100 relations: Abscission, Active transport, Agent Orange, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Ancient Greek, Apical dominance, Arabidopsis, Auxin binding protein, Axillary bud, Bacteria, Bif2 barren inflorescence2, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Biotransformation, Birth defect, Callus, Cell (biology), Cell division, Cell growth, Cell membrane, Cell wall, Cellular differentiation, Cereal, Charles Darwin, Chemical synthesis, Coleoptile, Columella, Cutting (plant), Cytokinin, Defoliant, Dicamba, Dicotyledon, Disease, Elastin, Ethylene, F-box protein, Flower, Folke K. Skoog, Francis Darwin, Frits Warmolt Went, Fruit tree pruning, Fusicoccin, Gene, Gene expression, Gibberellin, Gravitropism, Herbicide, Hydrotropism, Hypocotyl, Indole-3-acetic acid, Indole-3-butyric acid, ..., Kenneth V. Thimann, Lability, Leaf, Leukemia, Liver, Long Ashton Research Station, Malayan Emergency, Meristem, Miscarriage, Monocotyledon, Morphogen, Neoplasm, Nervous system, Orchard, Parthenocarpy, Phenoxy herbicide, Phenylacetic acid, Phloem, Phototropism, Picloram, Plant hormone, Poaceae, Polar auxin transport, Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, Proteasome, Protoplast, Pruning, Root, SCF complex, Senescence, Sherwin-Williams, Shoot, Strigolactone, Taraxacum, Tissue (biology), Toshio Murashige, Transcription (biology), Tropism, Ubiquitin, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Vietnam War, Weed, Witch's broom, Xylem, 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 3-Indolepropionic acid, 4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid. Expand index (50 more) » « Shrink index
Abscission (from Latin ab, "away", and scindere, "to cut'") is the shedding of various parts of an organism, such as a plant dropping a leaf, fruit, flower, or seed.
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
Agent Orange is an herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the tactical use Rainbow Herbicides.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium radiobacter) is the causal agent of crown gall disease (the formation of tumours) in over 140 species of eudicots.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Apical dominance is the phenomenon whereby the main, central stem of the plant is dominant over (i.e., grows more strongly than) other side stems; on a branch the main stem of the branch is further dominant over its own side branchlets.
Arabidopsis (rockcress) is a genus in the family Brassicaceae.
In molecular biology, the auxin binding protein family is a family of proteins which bind auxin.
The axillary bud (or lateral bud) is an embryonic shoot located in the axil of a leaf.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
(maize gene reviews submitted to the as a way to enable community curation of MaizeGDB are being moved, 2013-14, with author permissions to the wikipedia, and will be grouped to the wiki page maize genes. The initial summary statements for each gene have been previously included in) Function. Regulation of auxin transport during axillary Meristem and lateral organ initiation.
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) is a UK Research Council and NDPB and is the largest UK public funder of non-medical bioscience.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
A callus is an area of thickened skin that forms as a response to repeated friction, pressure, or other irritation.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Coleoptile is the pointed protective sheath covering the emerging shoot in monocotyledons such as grasses.
Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella (4 – c. 70 AD) was a prominent writer on agriculture in the Roman empire.
A plant cutting is a piece of a plant that is used in horticulture for vegetative (asexual) propagation.
Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots.
A defoliant is any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause their leaves to fall off.
Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) is a broad-spectrum herbicide first registered in 1967.
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
F-box proteins are proteins containing at least one F-box domain.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
Folke Karl Skoog (July 15, 1908 – February 15, 2001) was a Swedish-born American plant physiologist who was a pioneer in the field of plant growth regulators, particularly cytokinins.
Sir Francis "Frank" Darwin,, FRSE LLD (16 August 1848 – 19 September 1925), was a son of the British naturalist and scientist Charles Darwin.
Frits Warmolt Went (May 18, 1903 – May 1, 1990) was a Dutch biologist whose 1928 experiment demonstrated the existence of auxin in plants.
Fruit tree pruning is the cutting and removing of selected parts of a fruit tree.
Fusicoccins are organic compounds produced by a fungus.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that regulate various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, flower development and leaf and fruit senescence.
Gravitropism (also known as geotropism) is a coordinated process of differential growth by a plant or fungus in response to gravity pulling on it.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
Hydrotropism (hydro- "water"; tropism "involuntary orientation by an organism, that involves turning or curving as a positive or negative response to a stimulus") is a plant's growth response in which the direction of growth is determined by a stimulus or gradient in water concentration.
The hypocotyl (short for "hypocotyledonous stem", meaning "below seed leaf") is the stem of a germinating seedling, found below the cotyledons (seed leaves) and above the radicle (root).
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, 3-IAA) is the most common, naturally occurring, plant hormone of the auxin class.
Indole-3-butyric acid (1H-Indole-3-butanoic acid, IBA) is a white to light-yellow crystalline solid, with the molecular formula C12H13NO2.
Kenneth Vivian Thimann (August 5, 1904 – January 15, 1997) was an English-American plant physiologist and microbiologist known for his studies of plant hormones, which were widely influential in agriculture and horticulture.
Lability refers to something that is constantly undergoing change or something that is likely to undergo change.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Long Ashton Research Station (LARS) was an agricultural and horticultural government research centre in the village of Long Ashton near Bristol, UK.
The Malayan Emergency (Darurat Malaya) was a guerrilla war fought in pre- and post-independence Federation of Malaya, from 1948 until 1960.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
A morphogen is a substance whose non-uniform distribution governs the pattern of tissue development in the process of morphogenesis or pattern formation, one of the core processes of developmental biology, establishing positions of the various specialized cell types within a tissue.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production.
In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpy (literally meaning "virgin fruit") is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules, which makes the fruit seedless.
Phenoxy herbicides (or "phenoxies") are a family of chemicals related to the growth hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA).
Phenylacetic acid (PAA) (conjugate base phenylacetate), also known by various synonyms, is an organic compound containing a phenyl functional group and a carboxylic acid functional group.
In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.
Phototropism is the growth of an organism which responds to a light stimulus.
Picloram is a systemic herbicide used for general woody plant control.
Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Polar auxin transport is the regulated transport of the plant hormone auxin in plants.
Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), or simply dioxins, are a group of polyhalogenated organic compounds that are significant environmental pollutants.
Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.
Protoplast, from ancient Greek πρωτόπλαστος (prōtóplastos, "first-formed"), is a biological term proposed by Hanstein in 1880 to refer to the entire cell, excluding the cell wall, but currently has several definitions.
Pruning is a horticultural and silvicultural practice involving the selective removal of certain parts of a plant, such as branches, buds, or roots.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
Skp, Cullin, F-box containing complex (or SCF complex) is a multi-protein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex catalyzing the ubiquitination of proteins destined for proteasomal degradation.
Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.
The Sherwin-Williams Company is an American Fortune 500 company in the general building materials industry.
In botany, shoots consist of stems including their appendages, the leaves and lateral buds, flowering stems and flower buds.
Strigolactones are a group of chemical compounds produced by plant's roots.
Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Toshio Murashige is a professor emeritus of University of California Riverside in plant biology.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
A tropism (from Greek τρόπος, tropos, "a turning") is a biological phenomenon, indicating growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus.
Ubiquitin is a small (8.5 kDa) regulatory protein found in most tissues of eukaryotic organisms, i.e. it occurs ''ubiquitously''.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place".
Witch's broom or witches' broom is a deformity in a woody plant, typically a tree, where the natural structure of the plant is changed.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) is an organic compound with the formula C10H7CH2CO2H.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a polychlorinated dibenzo''-p-''dioxin (sometimes shortened, though inaccurately, to simply "dioxin") with the chemical formula.
2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (also known as 2,4,5-T), a synthetic auxin, is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to defoliate broad-leafed plants.
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (usually called 2,4-D) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C8H6Cl2O3.
3-Indolepropionic acid (IPA), or indole-3-propionic acid, is a potent neuroprotective antioxidant, plant auxin, and natural product in humans that is being studied for therapeutic use in Alzheimer's disease.
4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA) is an organic compound that functions as a plant hormone.