87 relations: Alps, Angle of repose, Artillery, Avalanche dam, Avalanche net, Bayburt, BBC, Bergverlag Rother, British Columbia, Canada, Canadian Avalanche Association, Chamonix, Climbing, Compressive strength, Concave function, Concrete, Convex function, Cordillera Paine, Debris flow, Depth hoar, Ductility, Entrainment (physical geography), Europe, European Commission, Explosive material, Fluid, Friction, Galtür, Gravity current, Guy-wire, Hiking, Humid continental climate, Icefall, Italian Front (World War I), Kicking Horse Pass, Lahar, Landslide, Mark the Mountain Guide, Mass wasting, Montroc, Mound, Mount Stephen, Mudflow, Natural hazard, Northern Hemisphere, Oceanic climate, Patagonia, Powder snow avalanche, Pyroclastic flow, Radar, ..., Radiative cooling, Return period, Rockslide, Saltation (geology), Serac, Shear strength, Ski resort, Skiing (magazine), Slush flow, Snow, Snow cornice, Snow fence, Snow grooming, Snow shed, Snowpack, Snowshoe, Steel, Sunlight, Temperature gradient, Teton Range, Tree, Tree line, Trim line, Turkey, Ultimate tensile strength, United States, Washington (state), Wellington, Washington, Wind, Winter of Terror, Wood, World War I, 1910 Rogers Pass avalanche, 1924 Winter Olympics, 1993 Bayburt Üzengili avalanche, 1999 Galtür avalanche, 2012 Gayari Sector avalanche. Expand index (37 more) » « Shrink index
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
The angle of repose, or critical angle of repose, of a granular material is the steepest angle of descent or dip relative to the horizontal plane to which a material can be piled without slumping.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Avalanche dams (anti-avalanche dams, avalanche protection dams) are a type of avalanche control structures used for protection of inhabited areas, roads, power lines, etc., from avalanches.
Avalanche nets (snow avalanche protection nets, snow nets) are flexible snow supporting structures for avalanche control, constructed of steel or nylon cables or straps held by steel poles, optionally supplied with compression anchors downhill.
Bayburt (Armenian: Baydbert) is a city in northeast Turkey lying on the Çoruh River and is the provincial capital of Bayburt Province.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Bergverlag Rother is a German publisher with its headquarters in Oberhaching, Upper Bavaria.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian Avalanche Association (CAA) is a non-profit organization that supports avalanche practitioners in Canada by organizing professional training courses, providing a system for information exchange and ensures that members meet the highest practise standards to secure confidence in their avalanche safety programs.
Climbing is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep object.
Compressive strength or compression strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength, which withstands loads tending to elongate.
In mathematics, a concave function is the negative of a convex function.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
In mathematics, a real-valued function defined on an ''n''-dimensional interval is called convex (or convex downward or concave upward) if the line segment between any two points on the graph of the function lies above or on the graph, in a Euclidean space (or more generally a vector space) of at least two dimensions.
The Cordillera Paine is a small sophia mendoza mountain group in Torres del Paine National Park in Chilean Patagonia.
Debris flows are geological phenomena in which water-laden masses of soil and fragmented rock rush down mountainsides, funnel into stream channels, entrain objects in their paths, and form thick, muddy deposits on valley floors.
Depth hoar (also called sugar snow) are large crystals occurring at the base of a snowpack that form when uprising water vapor deposits or desublimates onto existing snow crystals.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
In physical geography, entrainment is the process by which surface sediment is incorporated into a fluid flow (such as air, water or even ice) as part of the operation of erosion.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Galtür is a village and ski resort in the upper Paznaun valley in Austrian state of Tyrol located in the Central Eastern Alps 35 km southwest of Landeck near the border of Vorarlberg and Switzerland.
In fluid dynamics, a gravity current is a primarily horizontal flow in a gravitational field that is driven by a density difference, hence gravity currents also sometimes being referred to as "density currents".
A guy-wire, guy-line, or guy-rope, also known as simply a guy, is a tensioned cable designed to add stability to a free-standing structure.
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
An icefall is a portion of certain glaciers characterized by rapid flow and a chaotic crevassed surface.
The Italian Front (Fronte italiano; in Gebirgskrieg, "Mountain war") was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 1915 and 1918 in World War I. Following the secret promises made by the Allies in the Treaty of London, Italy entered the war in order to annex the Austrian Littoral and northern Dalmatia, and the territories of present-day Trentino and South Tyrol.
Kicking Horse Pass (el. 1627 m, 5339 ft) is a high mountain pass across the Continental Divide of the Americas of the Canadian Rockies on the Alberta/British Columbia border, and lying within Yoho and Banff National Parks.
A lahar (from wlahar) is a violent type of mudflow or debris flow composed of a slurry of pyroclastic material, rocky debris and water.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
Mark the Mountain Guide is a series of illustrated children's books which combine short tales with an introduction to mountaineering.
Mass wasting, also known as slope movement or mass movement, is the geomorphic process by which soil, sand, regolith, and rock move downslope typically as a solid, continuous or discontinuous mass, largely under the force of gravity, but frequently with characteristics of a flow as in debris flows and mudflows.
Montroc is a hamlet in eastern France, located in the territory of the commune of Chamonix.
A mound is a heaped pile of earth, gravel, sand, rocks, or debris.
Mount Stephen,, is a mountain located in the Kicking Horse River Valley of Yoho National Park, ½ km east of Field, British Columbia, Canada.
A mudflow or mud flow is a form of mass wasting involving "very rapid to extremely rapid surging flow" of debris that has become partially or fully liquified by the addition of significant amounts of water to the source material.
A natural hazard is a natural phenomenon that might have a negative effect on humans or the environment.
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
Example of powder snow avalanche A powder snow avalanche is a type of avalanche where the snow grains are largely or wholly suspended by fluid turbulence.
A pyroclastic flow (also known as a pyroclastic density current or a pyroclastic cloud) is a fast-moving current of hot gas and volcanic matter (collectively known as tephra) that moves away from a volcano reaching speeds of up to.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radiative cooling is the process by which a body loses heat by thermal radiation.
A return period, also known as a recurrence interval (sometimes repeat interval) is an estimate of the likelihood of an event, such as an earthquake, flood, landslide, or a river discharge flow to occur.
A rockslide is a type of landslide caused by rock failure in which part of the bedding plane of failure passes through intact rock and material collapses en masse and not in individual blocks.
In geology, saltation (from Latin saltus, "leap") is a specific type of particle transport by fluids such as wind or water.
A serac (originally from Swiss French sérac) is a block or column of glacial ice, often formed by intersecting crevasses on a glacier.
In engineering, shear strength is the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure where the material or component fails in shear.
A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports.
Skiing is an American magazine devoted to skiing that has been published in print since 1948.
A slushflow is rapid mass movement of water and snow, and is categorized as a type of debris flow.
Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.
A snow cornice or simply cornice (from the Italian cornice meaning "ledge") is an overhanging edge of snow on a ridge or the crest of a mountain and along the sides of gullies.
A snow fence, similar to a sand fence, is a barrier that forces windblown, drifting snow to accumulate in a desired place.
Snow grooming is the process of manipulating snow for recreational uses with a tractor, snowmobile, piste caterpillar, truck or snowcat towing specialized equipment.
A snow shed, snow bridge or avalanche gallery is a type of rigid snow-supporting structure for avalanche control (avalanche defense) or to maintain passage in areas where snow removal becomes almost impossible.
Snowpack forms from layers of snow that accumulate in geographic regions and high altitudes where the climate includes cold weather for extended periods during the year.
A snowshoe is footwear for walking over snow.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
A temperature gradient is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the temperature changes the most rapidly around a particular location.
The Teton Range is a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains in North America.
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.
The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing.
A trim line, also written as trimline, is a clear line on the side of a valley formed by a glacier.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Wellington (later known as Tye) was a small unincorporated community and railroad community in the northwest United States, on the Great Northern Railway in northeastern King County, Washington.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
The Winter of Terror was the three-month period during the winter of 1950–1951 when an unprecedented number of avalanches took place in the Alps.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The 1910 Rogers Pass Avalanche killed 62 men clearing a railroad line near the summit of Rogers Pass through the Selkirk Mountains in British Columbia on March 4, 1910.
The 1924 Winter Olympics, officially known as the I Olympic Winter Games (Les Iers Jeux olympiques d'hiver), were a winter multi-sport event which was held in 1924 in Chamonix, France.
The 1993 Bayburt Üzengili avalanche occurred on January 18, 1993, at around 07:45 local time (05:45 UTC) in Üzengili, a village of Bayburt Province in northeastern Turkey.
The Galtür avalanche occurred on 23 February 1999 in the Alpine village of Galtür, Austria.
On 7 April 2012, an avalanche hit a Pakistani military base in Gayari Sector, near the Siachen Glacier region, trapping 140 soldiers and civilian contractors under deep snow.