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Index Automation

Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance. [1]

198 relations: Actuator, AEG, Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, Air France Flight 447, Airplane, Algorithm, Amazon (company), Amazon Robotics, Anti-lock braking system, Artificial intelligence, Artificial neural network, Ateliers de Constructions Electriques de Charleroi, Automated guided vehicle, Automated storage and retrieval system, Automated teller machine, Automation technician, Automaton, Autosampler, Banū Mūsā, Bang–bang control, BBC, Bell Labs, Book of Ingenious Devices, Boulton and Watt, Cam timer, Carl Benedikt Frey, Centrifugal governor, Changeover, Chemical industry, Christiaan Huygens, Cognitive computing, Computer, Computer programming, Computer-aided design, Computer-aided manufacturing, Computer-aided technologies, Continuous production, Control engineering, Control loop, Control system, Control theory, Conveyor belt sushi, Cornelis Drebbel, Cruise control, Ctesibius, Cybernetics, DARPA, Data-driven control system, Deloitte, Derivative, ..., Differential equation, Digital control, Digital electronics, Diminishing returns, Discrete manufacturing, Distributed control system, Donald Hill, Electrician, Electricity, Electrification, Electronics, Electronics World, Elsevier, Engine, Estimation theory, Eurasia Group, Feed forward (control), Feedback, Fieldbus, Filtration (mathematics), Fire-control system, Flowchart, Frequency response, Fuel economy in automobiles, Futures studies, Gilles Saint-Paul, History of Iran, Home automation, Human capital, Human–computer interaction, Hydraulics, Industrial control system, Industrial Ethernet, Industrial processes, Industrial Revolution, Industry, Information technology, Instrumentation, Integral, Intelligent transportation system, Interlock (engineering), Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, Irmgard Flügge-Lotz, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Clerk Maxwell, James Nasmyth, Ladder logic, Laminated glass, Logic gate, Logical conjunction, Logical disjunction, Logistic function, Luddite, Machine (mechanical), Machine to machine, Machine tool, Machine vision, Mass communication, McDonald's, McKinsey Quarterly, Metalworking, Millstone, Mining, MIT Press, Mobile app, Mobile manipulator, Motion control, Mullard, Multi-agent system, Navigation, Navigation system, Negation, Noise (electronics), Non-volatile memory, Nonlinear control, Nonlinear system, NORBIT, Numerical control, Oil refinery, Oliver Evans, Online shopping, Online transaction processing, Open University, Optimal control, Otto Mayr, Oxford Martin School, Paradox, Pattern recognition, Personal computer, Pew Research Center, Philips, Philips Natuurkundig Laboratorium, PID controller, Pneumatics, Post-scarcity economy, Pressure regulator, Process control, Process variable, Production line, Productivity improving technologies, Programmable logic controller, Proportional control, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Reconfigurable manufacturing system, Relay, Relay logic, Richard Arkwright, Robot, Robotics, SCADA, Self-checkout, Sensor, Sentence processing, Setpoint (control system), Ship, Siemens, Signal processing, Silicon Valley, Solenoid valve, Solid-state electronics, Space Tracking and Surveillance System, Springer Science+Business Media, Stability theory, Steam crane, Steam engine, Stochastic calculus, Supermarket, Systems theory, Telefunken, Thermostat, Third World, Thomas Newcomen, Trade union, Transistor, Unified Modeling Language, United States Congress, United States Secretary of Transportation, University of Texas at Austin, Unstructured data, Use case, User interface, Variable structure control, Vehicular automation, Waiting staff, Water clock, Water frame, Watson (computer), World War II. Expand index (148 more) »


An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving and controlling a mechanism or system, for example by opening a valve.

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Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AG (AEG) (German: "General electricity company") was a German producer of electrical equipment founded as the Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft für angewandte Elektricität in 1883 in Berlin by Emil Rathenau.

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Ahmad Y. al-Hassan

Ahmad Yousef Al-Hassan (أحمد يوسف الحسن) (June 25, 1925 – April 28, 2012) was a Palestinian/Syrian/Canadian historian of Arabic and Islamic science and technology, educated in Jerusalem, Cairo, and London with a PhD in Mechanical engineering from University College London.

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Air France Flight 447

Air France Flight 447 (AF447/AFR447) was a scheduled passenger international flight from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to Paris, France, which crashed on 1 June 2009.

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An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine.

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In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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Amazon (company)

Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington that was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994.

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Amazon Robotics

Amazon Robotics formerly Kiva Systems is a Massachusetts-based company that manufactures mobile robotic fulfillment systems.

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Anti-lock braking system

An anti-lock braking system (ABS) is a safety anti-skid braking system used on aircraft and on land vehicles, such as cars, motorcycles, trucks and buses.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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Artificial neural network

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.

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Ateliers de Constructions Electriques de Charleroi

SA Ateliers de Constructions Electriques de Charleroi (abbrev. ACEC) was a manufacturer of electrical generation, transmission, transport, lighting and industrial equipment, with origins dating to the late 19th century as a successor to the Société Électricité et Hydraulique founded by Julien Dulait.

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Automated guided vehicle

An automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is a portable robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision, magnets, or lasers for navigation.

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Automated storage and retrieval system

An automated storage and retrieval system (ASRS or AS/RS) consists of a variety of computer-controlled systems for automatically placing and retrieving loads from defined storage locations.

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Automated teller machine

An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff.

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Automation technician

Automation technicians repair and maintain the computer-controlled systems and robotic devices used within industrial and commercial facilities to reduce human intervention and maximize efficiency.

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An automaton (plural: automata or automatons) is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions.

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An autosampler is commonly a device that is coupled to an analytical instrument providing samples periodically for analysis.

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Banū Mūsā

The Banū Mūsā brothers ("Sons of Moses"), namely Abū Jaʿfar, Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (before 803 – February 873), Abū al‐Qāsim, Aḥmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (d. 9th century) and Al-Ḥasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (d. 9th century), were three 9th-century scholars who lived and worked in Baghdad.

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Bang–bang control

In control theory, a bang–bang controller (2 step or on–off controller), also known as a hysteresis controller, is a feedback controller that switches abruptly between two states.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.

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Book of Ingenious Devices

The Book of Ingenious Devices (Arabic: كتاب الحيل Kitab al-Hiyal, literally: "The Book of Tricks") was a large illustrated work on mechanical devices, including automata, published in 850 by the three Iraqi brothers of Persian descent, known as the Banu Musa (Ahmad, Muhammad and Hasan bin Musa ibn Shakir) working at the House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikma) in Baghdad, Iraq, under the Abbasid Caliphate.

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Boulton and Watt

* Boulton & Watt was an early British engineering and manufacturing firm in the business of designing and making marine and stationary steam engines.

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Cam timer

A cam timer or drum sequencer is an electromechanical system for controlling a sequence of events automatically.

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Carl Benedikt Frey

Carl Benedikt Frey is a Swedish-German economist and economic historian.

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Centrifugal governor

A centrifugal governor is a specific type of governor with a feedback system that controls the speed of an engine by regulating the amount of fuel (or working fluid) admitted, so as to maintain a near-constant speed, irrespective of the load or fuel-supply conditions.

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In manufacturing, changeover is the process of converting a line or machine from running one product to another.

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Chemical industry

The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.

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Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.

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Cognitive computing

Cognitive computing (CC) describes technology platforms that, broadly speaking, are based on the scientific disciplines of artificial intelligence and signal processing.

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A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer programming

Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.

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Computer-aided design

Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.

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Computer-aided manufacturing

Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of software to control machine tools and related ones in the manufacturing of workpieces.

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Computer-aided technologies

Computer-aided technologies (CAx) is the use of computer technology to aid in the design, analysis, and manufacture of products.

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Continuous production

Continuous production is a flow production method used to manufacture, produce, or process materials without interruption.

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Control engineering

Control engineering or control systems engineering is an engineering discipline that applies automatic control theory to design systems with desired behaviors in control environments.

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Control loop

A control loop is the fundamental building block of industrial control systems.

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Control system

A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops.

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Control theory

Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.

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Conveyor belt sushi

, literally "rotation sushi", also called, is a form of sushi restaurant common in Japan.

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Cornelis Drebbel

Cornelis Jacobszoon Drebbel (1572 – 7 November 1633) was a Dutch engineer and inventor.

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Cruise control

Cruise control (sometimes known as speed control or autocruise, or tempomat in some countries) is a system that automatically controls the speed of a motor vehicle.

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Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius (Κτησίβιος; fl. 285–222 BC) was a Greek inventor and mathematician in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt.

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Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.

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The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.

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Data-driven control system

Data-driven control systems are a broad family of control systems, in which the identification of the process model and/or the design of the controller are based entirely on experimental data collected from the plant.

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Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, commonly referred to as Deloitte, is a UK-incorporated multinational professional services network.

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The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

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Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

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Digital control

Digital control is a branch of control theory that uses digital computers to act as system controllers.

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Digital electronics

Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.

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Diminishing returns

In economics, diminishing returns is the decrease in the marginal (incremental) output of a production process as the amount of a single factor of production is incrementally increased, while the amounts of all other factors of production stay constant.

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Discrete manufacturing

Discrete manufacturing is the production of distinct items.

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Distributed control system

A distributed control system (DCS) is a computerised control system for a process or plant usually with a large number of control loops, in which autonomous controllers are distributed throughout the system, but there is central operator supervisory control.

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Donald Hill

Donald Routledge Hill (August 6, 1922 – May 30, 1994)D.

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An electrician is a tradesman specializing in electrical wiring of buildings, stationary machines, and related equipment.

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Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Electrification is the process of powering by electricity and, in many contexts, the introduction of such power by changing over from an earlier power source.

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Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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Electronics World

Electronics World (Wireless World, founded in 1913, and in September 1984 renamed Electronics & Wireless World) is a technical magazine in electronics and RF engineering aimed at professional design engineers.

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Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.

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Estimation theory

Estimation theory is a branch of statistics that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured empirical data that has a random component.

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Eurasia Group

Eurasia Group is a political risk consultancy founded in 1998 by Ian Bremmer, with offices in New York City, Washington, D.C., London, Tokyo, São Paulo, San Francisco, and Singapore.

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Feed forward (control)

Feed-forward, sometimes written feedforward, is a term describing an element or pathway within a control system that passes a controlling signal from a source in its external environment, often a command signal from an external operator, to a load elsewhere in its external environment.

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Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.

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Fieldbus is the name of a family of industrial computer network protocols used for real-time distributed control, standardized as IEC 61158.

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Filtration (mathematics)

In mathematics, a filtration \mathcal is an indexed set S_i of subobjects of a given algebraic structure S, with the index i running over some index set I that is a totally ordered set, subject to the condition that If the index i is the time parameter of some stochastic process, then the filtration can be interpreted as representing all historical but not future information available about the stochastic process, with the algebraic object S_i gaining in complexity with time.

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Fire-control system

A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target.

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A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm, workflow or process.

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Frequency response

Frequency response is the quantitative measure of the output spectrum of a system or device in response to a stimulus, and is used to characterize the dynamics of the system.

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Fuel economy in automobiles

The fuel economy of an automobile is the relationship between the distance traveled and the amount of fuel consumed by the vehicle.

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Futures studies

Futures studies (also called futurology) is the study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them.

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Gilles Saint-Paul

Gilles Saint-Paul (born 8 February 1963) is a French economist at the Toulouse 1 University Social Sciences.

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History of Iran

The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.

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Home automation

Home automation or domotics is building automation for a home, called a smart home or smart house.

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Human capital

Human capital is a term popularized by Gary Becker, an economist and Nobel Laureate from the University of Chicago, and Jacob Mincer.

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Human–computer interaction

Human–computer interaction (HCI) researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users) and computers.

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Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.

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Industrial control system

Industrial control system (ICS) is a general term that encompasses several types of control systems and associated instrumentation used for industrial process control.

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Industrial Ethernet

Industrial Ethernet (IE) is the use of Ethernet in an industrial environment with protocols that provide determinism and real-time control.

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Industrial processes

Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical, physical, electrical or mechanical steps to aid in the manufacturing of an item or items, usually carried out on a very large scale.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.

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Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

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Instrumentation is a collective term for measuring instruments used for indicating, measuring and recording physical quantities, and has its origins in the art and science of scientific instrument-making.

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In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.

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Intelligent transportation system

An intelligent transportation system (ITS) is an advanced application which, without embodying intelligence as such, aims to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and 'smarter' use of transport networks.

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Interlock (engineering)

An interlock is a feature that makes the state of two mechanisms or functions mutually dependent.

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Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act

The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (Public Law 102-240; ISTEA, pronounced Ice-Tea) is a United States federal law that posed a major change to transportation planning and policy, as the first U.S. federal legislation on the subject in the post-Interstate Highway System era.

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Irmgard Flügge-Lotz

Irmgard Flügge-Lotz, née Lotz (16 July 1903 – 22 May 1974) was a German-American mathematician, aerospace engineer, and control theorist.

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Jacques de Vaucanson

Jacques de Vaucanson (February 24, 1709 – November 21, 1782) was a French inventor and artist who was responsible for the creation of impressive and innovative automata.

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James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

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James Nasmyth

James Hall Nasmyth (sometimes spelled Naesmyth, Nasmith, or Nesmyth) (19 August 1808 – 7 May 1890) was a Scottish engineer, philosopher, artist and inventor famous for his development of the steam hammer.

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Ladder logic

Ladder logic was originally a written method to document the design and construction of relay racks as used in manufacturing and process control.

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Laminated glass

Laminated glass is a type of safety glass that holds together when shattered.

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Logic gate

In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output.

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Logical conjunction

In logic, mathematics and linguistics, And (∧) is the truth-functional operator of logical conjunction; the and of a set of operands is true if and only if all of its operands are true.

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Logical disjunction

In logic and mathematics, or is the truth-functional operator of (inclusive) disjunction, also known as alternation; the or of a set of operands is true if and only if one or more of its operands is true.

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Logistic function

A logistic function or logistic curve is a common "S" shape (sigmoid curve), with equation: where.

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The Luddites were a radical group of English textile workers and weavers in the 19th century who destroyed weaving machinery as a form of protest.

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Machine (mechanical)

Machines employ power to achieve desired forces and movement (motion).

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Machine to machine

Machine to machine refers to direct communication between devices using any communications channel, including wired and wireless.

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Machine tool

A machine tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing, or other forms of deformation.

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Machine vision

Machine vision (MV) is the technology and methods used to provide imaging-based automatic inspection and analysis for such applications as automatic inspection, process control, and robot guidance, usually in industry.

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Mass communication

Mass communication is the study of how people exchange information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time.

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McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States.

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McKinsey Quarterly

The McKinsey Quarterly is a business magazine for senior executives focused on management and organizational theory.

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Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.

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Millstones or mill stones are stones used in gristmills, for grinding wheat or other grains.

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Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Mobile app

A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch.

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Mobile manipulator

Mobile manipulator is nowadays a widespread term to refer to robot systems built from a robotic manipulator arm mounted on a mobile platform.

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Motion control

Motion control is a sub-field of automation, encompassing the systems or sub-systems involved in moving parts of machines in a controlled manner.

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Mullard Limited was a British manufacturer of electronic components.

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Multi-agent system

A multi-agent system (MAS or "self-organized system") is a computerized system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agents.

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Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.

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Navigation system

A navigation system is a (usually electronic) system that aids in navigation.

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In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P (¬P), which is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true.

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Noise (electronics)

In electronics, noise is an unwanted disturbance in an electrical signal.

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Non-volatile memory

Non-volatile memory (NVM) or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory that can retrieve stored information even after having been power cycled.

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Nonlinear control

Nonlinear control theory is the area of control theory which deals with systems that are nonlinear, time-variant, or both.

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Nonlinear system

In mathematics and science, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input.

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In electronics, the NORBIT family of modules is a very early form (since 1960) of digital logic developed by Philips (and also provided through and Mullard) that uses modules containing discrete components to build logic function blocks in resistor–transistor logic (RTL) or diode–transistor logic (DTL) technology.

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Numerical control

Computer numerical control (CNC) is the automation of machine tools by means of computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands.

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Oil refinery

Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.

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Oliver Evans

Oliver Evans (September 13, 1755 – April 15, 1819) was an American inventor, engineer and businessman born in rural Delaware and later rooted commercially in Philadelphia.

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Online shopping

Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser.

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Online transaction processing

Online transaction processing (OLTP) is where information systems facilitate and manage transaction-oriented applications, typically for data entry and retrieval transaction processing.

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Open University

The Open University (OU) is a public distance learning and research university, and one of the biggest universities in the UK for undergraduate education.

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Optimal control

Optimal control theory deals with the problem of finding a control law for a given system such that a certain optimality criterion is achieved.

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Otto Mayr

Otto Mayr (born November 2, 1930) is a German mechanical engineer, historian of technology, curator, museum director, and author.

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Oxford Martin School

The Oxford Martin School is a research and policy unit based in the Social Sciences Division of the University of Oxford.

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A paradox is a statement that, despite apparently sound reasoning from true premises, leads to an apparently self-contradictory or logically unacceptable conclusion.

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Pattern recognition

Pattern recognition is a branch of machine learning that focuses on the recognition of patterns and regularities in data, although it is in some cases considered to be nearly synonymous with machine learning.

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Personal computer

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

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Pew Research Center

The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.

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Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch multinational technology company headquartered in Amsterdam currently focused in the area of healthcare.

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Philips Natuurkundig Laboratorium

The Philips Natuurkundig Laboratorium (English translation: Philips Physics Laboratory) or NatLab was the Dutch section of the Philips research department, which did research for the product divisions of that company.

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PID controller

A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller or three term controller) is a control loop feedback mechanism widely used in industrial control systems and a variety of other applications requiring continuously modulated control.

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Pneumatics (From Greek: πνεύμα) is a branch of engineering that makes use of gas or pressurized air.

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Post-scarcity economy

Post-scarcity is an economic theory in which most goods can be produced in great abundance with minimal human labor needed, so that they become available to all very cheaply or even freely.

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Pressure regulator

A pressure regulator is a control valve that reduces the input pressure of a fluid to a desired value at its output.

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Process control

Automatic process control in continuous production processes is a combination of control engineering and chemical engineering disciplines that uses industrial control systems to achieve a production level of consistency, economy and safety which could not be achieved purely by human manual control.

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Process variable

A process variable, process value or process parameter is the current measured value of a particular part of a process which is being monitored or controlled.

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Production line

A production line is a set of sequential operations established in a factory where materials are put through a refining process to produce an end-product that is suitable for onward consumption; or components are assembled to make a finished article.

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Productivity improving technologies

This article is about the important technologies that have historically increased productivity and is intended to serve as the History section of Productivity from which it was moved.

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Programmable logic controller

A programmable logic controller (PLC), or programmable controller is an industrial digital computer which has been ruggedized and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability control and ease of programming and process fault diagnosis.

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Proportional control

Proportional control, in engineering and process control, is a type of linear feedback control system in which a correction is applied to the controlled variable which is proportional to the difference between the desired value (set point, SP) and the measured value (process value, PV).

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Ptolemaic Kingdom

The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.

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Reconfigurable manufacturing system

A reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) is one designed at the outset for rapid change in its structure, as well as its hardware and software components, in order to quickly adjust its production capacity and functionality within a part family in response to sudden market changes or intrinsic system change.

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A relay is an electrically operated switch.

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Relay logic

Relay logic is a method of implementing combinational logic in electrical control circuits by using several electrical relays wired in a particular configuration.

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Richard Arkwright

Sir Richard Arkwright (23 December 1732 – 3 August 1792) was an English inventor and a leading entrepreneur during the early Industrial Revolution.

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A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.

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Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.

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Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is a control system architecture that uses computers, networked data communications and graphical user interfaces for high-level process supervisory management, but uses other peripheral devices such as programmable logic controllers and discrete PID controllers to interface with the process plant or machinery.

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Self-checkout (also known as self-service checkout and as semi-attended customer-activated terminal, SACAT) machines provide a mechanism for customers to process their own purchases from a retailer.

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In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.

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Sentence processing

Sentence processing takes place whenever a reader or listener processes a language utterance, either in isolation or in the context of a conversation or a text.

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Setpoint (control system)

In cybernetics and control theory, a setpoint (also set point, set-point) is the desired or target value for an essential variable, or process value of a system.

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A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing.

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Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.

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Signal processing

Signal processing concerns the analysis, synthesis, and modification of signals, which are broadly defined as functions conveying "information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon", such as sound, images, and biological measurements.

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Silicon Valley

Silicon Valley (abbreviated as SV) is a region in the southern San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California, referring to the Santa Clara Valley, which serves as the global center for high technology, venture capital, innovation, and social media.

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Solenoid valve

A solenoid valve is an electromechanical device in which the solenoid uses an electric current to generate a magnetic field and thereby operate a mechanism which regulates the opening of fluid flow in a valve.

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Solid-state electronics

Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs).

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Space Tracking and Surveillance System

The United States Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is developing a Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS) which it will use to research the space-based detection and tracking of ballistic missiles.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Stability theory

In mathematics, stability theory addresses the stability of solutions of differential equations and of trajectories of dynamical systems under small perturbations of initial conditions.

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Steam crane

A steam crane is a crane powered by a steam engine.

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Steam engine

A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.

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Stochastic calculus

Stochastic calculus is a branch of mathematics that operates on stochastic processes.

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A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into aisles.

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Systems theory

Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems.

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Telefunken was a German radio and television apparatus company, founded in Berlin in 1903, as a joint venture of Siemens & Halske and the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG) (General electricity company).

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A thermostat is a component which senses the temperature of a physical system and performs actions so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint.

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Third World

The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.

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Thomas Newcomen

Thomas Newcomen (February 1664 – 5 August 1729) was an English inventor who created the first practical steam engine in 1712, the Newcomen atmospheric engine.

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Trade union

A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.

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A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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Unified Modeling Language

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling language in the field of software engineering, that is intended to provide a standard way to visualize the design of a system.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States Secretary of Transportation

The United States Secretary of Transportation is the head of the United States Department of Transportation, a member of the President's Cabinet, and fourteenth in the Presidential Line of Succession.

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University of Texas at Austin

The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.

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Unstructured data

Unstructured data (or unstructured information) is information that either does not have a pre-defined data model or is not organized in a pre-defined manner.

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Use case

In software and systems engineering, a use case is a list of actions or event steps typically defining the interactions between a role (known in the Unified Modeling Language as an actor) and a system to achieve a goal.

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User interface

The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.

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Variable structure control

Variable structure control (VSC) is a form of discontinuous nonlinear control.

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Vehicular automation

Vehicular automation involves the use of mechatronics, artificial intelligence, and multi-agent system to assist a vehicle's operator.

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Waiting staff

Waiting staff are those who work at a restaurant or a bar, and sometimes in private homes, attending customers—supplying them with food and drink as requested.

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Water clock

A water clock or clepsydra (Greek κλεψύδρα from κλέπτειν kleptein, 'to steal'; ὕδωρ hydor, 'water') is any timepiece in which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into (inflow type) or out from (outflow type) a vessel where the amount is then measured.

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Water frame

A water frame is a water-powered spinning frame designed for the production of cotton thread, first used in 1768.

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Watson (computer)

Watson is a question-answering computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language, developed in IBM's DeepQA project by a research team led by principal investigator David Ferrucci.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Advantages and disadvantages of automation, Automate, Automated, Automated Control Systems, Automated machine, Automated manufacturing, Automated method, Automated system, Automated systems, Automatic control, Automatic control system, Automatic control system of the regulator(y) type, Automatic machine, Automation Paradox, Automation of industrial processes, Cognitive automation, Emerging applications of automation, Environmental impact of automation, Factory automation, History of automation, Industrial Automation, Industrial automation.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automation

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