesso, Deregulation, Dichotomy, Eastern Bloc, Emomali Rahmon, Estado Novo (Portugal), Ethiopia, Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, Falange Española de las JONS, Famine, Fidel Castro, Francis Fukuyama, Francisco Franco, Francoist Spain, Free trade, Freedom House, Freedom in the World, Freedom of the press, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gender inequality, German-occupied Europe, Getúlio Vargas, Government, Gross domestic product, Guided democracy, Hafez al-Assad, Haile Selassie, Hippie, Hosni Mubarak, House of Al Thani, House of Khalifa, House of Saud, Hugo Chávez, Hun Sen, Ideology, Idriss Déby, Ilham Aliyev, Illiberal democracy, Individual and group rights, Individualism, Insurgency, Interdependence, Isaias Afwerki, Jorge Rafael Videla, Joseph Kabila, Journal of Democracy, Juan José Linz, Juan Perón, Judicial independence, Kenneth Lieberthal, Khmer Rouge, Kim dynasty (North Korea), Kleptocracy, Kuomintang, Lao People's Revolutionary Party, Latin America, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, Lee Kuan Yew, Legislature, Legitimacy (political), Liberal democracy, Libya, Libyan Civil War (2011), Marcelo Caetano, Mark J. Gasiorowski, Mass mobilization, Michael McFaul, Militarized interstate dispute, Military, Military dictatorship, Mobutu Sese Seko, Monarchism, Morton Halperin, MPLA, Muammar Gaddafi, Myanmar, National Party (South Africa), National Reorganization Process, Nicolás Maduro, Nikola Gruevski, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Omar al-Bashir, Omar Bongo, One-party state, OpenDemocracy, Opposition (politics), Organizational studies, Park Chung-hee, Party of National Unity (Czechoslovakia), Paul Biya, Paul Kagame, Peronism, Peter Hessler, Pierre Nkurunziza, Pluralism (political philosophy), Political corruption, Political freedom, Political party, Political repression, Political science, Political system, Populism, Power (social and political), Prayut Chan-o-cha, Private sphere, Procedural democracy, Psychology, Punk subculture, Qaboos bin Said al Said, Raúl Castro, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Republican People's Party (Turkey), Reuters, Robert Mugabe, Roula Khalaf, Royal families of the United Arab Emirates, Ruhollah Khomeini, Rule of law, Ruling party, Russia, Russia under Vladimir Putin, Salva Kiir Mayardit, Secret police, Seymour Martin Lipset, Shahram Akbarzadeh, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, Social control, Socialization, South Africa, South Korea, Soviet Union, Spain, Spanish transition to democracy, Stanford University Press, Substantive democracy, Suharto, Superpower, Syngman Rhee, Technocracy, Teleology, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, Terrorism, The China Quarterly, The New York Times, Third World Quarterly, Totalitarianism, Tyrant, Underdevelopment, University of Colorado Colorado Springs, University of Pennsylvania Press, Vargas Era, Venezuela, Viktor Orbán, Vladimir Putin, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Workers' Party of Korea, World Bank, World War II, Yingluck Shinawatra, 1940 Soviet ultimatum to Lithuania, 1962 Burmese coup d'état, 1964 Brazilian coup d'état, 1997 Asian financial crisis, 2011–15 Myanmar political reforms. Expand index (170 more) »

Abdel Fattah el-Sisi

Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi (عبد الفتاح سعيد حسين خليل السيسي,; born 19 November 1954) is an Egyptian politician who is the current sixth President of Egypt, in office since 2014.

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Abdelaziz Bouteflika

Abdelaziz Bouteflika, GColIH (عبد العزيز بوتفليقة ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Būtaflīqa; born 2 March 1937) is an Algerian politician who has been the fifth President of Algeria since 1999.

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In ethics and governance, accountability is answerability, blameworthiness, liability, and the expectation of account-giving.

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Adam Przeworski

Adam Przeworski (born May 5, 1940) is a Polish-American professor of Political Science.

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In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.

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Advocacy group

Advocacy groups (also known as pressure groups, lobby groups, campaign groups, interest groups, or special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy.

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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.

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Alexander Lukashenko

Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko (translit,; ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɡrʲɪˈɡorʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ɫʊkɐˈʂɛnkə; born 30 August 1954) is a Belarusian politician serving as President of Belarus since the office was created on 20 July 1994.

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Ali Bongo Ondimba

Ali Bongo Ondimba (born Alain Bernard Bongo; 9 February 1959)"Bongo Ali", Gabon: Les hommes de pouvoir, number 4,, 5 March 2002.

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Ali Khamenei

Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.

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An allegiance is a duty of fidelity said to be owed, or freely committed, by the people, subjects or citizens to their state or sovereign.

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Amartya Sen

Amartya Kumar Sen, CH, FBA (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in India, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Andrew J. Nathan

Andrew J. Nathan (born 3 April 1943) is a professor of political science at Columbia University.

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Antanas Smetona

Antanas Smetona (10 August 1874 – 9 January 1944) was one of the most important Lithuanian political figures between World War I and World War II.

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António de Oliveira Salazar

António de Oliveira Salazar (28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese statesman who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968.

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Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals.

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Anwar Sadat

Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.

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Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Argentine Revolution

Argentine Revolution (Revolución Argentina) was the name given by its leaders to a military coup d'état which overthrew the government of Argentina in June 1966 and began a period of military dictatorship by a junta from then until 1973.

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Augusto Pinochet

Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean general, politician and the dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.

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Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.

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Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).

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An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).

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Bashar al-Assad

Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.

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Beat Generation

The Beat Generation was a literary movement started by a group of authors whose work explored and influenced American culture and politics in the post-World War II era.

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Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Brazilian military government

The Brazilian military government was the authoritarian military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from April 1, 1964 to March 15, 1985.

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Burma Socialist Programme Party

The Burma Socialist Programme Party (မြန်မာ့ဆိုရှယ်လစ်လမ်းစဉ်ပါတီ;; also Burmese acronyms) was formed by the Ne Win's military regime that seized power in 1962 and was the sole political party allowed to exist legally in Burma during the period of military rule from 1964 until its demise in the aftermath of the popular uprising of 1988.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carl Joachim Friedrich

Carl Joachim Friedrich (born June 5, 1901, Leipzig, German Empire – September 19, 1984, Lexington, Massachusetts) was a German-American professor and political theorist.

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Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a foreign-policy think tank with centers in Washington D.C., Moscow, Beirut, Beijing, Brussels, and New Delhi.

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Carnegie Middle East Center

The Carnegie Middle East Center (CMEC) is a think tank and research center dealing with public policy in the Middle East.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Centralisation (British), or centralization (both British and American), is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location or group, keeping all of the important decision-making powers within the head office or the centre of the organisation.

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Centralized government

A centralized government (also centralised government (Oxford spelling)) is one in which power or legal authority is exerted or coordinated by a de facto political executive to which '''federal states''', local authorities, and smaller units are considered subject.

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The term charisma (pl. charismata, adj. charismatic) has two senses.

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Chun Doo-hwan

Chun Doo-hwan (or; born 18 January 1931) is a South Korean politician and former South Korean army general who served as the President of South Korea from 1979 to 1988, ruling as an unelected coup leader from December 1979 to September 1980 and as elected president from 1980 to 1988.

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Civil liberties

Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.

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Civil society

Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".

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Civil war

A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.

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Clientelism is the exchange of goods and services for political support, often involving an implicit or explicit quid-pro-quo.

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Collectivism is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self.

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Communist Party of China

The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.

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Communist Party of Vietnam

The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is the founding and ruling communist party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

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Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms.

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Corporatism is the organization of a society by corporate groups and agricultural, labour, military or scientific syndicates and guilds on the basis of their common interests.

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Council on Foreign Relations

The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.

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A counterculture (also written counter-culture) is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores.

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Criticism of democracy

Criticism of democracy is grounded in democracy's contested definition—its purpose, process, and outcomes.

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Cult of personality

A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.

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Democide is a term proposed by R. J. Rummel, who defined it as "the intentional killing of an unarmed or disarmed person by government agents acting in their authoritative capacity and pursuant to government policy or high command".

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Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Democratization (or democratisation) is the transition to a more democratic political regime.

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Denis Sassou Nguesso

Denis Sassou Nguesso (born 23 November 1943) is a Congolese politician who has been the President of the Republic of the Congo since 1997; he was previously President from 1979 to 1992.

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Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.

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A dichotomy is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets).

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Eastern Bloc

The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Emomali Rahmon

Emomali Rahmon (Emomalî Rahmon/Emomalī Rahmon); (born 5 October 1952) is a Tajikistani politician who has served as President of Tajikistan (or its equivalent post) since 1992.

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Estado Novo (Portugal)

The Estado Novo ("New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, which was considered fascist.

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Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front

The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (የኢትዮጵያ ሕዝቦች አብዮታዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ግንባር; abbreviated EPRDF but commonly known as Ehadig) is the ruling political coalition in Ethiopia.

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Falange Española de las JONS

Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (Spanish for "Spanish Phalanx of the Councils of the National-Syndicalist Offensive"; FE de las JONS for short), or simply called the Falange, was a fascist and national syndicalist political party founded in 1934 in the Spain Republic as merger of the Falange Española (founded in October 1933) and the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (founded in October 1931).

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A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.

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Fidel Castro

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.

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Francis Fukuyama

Yoshihiro Francis "Frank" Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952) is an American political scientist, political economist, and author.

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Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.

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Francoist Spain

Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.

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Free trade

Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.

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Freedom in the World

Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.

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Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.

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Gamal Abdel Nasser

Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.

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Gender inequality

Gender inequality is the idea and situation that women and men are not equal.

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German-occupied Europe

German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.

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Getúlio Vargas

Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (19 April 1882 – 24 August 1954) was a Brazilian lawyer and politician, who served as President during two periods: the first was from 1930–1945, when he served as interim president from 1930–1934, constitutional president from 1934–1937, and dictator from 1937–1945.

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A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Guided democracy

Guided democracy, also called managed democracy, is a formally democratic government that functions as a de facto autocracy.

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Hafez al-Assad

Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.

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Haile Selassie

Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.

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A hippie (sometimes spelled hippy) is a member of a counterculture, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world.

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Hosni Mubarak

Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (محمد حسني السيد مبارك,,; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.

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House of Al Thani

The House of Thani (translit) is the ruling family of Qatar, whose origins can be traced back to Al-Maadeed of the Banu Tamim tribal confederation.

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House of Khalifa

The House of Khalifa (آل خليفة Āl Khalīfah) is the ruling family of Bahrain.

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House of Saud

The House of Saud (Āl Suʻūd) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia.

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Hugo Chávez

Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.

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Hun Sen

Hun Sen (ហ៊ុន សែន; born 5 August 1952) is a Cambodian politician and the Prime Minister of Cambodia, President of the Cambodian People's Party (CPP) and Member of Parliament (MP) for Kandal.

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An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.

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Idriss Déby

General Idriss Déby Itno (إدريس ديبي; born June 18, 1952) is a Chadian politician who has been the President of Chad since 1990.

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Ilham Aliyev

Ilham Aliyev (İlham Heydər oğlu Əliyev; born 24 December 1961) is the fourth and current President of Azerbaijan, in office since 2003.

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Illiberal democracy

An illiberal democracy, also called a partial democracy, low intensity democracy, empty democracy, or hybrid regime, is a governing system in which, although elections take place, citizens are cut off from knowledge about the activities of those who exercise real power because of the lack of civil liberties.

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Individual and group rights

Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.

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Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.

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An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).

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Interdependence is the mutual reliance between two or more groups.

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Isaias Afwerki

Isaias Afwerki (ኢሳይያስ ኣፍወርቂ; born 2 February 1946) is the President of Eritrea, a position he has held since its independence in 1993.

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Jorge Rafael Videla

Jorge Rafael Videla (2 August 1925 – 17 May 2013) was a senior commander in the Argentine Army and dictator of Argentina from 1976 to 1981.

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Joseph Kabila

Joseph Kabila Kabange (born 4 June 1971) is a Congolese politician who has been President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo since January 2001.

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Journal of Democracy

The Journal of Democracy is a quarterly academic journal established in 1990 and an official publication of the National Endowment for Democracy's International Forum for Democratic Studies.

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Juan José Linz

Juan José Linz (24 December 1926 – 1 October 2013) was a Spanish sociologist and political scientist.

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Juan Perón

Juan Domingo Perón (8 October 1895 – 1 July 1974) was an Argentine army lieutenant general and politician.

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Judicial independence

Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government.

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Kenneth Lieberthal

Kenneth Guy Lieberthal (born September 9, 1943) is an expert on China's elite politics, political economy, domestic and foreign policy decision making, and on the evolution of US-China relations.

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Khmer Rouge

The Khmer Rouge ("Red Khmers"; ខ្មែរក្រហម Khmer Kror-Horm) was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.

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Kim dynasty (North Korea)

The Kim dynasty, referred to in North Korea as the Mount Paektu Bloodline, is a three-generation lineage of North Korean leadership descended from the country's first leader, Kim Il-sung, in 1948.

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Kleptocracy (from Greek κλέπτης kléptēs, "thief", κλέπτω kléptō, "I steal", and -κρατία -kratía from κράτος krátos, "power, rule") is a government with corrupt leaders (kleptocrats) that use their power to exploit the people and natural resources of their own territory in order to extend their personal wealth and political powers.

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The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.

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Lao People's Revolutionary Party

The Lao People's Revolutionary Party (Laotian: ພັກປະຊາຊົນປະຕິວັດລາວ), formerly the Lao People's Party, is a Marxist-Leninist political party in Laos and has emerged from the Communist Party of Vietnam founded by Hồ Chí Minh in 1930.

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Latin America

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.

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Laurent-Désiré Kabila

Laurent-Désiré Kabila (November 27, 1939 – January 16, 2001), or simply Laurent Kabila (US), was a Congolese revolutionary and politician who served as the third President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from May 17, 1997, when he overthrew Mobutu Sese Seko, until his assassination by one of his bodyguards on January 16, 2001.

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Lee Kuan Yew

Lee Kuan Yew GCMG CH SPMJ (16 September 1923 – 23 March 2015), commonly referred to by his initials LKY, was the first Prime Minister of Singapore, governing for three decades.

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A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

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Legitimacy (political)

In political science, legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.

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Liberal democracy

Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.

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Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Libyan Civil War (2011)

The first Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.

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Marcelo Caetano

Marcello José das Neves Alves Caetano (GCTE, GCC; 17 August 1906 – 26 October 1980) was a Portuguese politician and scholar, who was the last prime minister of the Estado Novo regime, from 1968 until his overthrow in the Carnation Revolution of 1974.

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Mark J. Gasiorowski

Mark J. Gasiorowski (born October 9, 1954) is a political scientist at Tulane University in New Orleans in the field of Middle East politics, Third World politics, and U.S. foreign policy.

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Mass mobilization

Mass mobilization (also known as social mobilization or popular mobilization) refers to mobilization of civilian population as part of contentious politics.

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Michael McFaul

Michael Anthony McFaul (born October 1, 1963) is an American academic who served as the United States Ambassador to Russia from 2012 to 2014.

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Militarized interstate dispute

Militarized interstate disputes (MIDs) are conflicts between states that do not involve a full-scale war.

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A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Military dictatorship

A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.

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Mobutu Sese Seko

Marshal Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga (born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu; 14 October 1930 – 7 September 1997) was the military dictator and President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (which Mobutu renamed Zaire in 1971) from 1965 to 1997.

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Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule.

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Morton Halperin

Morton H. Halperin (born June 13, 1938 in Brooklyn, N.Y.) is a public servant and longtime expert on U.S. foreign policy, arms control, civil liberties, and how government bureaucracies operate.

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The People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola, for some years called the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola – Partido do Trabalho), is a political party that has ruled Angola since the country's independence from Portugal in 1975.

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Muammar Gaddafi

Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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National Party (South Africa)

The National Party (Nasionale Party), also known as the Nationalist Party, was a political party in South Africa founded in 1914 and disbanded in 1997.

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National Reorganization Process

The National Reorganization Process (Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, often simply el Proceso, "the Process") was the name used by its leaders for the military dictatorship that ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983.

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Nicolás Maduro

Nicolás Maduro Moros (born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has served as the 63rd President of Venezuela since 2013 and previously served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.

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Nikola Gruevski

Nikola Gruevski (Никола Груевски; born 31 August 1970) is a Macedonian politician.

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Nursultan Nazarbayev

Nursultan Ábishuly Nazarbayev (born 6 July 1940) is a Kazakh statesman serving as President of Kazakhstan since the office was created on April 24, 1990.

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Omar al-Bashir

Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir (عمر حسن أحمد البشير; pronunciation:; born 1944) is a Sudanese politician who is currently the seventh president of Sudan and head of the National Congress Party.

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Omar Bongo

El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba (born Albert-Bernard Bongo; 30 December 1935 – 8 June 2009) was a Gabonese politician who was President of Gabon for 42 years from 1967 until his death in 2009 Omar Bongo was promoted to key positions as a young official under Gabon's first President Léon M'ba in the 1960s, before being elected Vice-President in his own right in 1966.

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One-party state

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.

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openDemocracy is a United Kingdom-based political website.

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Opposition (politics)

The political party that has the majority is called ruling party and all other parties or their members are called the Opposition.

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Organizational studies

Organizational studies is "the examination of how individuals construct organizational structures, processes, and practices and how these, in turn, shape social relations and create institutions that ultimately influence people", organizational studies comprise different areas that deal with the different aspects of the organizations, many of the approaches are functionalist but critical research also provide alternative frame for understanding in the field.

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Park Chung-hee

Park Chung-hee (or; 14 November 1917 – 26 October 1979) was a South Korean politician, general, who served as the President of South Korea from 1963 until his assassination in 1979, assuming that office after first ruling the country as head of a military junta installed by the May 16 coup in 1961.

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Party of National Unity (Czechoslovakia)

The Party of National Unity (Strana národní jednoty or Strana národního sjednocení) was a party created on 21 November 1938 in the Czech part of Czechoslovakia after the occupation of large parts of the country by Germany (Munich Agreement) and Hungary (First Vienna Award) as a kind of last attempt to unify forces to save Czechoslovakia from disappearing.

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Paul Biya

Paul Biya (born Paul Barthélemy Biya'a bi Mvondo, 13 February 1933) is a Cameroonian politician who has been the President of Cameroon since 6 November 1982.

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Paul Kagame

Paul Kagame (born 23 October 1957) is a Rwandan politician and former military leader.

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Peronism (peronismo) or Justicialism (justicialismo) is an Argentine political movement based on the political ideology and legacy of former President Juan Domingo Perón and his second wife Eva Perón.

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Peter Hessler

Peter Hessler (born) is an American writer and journalist.

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Pierre Nkurunziza

Pierre Nkurunziza (born 18 December 1963) is a Burundian politician who has been President of Burundi since 2005.

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Pluralism (political philosophy)

Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles.

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Political corruption

Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.

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Political freedom

Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.

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Political party

A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.

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Political repression

Political repression is the persecution of an individual or group within society for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of a society thereby reducing their standing among their fellow citizens.

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Political science

Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.

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Political system

A political system is a system of politics and government.

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In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".

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Power (social and political)

In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.

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Prayut Chan-o-cha

Prayut Chan-o-cha (previously spelt "Prayuth Chan-ocha"); (ประยุทธ์ จันทร์โอชา,,; born 21 March 1954) is a Thai politician, retired Royal Thai Army officer and the head of the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), a military junta, and concurrently serves as the Prime Minister of Thailand.

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Private sphere

The private sphere is the complement or opposite to the public sphere.

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Procedural democracy

Procedural democracy is a democracy in which the people or citizens of the state have less influence than in traditional liberal democracies.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Punk subculture

Punk subculture includes a diverse array of ideologies, fashion, and other forms of expression, visual art, dance, literature and film.

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Qaboos bin Said al Said

Sayyid Qaboos bin Said Al Said (قابوس بن سعيد آل سعيد,; born 18 November 1940) is the Sultan of Oman.

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Raúl Castro

Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (born 3 June 1931) is a Cuban politician and leader who is currently serving as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the Communist state, succeeding his brother Fidel Castro in April 2011.

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Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.

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Republican People's Party (Turkey)

The Republican People's Party (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi, CHP) is a Kemalist and social-democratic political party in Turkey.

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Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Robert Mugabe

Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a former Zimbabwean politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.

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Roula Khalaf

Roula Khalaf is Deputy Editor of the Financial Times, and used to be Assistant Editor and Foreign Editor.

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Royal families of the United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates consists of seven Emirates, and has six royal houses.

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Ruhollah Khomeini

Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".

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Ruling party

The ruling party or governing party in a democratic parliamentary system is the incumbent political party or coalition of the majority in parliament, that administers the affairs of state.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russia under Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Putin has served three terms and is currently in a fourth as President of Russia (2000–2004, 2004–2008, 2012–2018 and May 2018 to present) and was Acting President from 1999 to 2000, succeeding Boris Yeltsin after Yeltsin's resignation.

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Salva Kiir Mayardit

Salva Kiir Mayardit (born 13 September 1951) is a Dinka South Sudanese politician who has been President of South Sudan since its independence in 2011.

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Secret police

The term secret police (or political police)Ilan Berman & J. Michael Waller, "Introduction: The Centrality of the Secret Police" in Dismantling Tyranny: Transitioning Beyond Totalitarian Regimes (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), p. xv.

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Seymour Martin Lipset

Seymour Martin Lipset (March 18, 1922 – December 31, 2006) was an American sociologist.

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Shahram Akbarzadeh


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Shavkat Mirziyoyev

Shavkat Miromonovich Mirziyoyev (Uzbek Cyrillic and Шавкат Миромонович Мирзиёев; born 24 July 1957) is an Uzbek politician who has been President of Uzbekistan since 2016.

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Social control

Social control is a concept within the disciplines of the social sciences.

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In sociology, socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spanish transition to democracy

The Spanish transition to democracy (Transición española a la democracia), known in Spain as the Transition (La Transición), or the Spanish transition (Transición española) is a period of modern Spanish history, that started on 20 November 1975, the date of death of Francisco Franco, who had established a military dictatorship after the victory of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War.

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Stanford University Press

The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.

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Substantive democracy

Substantive democracy is a form of democracy in which the outcome of elections is representative of the people.

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Muhammad Suharto (also written Soeharto;, or Muhammad Soeharto; 8 June 1921 – 27 January 2008) was an Indonesian military leader and politician who served as the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years from the ousting of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998.

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Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.

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Syngman Rhee

Syngman Rhee (April 18, 1875 – July 19, 1965) was a South Korean politician, the first and the last Head of State of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, and President of South Korea from 1948 to 1960.

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Technocracy is a proposed system of governance where decision-makers are selected on the basis of their expertise in their areas of responsibility, particularly scientific knowledge.

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Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.

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Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo

Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (born 5 June 1942) is an Equatoguinean politician who has been President of Equatorial Guinea since 1979.

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Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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The China Quarterly

The China Quarterly (CQ) is a British double-blind peer-reviewed (the highest international standard) academic journal which was established in 1960 and focuses on all aspects of contemporary China and Taiwan.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Third World Quarterly

Third World Quarterly is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Routledge, established in 1979.

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Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.

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A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.

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Underdevelopment, relating to international development, reflects a broad condition or phenomena defined and critiqued by theorists in fields such as economics, development studies, and postcolonial studies.

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University of Colorado Colorado Springs

The University of Colorado Colorado Springs (UCCS) is a campus of the University of Colorado system, the state university system of Colorado.

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University of Pennsylvania Press

The University of Pennsylvania Press (or Penn Press) is a university press affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Vargas Era

The Vargas Era (Portuguese: Era Vargas) is the period in the history of Brazil between 1930 and 1945, when the country was under the dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas.

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Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

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Viktor Orbán

Viktor Mihály Orbán (born 31 May 1963) is a Hungarian politician.

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Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.

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Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (or Wilson Center), located in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial that was established as part of the Smithsonian Institution by an act of Congress in 1968.

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Workers' Party of Korea

The Workers' Party of Korea (WPK) is the founding and ruling political party of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the largest party represented in the Supreme People's Assembly.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yingluck Shinawatra

Yingluck Shinawatra (ยิ่งลักษณ์ ชินวัตร,,; born 21 June 1967), nicknamed Pu (ปู,, meaning "crab"), is a Thai businesswoman and politician.

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1940 Soviet ultimatum to Lithuania

The Soviet Union issued an ultimatum to Lithuania before midnight of June 14, 1940.

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1962 Burmese coup d'état

The 1962 Burmese coup d'état on 2 March 1962 marked the beginning of totalitarian rule and the political dominance of the army in Burma (now Myanmar) which spanned the course of 26 years.

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1964 Brazilian coup d'état

The 1964 Brazilian coup d'état (Golpe de estado no Brasil em 1964 or, more colloquially, Golpe de 64) was a series of events in Brazil from March 31 to April 1 that led to the overthrow of President João Goulart by members of the Brazilian Armed Forces, supported by the United States government.

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1997 Asian financial crisis

The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.

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2011–15 Myanmar political reforms

The 2011–2015 Myanmar political reforms were a series of political, economic and administrative reforms in Myanmar undertaken by the military-backed government.

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Authorianism, Authoritarian, Authoritarian character, Authoritarian government, Authoritarian nationalism, Authoritarian nationalists, Authoritarian regime, Authoritarianism and totalitarianism, Authoritarinism, Authoritarism, Gender and authoritarianism, List of authoritarian states.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Authoritarianism

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