112 relations: AC Cars, Aerodynamics, Aircraft principal axes, Alfa Romeo 4C, Alloy wheel, Aluminium, Angular velocity, Anti-roll bar, Aquaplaning, Auto racing, Automobile safety, Automotive suspension design, Axle track, Beam axle, Body roll, Brake, Bump steer, Camber angle, Center of mass, Centripetal force, Chevrolet Corvair, Chevrolet Corvette (C7), Chevrolet Tahoe, Chrysler, Circle of forces, Citroën 2CV, Computational fluid dynamics, Consumer Reports, Contact patch, Control arm, Cornering force, Czechoslovakia, De Dion tube, Directional stability, Dodge Omni, Downforce, Driving, Dymaxion car, Electronic stability control, Euler angles, Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, Ford Explorer, Ford Model T, Fuel economy in automobiles, Grip (auto racing), Hysteresis, Inboard brake, Inertia, Jensen Motors, Jensen-Healey, ..., Left-foot braking, Lift-off oversteer, Lotus Elise, MacPherson strut, Mass, Mechanical engineering, Mercedes-Benz 300 SL, Mercedes-Benz A-Class, Mid-engine design, Moment of inertia, Momentum, Moose test, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Natural rubber, Nazism, Porsche 911, Power steering, Racing setup, Rack and pinion, Ralph Nader, Rear-engine design, Renault Dauphine, Ride quality, Road & Track, Roll center, Rolling resistance, Rollover, Seating capacity, Shock absorber, Single-vehicle crash, Slip angle, Sobriquet, Spain, Spoiler (car), Sport utility vehicle, Sports car, Spring (device), Steering, Steering ratio, Strike action, Suspension (vehicle), Suzuki Jimny, Swing axle, Tangent, Tatra 87, Tensor, Tesla Model S, Tire, Toe (automotive), Triumph TR3, Turning radius, Understeer and oversteer, Unsafe at Any Speed, Unsprung mass, Volkswagen Beetle, Volkswagen Golf, Weight transfer, Wheel, Wheelbase, Wind tunnel, WindShear, World War II. Expand index (62 more) » « Shrink index
AC Cars Ltd. formerly known as Auto Carriers Ltd., is a British specialist automobile manufacturer and one of the oldest independent car makers founded in Britain.
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
An aircraft in flight is free to rotate in three dimensions: yaw, nose left or right about an axis running up and down; pitch, nose up or down about an axis running from wing to wing; and roll, rotation about an axis running from nose to tail.
The Alfa Romeo 4C (Type 960) is a mid-engined, lightweight, rear-wheel drive sports car.
In the automotive industry, alloy wheels are wheels that are made from an alloy of aluminium or magnesium.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
In physics, the angular velocity of a particle is the rate at which it rotates around a chosen center point: that is, the time rate of change of its angular displacement relative to the origin.
An anti-roll bar (roll bar, anti-sway bar, sway bar, stabilizer bar) is a part of many automobile suspensions that helps reduce the body roll of a vehicle during fast cornering or over road irregularities.
Aquaplaning or hydroplaning by the tires of a road vehicle, aircraft or other wheeled vehicle occurs when a layer of water builds between the wheels of the vehicle and the road surface, leading to a loss of traction that prevents the vehicle from responding to control inputs.
Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.
Automobile safety is the study and practice of design, construction, equipment and regulation to minimize the occurrence and consequences of traffic collisions.
Automotive suspension design is an aspect of automotive engineering, concerned with designing the suspension for cars and trucks.
The axle track in automobiles and other wheeled vehicles which have two or more wheels on an axle, is the distance between the centerline of two roadwheels on the same axle.
A beam axle, rigid axle or solid axle is a dependent suspension design, in which a set of wheels is connected laterally by a single beam or shaft.
On wheeled or tracked vehicles, body roll is a reference to the load transfer of a vehicle towards the outside of a turn.
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system.
Bump steer or roll steer is the term for the tendency of the wheel of a car to steer itself as it moves through the suspension stroke.
From the front of the car, a right wheel with a negative camber angle Camber angle is the angle made by the wheels of a vehicle; specifically, it is the angle between the vertical axis of the wheels used for steering and the vertical axis of the vehicle when viewed from the front or rear.
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.
A centripetal force (from Latin centrum, "center" and petere, "to seek") is a force that makes a body follow a curved path.
The Chevrolet Corvair is a compact car manufactured by Chevrolet for model years 1960–1969.
The Chevrolet Corvette (C7) is a sports car produced by Chevrolet.
The Chevrolet Tahoe (and its rebadged version GMC Yukon) is a full-size SUV from General Motors.
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles US LLC (commonly known as Chrysler) is the American subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., an Italian-American automobile manufacturer registered in the Netherlands with headquarters in London, U.K., for tax purposes.
The circle of forces, traction circle, friction circle, or friction ellipse is a useful way to think about the dynamic interaction between a vehicle's tire and the road surface.
The Citroën 2CV ("deux chevaux" i.e. "deux chevaux-vapeur" (lit. "two steam horses", "two tax horsepower") is an air-cooled front-engine, front-wheel-drive economy car introduced at the 1948 Paris Mondial de l'Automobile and manufactured by Citroën for model years 1948–1990. Conceived by Citroën Vice-President Pierre Boulanger to help motorise the large number of farmers still using horses and carts in 1930s France, the 2CV has a combination of innovative engineering and utilitarian, straightforward metal bodywork — initially corrugated for added strength without added weight. The 2CV featured low cost; simplicity of overall maintenance; an easily serviced air-cooled engine (originally offering 9 hp); low fuel consumption; and an extremely long-travel suspension offering a soft ride and light off-road capability. Often called "an umbrella on wheels", the fixed-profile convertible bodywork featured a full-width, canvas, roll-back sunroof, which accommodated oversized loads and until 1955 reached almost to the car's rear bumper. Notably, Michelin introduced and first commercialized the radial tyre with the introduction of the 2CV. Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988 (and in Portugal from 1988 to 1990), more than 3.8 million 2CVs were produced, along with over 1.2 million small 2CV-based delivery vans known as fourgonnettes. Citroën ultimately offered several mechanically identical variants including the Ami (over 1.8 million); the Dyane (over 1.4 million); the Acadiane (over 250,000); and the Mehari (over 140,000). In total, Citroën manufactured almost 9 million 2CVs and variants. The purchase price of the 2CV was low relative to its competition. In West Germany during the 1960s, for example, it cost about half as much as a Volkswagen Beetle. From the mid-1950s economy car competition had increased – internationally in the form of the 1957 Fiat 500 and 1955 Fiat 600, and 1959 Austin Mini. By 1952, Germany produced a price competitive car – the Messerschmitt KR175, followed in 1955 by the Isetta – these were microcars, not complete four-door cars like the 2CV. On the French home market, from 1961, the small Simca 1000 using licensed Fiat technology, and the larger Renault 4 hatchback had become available. The R4 was the biggest threat to the 2CV, eventually outselling it. A 1953 technical review in Autocar described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, which is undoubtedly the most original since the Model T Ford". In 2011, The Globe and Mail called it a "car like no other". The motoring writer L. J. K. Setright described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car", and a car of "remorseless rationality".
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows.
Consumer Reports is an American magazine published since 1930 by Consumers Union, a nonprofit organization dedicated to unbiased product testing, consumer-oriented research, public education, and advocacy.
Contact patch is the portion of a vehicle's tire that is in actual contact with the road surface.
In automotive suspension, a control arm, also known as an A-arm, is a hinged suspension link between the chassis and the suspension upright or hub that carries the wheel.
Cornering force or side force is the lateral (i.e., parallel to the road surface) force produced by a vehicle tire during cornering.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
De Dion rear axle A de Dion tube is an automobile suspension technology.
Directional stability is stability of a moving body or vehicle about an axis which is perpendicular to its direction of motion.
The Dodge Omni and Plymouth Horizon were subcompact cars produced by Chrysler from December 1977 to 1990.
Downforce is a downwards thrust created by the aerodynamic characteristics of a car.
Driving is the controlled operation and movement of a motor vehicle, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, and buses.
The Dymaxion car was designed by American inventor Buckminster Fuller during the Great Depression and featured prominently at Chicago's 1933/1934 World's Fair.
Electronic stability control (ESC), also referred to as electronic stability program (ESP) or dynamic stability control (DSC), is a computerized technology that improves a vehicle's stability by detecting and reducing loss of traction (skidding).
The Euler angles are three angles introduced by Leonhard Euler to describe the orientation of a rigid body with respect to a fixed coordinate system.
The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company is an American tire company founded by Harvey Firestone in 1900 to supply pneumatic tires for wagons, buggies, and other forms of wheeled transportation common in the era.
The Ford Explorer is a range of SUVs manufactured by Ford Motor Company.
The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, Leaping Lena, or flivver) is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927.
The fuel economy of an automobile is the relationship between the distance traveled and the amount of fuel consumed by the vehicle.
Grip is a term describing the total cornering envelope of a race car by the friction component of the tire, the mass of the machine and the downforce generated.
Hysteresis is the dependence of the state of a system on its history.
An inboard braking system is an automobile technology wherein the disc brakes are mounted on the chassis of the vehicle, rather than directly on the wheel hubs.
Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its position and state of motion.
Jensen Motors Limited was a British manufacturer of sports cars and commercial vehicles in West Bromwich, England.
The Jensen-Healey (1972–76) is a British two-seater convertible sports car, the best-selling Jensen of all time.
Left-foot braking is the technique of using the left foot to operate the brake pedal in a two-pedal automobile, leaving the right foot dedicated to the throttle pedal.
Lift-off oversteer (also known as snap-oversteer, trailing-throttle oversteer, throttle off oversteer, or lift-throttle oversteer) is a form of oversteer in automobiles that occurs while cornering when closing the throttle causes a deceleration, causing the vertical load on the tires to shift from the rear to the front, in a process called weight transfer.
The Lotus Elise is a two-seat, rear-wheel drive, mid-engined roadster conceived in early 1994 and released in September 1996 by the British manufacturer Lotus Cars.
The MacPherson strut is a type of automotive suspension system that uses the top of a telescopic damper as the upper steering pivot.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.
The Mercedes-Benz 300 SL (W198) was the first iteration of the SL-Class grand tourer and fastest production car of its day.
The Mercedes-Benz A-Class is a subcompact executive car (subcompact in its first two generations) produced by the German automobile manufacturer Mercedes-Benz.
A mid-engine layout describes the placement of an automobile engine between the rear and front axles.
The moment of inertia, otherwise known as the angular mass or rotational inertia, of a rigid body is a tensor that determines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about a rotational axis; similar to how mass determines the force needed for a desired acceleration.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
The evasive maneuver test (Swedish: Undanmanöverprov; colloquial: moose test or elk test; Swedish: Älgtest, German: Elchtest) is performed to determine how well a certain vehicle evades a suddenly appearing obstacle.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA, pronounced "NITS-uh") is an agency of the Executive Branch of the U.S. government, part of the Department of Transportation.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The Porsche 911 (pronounced Nine Eleven or in Neunelfer) is a two-door, 2+2 high performance rear-engined classic German sports car made since 1963 by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany.
In automobiles, power steering (also power-assisted steering (PAS) or steering assist system) helps drivers steer by augmenting steering effort of the steering wheel.
In motorsport, the racing setup, car setup or vehicle setup is the set of adjustments made to the vehicle in order to optimize its behaviour (performance, handling, reliability, etc.) for specific conditions.
A rack and pinion is a type of linear actuator that comprises a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion.
Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American political activist, author, lecturer, and attorney, noted for his involvement in consumer protection, environmentalism and government reform causes.
In automobile design, a rear-engine design layout places the engine at the rear of the vehicle.
Renault Dauphine is a rear-engined economy car manufactured by Renault in a single body style – a three-box, 4-door saloon – as the successor to the Renault 4CV; more than two million were manufactured during its 1956-1967 production.
Ride quality refers to a vehicle's effectiveness in insulating the occupants from undulations in the road surface (eg bumps or corrugations).
Road & Track (R&T) is an American automotive enthusiast magazine.
The roll center of a vehicle is the notional point at which the cornering forces in the suspension are reacted to the vehicle body.
Rolling resistance, sometimes called rolling friction or rolling drag, is the force resisting the motion when a body (such as a ball, tire, or wheel) rolls on a surface.
A rollover is a type of vehicle crash in which a vehicle tips over onto its side or roof.
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law.
A shock absorber (in reality, a shock "damper") is a mechanical or hydraulic device designed to absorb and damp shock impulses.
A single-vehicle collision or single-vehicle accident is a type of road traffic collision in which only the one vehicle is involved.
In vehicle dynamics, slip angle or sideslip angle is the angle between a rolling wheel's actual direction of travel and the direction towards which it is pointing (i.e., the angle of the vector sum of wheel forward velocity v_x and lateral velocity v_y).
A sobriquet or soubriquet is a nickname, sometimes assumed, but often given by another.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A spoiler is an automotive aerodynamic device whose intended design function is to 'spoil' unfavorable air movement across a body of a vehicle in motion, usually described as turbulence or drag.
Sport-utility (vehicle), SUV or sport-ute is an automotive classification, typically a kind of station wagon / estate car with off-road vehicle features like raised ground clearance and ruggedness, and available four-wheel drive.
A sports car, or sportscar, is a small, usually two-seater, two-door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling.
A spring is an elastic object that stores mechanical energy.
Steering is the collection of components, linkages, etc.
Steering ratio refers to the ratio between the turn of the steering wheel (in degrees) or handlebars and the turn of the wheels (in degrees).
Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.
Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two.
The Suzuki Jimny is a line of small four-wheel drive off-road cars and mini SUVs made by the Japanese automaker Suzuki produced since April 1970.
A swing axle is a simple type of independent (rear wheel) suspension designed and patented by Edmund Rumpler in 1903.
In geometry, the tangent line (or simply tangent) to a plane curve at a given point is the straight line that "just touches" the curve at that point.
The Tatra 87 was a car built by Czechoslovak manufacturer Tatra.
In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.
The Tesla Model S is a full-sized / mid-size luxury all-electric five-door liftback Q-car (for P models), produced by Tesla, Inc., and introduced on June 22, 2012.
A tire (American English) or tyre (British English; see spelling differences) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.
In automotive engineering, toe, also known as tracking, is the symmetric angle that each wheel makes with the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, as a function of static geometry, and kinematic and compliant effects.
The Triumph TR3 is a British sports car produced between 1955 and 1962 by the Standard-Triumph Motor Company of Coventry, England.
The turning radius or turning circle of a vehicle is the radius (or, depending on usage, diameter) of the smallest circular turn (i.e. U-turn) that the vehicle is capable of making.
Understeer and oversteer are vehicle dynamics terms used to describe the sensitivity of a vehicle to steering.
Unsafe at Any Speed: The Designed-In Dangers of the American Automobile by Ralph Nader, published in 1965, is a book accusing car manufacturers of resistance to the introduction of safety features such as seat belts, and their general reluctance to spend money on improving safety.
In a ground vehicle with a suspension, the unsprung mass (or the unsprung weight) is the mass of the suspension, wheels or tracks (as applicable), and other components directly connected to them, rather than supported by the suspension (the mass of the body and other components supported by the suspension is the sprung mass).
The Volkswagen Beetle – officially the Volkswagen Type 1, informally in German the Käfer (literally "beetle"), in parts of the English-speaking world the Bug, and known by many other nicknames in other languages – is a two-door, rear-engine economy car, intended for five passengers, that was manufactured and marketed by German automaker Volkswagen (VW) from 1938 until 2003.
The Volkswagen Golf is a compact car produced by the German manufacturer Volkswagen since 1974, marketed worldwide across seven generations, in various body configurations and under various nameplates – such as the Volkswagen Rabbit in the United States and Canada (Mk1 and Mk5), and as the Volkswagen Caribe in Mexico (Mk1).
Weight transfer and load transfer are two expressions used somewhat confusingly to describe two distinct effects: the change in load borne by different wheels of even perfectly rigid vehicles during acceleration, and the change in center of mass (CoM) location relative to the wheels because of suspension compliance or cargo shifting or sloshing.
A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels.
A wind tunnel is a tool used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects.
The Windshear Full Scale Rolling Road Wind Tunnel is an automotive wind tunnel in Concord, North Carolina.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.