Aryeh Moshe Eliyahu Kaplan (אריה משה אליהו קפלן.; October 23, 1934 – January 28, 1983) was an American Orthodox rabbi and author known for his knowledge of physics and kabbalah.
A beth din (בית דין Bet Din, "house of judgement", Ashkenazic: beis din) is a rabbinical court of Judaism.
Joseph Caiaphas, known simply as Caiaphas (Καϊάφας) in the New Testament, was the Jewish high priest who organized the plot to kill Jesus.
Chief Rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that country's Jewish community, or to a rabbinic leader appointed by the local secular authorities.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
The House of Shammai (or Beth Shammai, or in Modern Hebrew Beit Shammai. Beth is Hebrew for house of) was the school of thought of Judaism founded by Shammai, a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, BCE.
Menahem the Essene, MENAHEM THE ESSENE article (מנחם, Menahem) was a Jewish Tanna sage living during the era of the Zugot (lit. "pairs").
() is a Hebrew title meaning "prince" in Biblical Hebrew, "Prince " in Mishnaic Hebrew, or "president" in Modern Hebrew.
Posek (פוסק, pl. Poskim) is the term in Jewish law for "decisor"—a legal scholar who decides the Halakha in cases of law where previous authorities are inconclusive or in those situations where no halakhic precedent exists.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
The Sanhedrin (Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic: סנהדרין; Greek: Συνέδριον, synedrion, "sitting together," hence "assembly" or "council") was an assembly of twenty-three or seventy-one rabbis appointed to sit as a tribunal in every city in the ancient Land of Israel.
The Second Temple period in Jewish history lasted between 530 BCE and 70 CE, when the Second Temple of Jerusalem existed.
The Zugot (הַזּוּגוֹת haz-zûghôth, "the Pairs"), also called Zugoth or Zugos in the Ashkenazi pronunciation, refers both to the two-hundred-year period (170 BCE – 30 CE, תְּקוּפַת הַזּוּגוֹת təqhûphath haz-zûghôth, "Era of the Pairs") during the time of the Second Temple in which the spiritual leadership of the Jews was in the hands of five successions of "pairs" (zûghôth) of religious teachers, and to each of these pairs themselves.