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An Achilles heel is a weakness in spite of overall strength, which can actually or potentially lead to downfall.
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Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
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Agustín Muñoz Grandes (27 January 1896 – 11 July 1970) was a Spanish general, and politician, vice-president of the Spanish Government and minister with Francisco Franco several times; also known as the commander of the Blue Division between 1941 and 1943.
Albania (or sometimes,; Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially known as the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
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The Albanian Kingdom (Gheg Albanian: Mbretnija Shqiptare, Standard Albanian: Mbretëria Shqiptare, Regno albanese), also known as Greater Albania, existed as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy.
The Albanian Kingdom (Albanian: Mbretnija Shqiptare, German: Königreich Albanien) existed as a de jure independent country, between 1943 and 1944.
Albanians (Shqiptarët) are defined as an ethnic group native to Albania and neighboring countries. The term is also used sometimes to refer to the citizens of the Republic of Albania regardless of ethnicity. Ethnic Albanians speak the Albanian language and more than half of ethnic Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo. The Albanian diaspora also exists in a number of other countries.
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Albert François Lebrun (29 August 1871 – 6 March 1950) was a French politician, President of France from 1932 to 1940.
Alberto Pariani (27 November 1876, Milan – 1 March 1955) was an Italian general.
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Alexander I (Aleksandar I Karađorđević, Александар I Карађорђевић),Alternative pronunciations of 'Aleksandar' and 'I' are and, respectively.
Algeria (الجزائر), officially People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
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Algiers (الجزائر, al-Jazā’er; Algerian Arabic pronunciation: دزاير Dzayer, Dzayer tamaneɣt, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
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Allen & Unwin is an Australian independent publishing company, established in Australia in 1976 as a subsidiary of the British firm George Allen & Unwin Ltd., which was founded by Sir Stanley Unwin in August 1914 and went on to become one of the leading publishers of the twentieth century.
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Sir Allen Lane (born Allen Lane Williams; 21 September 1902 – 7 July 1970) was a British publisher who together with his brothers Richard and John founded Penguin Books, bringing high-quality paperback fiction and non-fiction to the mass market.
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The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major World War II campaign, in which the Allies took Sicily from the Axis Powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871 after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
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The Americas, or America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X).
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The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and are a Union Territory of India.
Andrey Andreyevich Vlasov or Wlassow (Андрéй Андрéевич Влáсов, – August 1, 1946) was a Russian Red Army general who collaborated with Nazi Germany during World War II.
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The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930 was a treaty of alliance between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the British-Mandate-controlled administration of the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq.
The Anglo–Iraqi War was the British campaign against the rebel government of Rashid Ali in the Kingdom of Iraq during the Second World War.
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The Anschluss (or Connection) was the Nazi propaganda term for the invasion and forced incorporation of Austria by Nazi Germany in March 1938.
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Ante Pavelić (14 July 1889 – 28 December 1959) was a Croatian fascist dictator who led the Ustaše movement and Independent State of Croatia (NDH), a puppet state of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany that was established in parts of occupied Yugoslavia during World War II, pursuing genocidal policies against ethnic and racial minorities.
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The Anti-Comintern Pact was an anti-communist pact concluded between Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan (later to be joined by other, mainly fascist, governments) on November 25, 1936 and was directed against the Third (Communist) International.
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Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
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Anti-Japanese sentiment involves hatred, grievance, distrust, dehumanization, intimidation, fear, hostility and/or general dislike of the Japanese people and Japanese diaspora as an ethnic or national group; Japan; Japanese culture; and/or anything Japanese.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is prejudice against, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as an ethnic, religious, or racial group.
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Anton Adriaan Mussert (11 May 1894 – 7 May 1946) was one of the founders of the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB) and its formal leader.
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The Appeal of 18 June (L'Appel du 18 juin) was a famous speech by Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free French Forces, in 1940.
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The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36.
The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies ("United Nations") of World War II.
Armonk is a hamlet and census-designated place (CDP) in the town of North Castle, New York located in Westchester County.
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The Arrow Cross Party (Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally "Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement") was a Hungarist party led by Ferenc Szálasi, which led a government in Hungary known as the Government of National Unity from 15 October 1944 to 28 March 1945.
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The Atlantic Charter was a pivotal policy statement issued on 14 August 1941, that, early in World War II, defined the Allied goals for the post-war world.
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The Atlantic Wall (Atlantikwall) was an extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia as a defense against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from Great Britain during World War II.
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The United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, during the final stage of the Second World War.
The Attack on Mers-el-Kébir, part of Operation Catapult and also known as the Battle of Mers-el-Kébir, was a British naval bombardment of the French Navy (Marine Nationale) at its base at Mers-el-Kébir on the coast of what was then French Algeria on 3 July 1940.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, in the United States Territory of Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Attica (Αττική, or; or) is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of Greece.
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Bogyoke (General) Aung San; 13 February 1915 – 19 July 1947) was a Myanmar revolutionary, nationalist, founder of the Tatmadaw, and is considered Father of the Nation of modern-day Myanmar who served as 5th Premier of British Crown Colony of Burma from 1946 to 1947. He was the founder of the Communist Party of Burma. He was responsible for bringing Burma's independence from British rule in Burma, but was assassinated six months before independence. He is recognized as the leading architect of independence, and the founder of the Union of Burma. Affectionately known as "Bogyoke" (General), Aung San is still widely admired by the Burmese people, and his name is still invoked in Burmese politics to this day. Aung San's daughter, Aung San Suu Kyi, is a Burmese politician and a recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.
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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.5 million people in Central Europe.
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The Austro-Hungarian Navy was the naval force of Austria-Hungary.
Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient.
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The Axis leaders of World War II were important political and military figures during World War II.
As the Axis powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan cemented their joint military alliance by mutually declaring war against the United States by December 11, 1941, the Japanese proposed a clear territorial arrangement with the two main European Axis powers concerning the Asian continent.
Ārzī Hukūmat-e-Āzād Hind (आर्ज़ी हुक़ूमत-ए-आज़ाद हिन्द; عارضی حکومتِ آزاد ہند; आजाद हिन्द), the Provisional Government of Free India, or, more simply, Free India (Azad Hind), was an Indian provisional government established in Singapore in 1943 and was supported by Japan.
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Éditions du Seuil is a French publishing house created in 1935, currently owned by La Martinière Groupe.
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Ba Maw (ဘမော်,; 8 February 1893 – 29 May 1977) was a Burmese political leader, active during the interwar and World War II period.
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Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region.
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The Balkan Peninsula, popularly referred to as the Balkans, is a geographical region of Southeast Europe.
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The Balli Kombëtar (literally National Front) was an Albanian nationalist, anti-communist and anti-monarchist organization established in November 1942.
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The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, the Baltic countries, and the North European Plain.
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The Baltic states, also known as the Baltics, Baltic nations or Baltic countries (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), are the three countries in northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
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Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York.
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Bataan is a province of the Philippines occupying the entire Bataan Peninsula on Luzon.
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The Battle of Dakar, also known as Operation Menace, was an unsuccessful attempt in September 1940 by the Allies to capture the strategic port of Dakar in French West Africa (modern-day Senegal).
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The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War, beginning on 10 May 1940, defeating primarily French forces.
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The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, Unternehmen Marita) is the common name for the invasion of Greece by Germany in April 1941.
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The Battle of Guadalajara (March 8–23, 1937) saw the People's Republican Army (Ejército Popular Republicano, or EPR) defeat Italian and Nationalist forces attempting to encircle Madrid during the Spanish Civil War.
The Battle of Hong Kong (8–25 December 1941), also known as the Defence of Hong Kong and the Fall of Hong Kong, was one of the first battles of the Pacific campaign of World War II.
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The Battle of Imphal took place in the region around the city of Imphal, the capital of the state of Manipur in northeast India from March until July 1944.
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The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union during July and August 1943.
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The Battle of Lake Khasan (July 29, 1938 – August 11, 1938) and also known as the Changkufeng Incident (Russian: Хасанские бои, Chinese and Japanese: 張鼓峰事件; Chinese Pinyin: Zhānggǔfēng Shìjiàn; Japanese Romaji: Chōkohō Jiken) in China and Japan, was an attempted military incursion by Manchukuo (Japanese) into the territory claimed by the Soviet Union.
The Battle of Madagascar was the British campaign to capture Vichy French-controlled Madagascar during World War II.
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The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia, on the eastern boundary of Europe.
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The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
The Battles of Khalkhyn Gol (Халхын голын дайн; ノモンハン事件; Japanese Romaji Nomon-Han Jiken; бои на реке Халхин-Гол) were the decisive engagement of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia and the Empire of Japan in 1939.
Batumi (ბათუმი, formerly known as Batum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia.
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Bảo Đại (lit. "keeper of greatness", 22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997), born Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thụy, was the 13th and final emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty, which was the last dynasty of Vietnam.
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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.
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Beijing, formerly Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world.
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Belarus (Белару́сь, tr.,; bʲɪlɐˈrusʲ), officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
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Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943.
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Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия Bessarabiya, Бессарабія Bessarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
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The Black Sea is a sea between Southeastern Europe and Western Asia.
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The Black Sea Fleet (Черноморский Флот, Chernomorsky Flot) is a large operational-strategic command of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the late 18th century.
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The Blue Division (División Azul, Blaue Division, officially designated as División Española de Voluntarios by the Spanish Army and 250. Infanterie-Division in the German Army) was a unit of Spanish volunteers that served in the German Army on the Eastern Front of the Second World War.
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Bordighera is a town and comune in the Province of Imperia, Liguria (Italy).
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Boris III, Tsar of Bulgaria (28 August 1943), originally Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver (Boris Clement Robert Mary Pius Louis Stanislaus Xavier), son of Ferdinand I, came to the throne in 1918 upon the abdication of his father, following the defeat of the Kingdom of Bulgaria during World War I. This was the country's second major defeat in only five years, after the disastrous Second Balkan War (1913).
Brenner Pass (Brennerpass; Passo del Brennero) is a mountain pass through the Alps along the border between Italy and Austria.
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The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
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Broadway Books, an imprint of the Crown Publishing Group, a Division of Random House, Inc., released its first list in Fall, 1996.
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Budapest (names in other languages) is the capital and the largest city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
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Bukovina (Bucovina; Буковина Bukovyna; Hungarian: Bukovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe, divided between modern-day Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
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The Bulgarian coup d'état of 1944, also known as the 9 September coup d'état (Деветосептемврийски преврат, Devetoseptemvriyski prevrat) and called in pre-1989 Bulgaria the National Uprising of 9 September or the Socialist Revolution of 9 September was a change in the Kingdom of Bulgaria's administration and government carried out on the eve of 9 September 1944.
The Bulgarian Navy (Военноморски сили на Република България, Voennomorski sili na Republika Balgariya) is the navy of the Republic of Bulgaria and forms part of the Bulgarian Armed Forces.
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The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was fought primarily by British Commonwealth, Chinese and United States forces against the forces of the Empire of Japan, who were assisted to some degree by Thailand, the Burmese Independence Army and the Indian National Army.
The Burma National Army (also known as the Burma Independence Army) (ဗမာ့အမျိုးသားတပ်မတော်) served as the armed forces of the puppet Burmese government created by the Japanese during World War II and fought in the Burma Campaign.
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Hurst Publishers (C. Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd) is an independent non-fiction publisher based in the Bloomsbury area of London.
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Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, Kampuchea), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, Preah Reacheanachak Kampuchea) and once known as the Khmer Empire, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are privately owned and operated via profit and loss calculation (price signals) through the price system.
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The Carabinieri (formally Arma dei carabinieri, "Arm of carabineers" or previously Corpo dei carabinieri, "Corps of carabiniers") is the national military police of Italy, policing both military and civilian populations.
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Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim (in lit."Karl's son") Mannerheim; 4 June 1867 – 27 January 1951), commonly Gustaf Mannerheim was a Finnish military leader and statesman.
Carol II (15 October 18934 April 1953) reigned as King of Romania from 8 June 1930 until 6 September 1940.
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Operation Anton or Fall Anton in German, was the codename for the military occupation of Vichy France carried out by Germany and Italy in November 1942.
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Cathedral City is a city in Riverside County, California, United States.
Central Africa is a core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
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Central Macedonia (Περιφέρεια Κεντρικής Μακεδονίας, Periféria Kentrikís Makedonías) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece, consisting of the central part of the geographical and historical region of Macedonia.
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The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
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Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general, resistant, writer and statesman.
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Chen Gongbo (Japanese: Chin Kōhaku, October 19, 1892 – June 3, 1946) was a Chinese politician, noted for his role as second (and final) President of the collaborationist pro-Japanese Nanjing Nationalist Government during World War II.
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The Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, commonly known as the Chetniks (Četnici, Четници,; Četniki), was a World War II movement in Yugoslavia led by Draža Mihailović, an anti-Axis movement in their long-range goals and engaged in marginal resistance activities for limited periods.
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Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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Christian X (Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm; 26 September 1870 – 20 April 1947) was the King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947 and the only king of Iceland (where the name was officially spelled Kristján), between 1918 and 1944.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
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Cieszyn Silesia or Těšín Silesia or Teschen Silesia (Polish:, Czech: or, German: Teschener Schlesien or Olsagebiet) is a historical region in south-eastern Silesia, centered on the towns of Cieszyn and Český Těšín and bisected by the Olza River.
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A cisterna (plural cisternae) refers to a flattened membrane disk that makes up the Golgi apparatus.
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Co-belligerence is the waging of a war in cooperation against a common enemy without a formal treaty of military alliance.
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Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Commonwealth of the Philippines (Komonwelt ng Pilipinas; Mancomunidad de Filipinas) was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis – common, universal) is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
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The Communist International, abbreviated as Comintern and also known as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which two or more sovereign powers formally agree to share equally dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it up into 'national' zones.
The Continuation War (jatkosota; fortsättningskriget; 25 June 1941 – 19 September 1944) refers to the hostilities between Finland and the Soviet Union during the Second World War, from 1941 to 1944.
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Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee.
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Corregidor Island, locally called Isla ng Corregidor, is an island located at the entrance of Manila Bay in southwestern part of Luzon Island in the Philippines.
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Costa Rica (literally meaning, "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
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Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, and the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
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Croats (Hrvati) are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group at the crossroads of Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean.
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Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko, in both of those languages) was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
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Dalmatia (Dalmacija,; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia, and Istria.
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Folketing elections were held in Denmark on 23 March 1943 alongside Landsting elections,Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p524 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7 except in the Faroe Islands where they were held on 3 May.
The Declaration by the United Nations was a World War II document agreed on 1 January 1942 during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments: the Allied "Big Four" (the US, the UK, the USSR, and China), nine other American countries in North and Central America and the Caribbean, the four British Dominions, British India, and eight Allied governments-in-exile, for a total of twenty-six nations.
Prince Demchugdongrub, commonly known as Prince De or De Wang, (8 February 1902 – 23 May 1966) was the leader of an independence movement in Inner Mongolia.
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Democracy, or democratic government, is "a system of government in which all the people of a state or polity...
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Dino Grandi (4 June 1895 – 21 May 1988), 1st Conte di Mordano, was an Italian Fascist politician, minister of justice, minister of foreign affairs and president of parliament.
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In law, dissolution has multiple meanings.
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Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
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The Dodecanese (Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa,, literally 'twelve islands') are a group of 12 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, of which 26 are inhabited.
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The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a country on the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region.
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The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia.
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Dušan Simović (Душан Симовић; 28 October 1882 – 26 August 1962) was a Serbian general who served as Chief of the General Staff of the Royal Yugoslav Army and as the Prime Minister of Yugoslavia.
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Duce (leader) is an Italian title, derived from the Latin word dux, and cognate with duke.
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The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East Indies; Nederlands-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia following World War II.
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The Dutch East Indies campaign of 1941–42 was the conquest of the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) by forces from the Empire of Japan in the early days of the Pacific Campaign of World War II.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easterly region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics.
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East Asia or Eastern Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
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East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was the main part of the region of Prussia along the southeastern Baltic Coast from the 13th century to the end of World War II in May 1945.
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The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other allies, which encompassed Northern, Southern and Central and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły (11 March 1886 – 2 December 1941; nom de guerre Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza) was a Polish politician, statesman, Marshal of Poland, Commander-in-Chief of Poland's armed forces as well as a talented painter and a poet.
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El Salvador (Pipil: Kūskatan), officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
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Princess Elena Petrović-Njegoš of Montenegro (8 January 1873 – 28 November 1952) nicknamed Jela was the daughter of King Nicholas I of Montenegro and his wife, Milena Vukotić.
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The was the historical Japanese nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
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The Empire of Vietnam (Đế quốc Việt Nam; Chinese character: 越南帝國; ベトナム帝国) was a puppet short-lived client state of Imperial Japan governing the whole of Vietnam between March 11 and August 23, 1945.
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Engelbert Dollfuss (Engelbert Dollfuß; October 4, 1892 – July 25, 1934) was an Austrian Christian Social and Patriotic Front statesman.
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An eponym is a person, a place, or thing for whom or for which something is named, or believed to be named.
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Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes incorrectly referred to as von Ludendorff) (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, victor of Liège and of the Battle of Tannenberg.
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Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944), popularly known as the Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs), was a German field marshal of World War II.
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The Estado Novo ("New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, often considered to be a fascist regime.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
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Planning for global territorial expansion of the Axis Powers; Germany, Italy and Japan, progressed before and during the Second World War.
Falange Española de las JONS (FE de las JONS), known simply as the Falange, is the name assigned to several Spanish political movements and parties originating in the late 1930s, a rough contemporary of the Estado Novo, Nazism and Italian Fascism.
The Fatherland Front (OF) (Отечествен фронт, ОФ) was originally a Bulgarian political resistance movement during World War II.
Führer Directive No.
Ferenc Szálasi (6 January 1897 – 12 March 1946) was the leader of the fascist Arrow Cross Party – Hungarist Movement, the "Leader of the Nation" (Nemzetvezető), being both Head of State and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Hungary's "Government of National Unity" (Nemzeti Összefogás Kormánya) for the final six months of Hungary's participation in World War II, after Germany occupied Hungary and removed Miklós Horthy by force.
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The First Indian National Army (or the First INA) was the Indian National Army as it existed between February and December 1942.
The First Jassy–Kishinev Offensive, named after the two major cities (Iași and Chișinău) in the area, was fought between 8 April and 6 June 1944 by the Soviets and Axis powers of World War II.
The flag of Laos was adopted on December 2, 1975.
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The Folketing (Folketinget,; lit. the people's thing), also known as the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national parliament of the Kingdom of Denmark.
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Force 136 was the general cover name for a branch of the British World War II organization, the Special Operations Executive (SOE).
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Fordham University (FU) is a private, nonprofit, coeducational research university based in New York City, United States.
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Foreign relations of the Axis powers includes states which were not officially members of the Axis but had relations with one or more Axis members.
Jean Louis Xavier François Darlan (7 August 1881 – 24 December 1942) was a French Admiral and political figure.
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Francisco Franco Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 – November 20, 1975) was a Spanish general and the dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975.
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The Franco-Thai War (กรณีพิพาทอินโดจีน Guerre franco-thaïlandaise) (1940–1941) was fought between Thailand (Siam) and France over certain areas of French Indochina that had once belonged to Siam.
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Francoist Spain (also historically known as Nationalist Spain during the Spanish Civil War) refers to the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain from the government of the Second Spanish Republic after winning the Civil War, and 1978, when the Spanish Constitution of 1978 went into effect.
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The Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig; Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns in the surrounding areas.
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Free Corps Denmark (Danish: Frikorps Danmark) was a Danish volunteer free corps created by the Danish Nazi Party (DNSAP) in cooperation with Germany, to fight the Soviet Union during the Second World War.
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Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces that continued to fight against the Axis powers as an Ally after the fall of France.
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The Free State of Fiume was an independent free state which existed between 1920 and 1924.
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The Free Thai Movement (เสรีไทย) was a Thai underground resistance movement against Imperial Japan during World War II.
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French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterward; unofficially Algérie française, الجزائر الفرنسية Al-Jaza'ir Al-Fransiyah) lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.
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French Cameroons (Cameroun), or Cameroun, was a French colonial Mandate territory in French Equatorial Africa, now part of Cameroon.
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The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 17th century onward.
The French Committee of National Liberation (Comité français de Libération nationale) was a provisional government of Free France formed by the French generals Henri Giraud and Charles de Gaulle to provide united leadership, organize and coordinate the campaign to liberate France from Nazi Germany during World War II.
French Equatorial Africa (Afrique équatoriale française), or the AEF, was the federation of French colonial possessions in Central Africa, extending northwards from the Congo River to the Sahara.
French Indo-China (now commonly known as French Indochina) (Indochine française; សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន.; Đông Dương thuộc Pháp,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Lao: ຝຣັ່ງແຫຼັມອິນດູຈີນ), officially known as the Indo-Chinese Union (Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indo-Chinese Federation (Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
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The Colony of Madagascar and Dependencies (Colonie de Madagascar et dépendances) was a French colony in Southeast Africa between 1897 and 1958.
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Officially, the Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon (1923−1946), (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban), was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire.
French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France and centering on French Algeria.
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French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).
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The French Protectorate in Morocco (حماية فرنسا في المغرب Himaïet Fransa fi El-Maghreb; Protectorat français au Maroc) was established by the Treaty of Fez.
The French protectorate of Tunisia (Protectorat français de Tunisie; الحماية الفرنسية في تونس) was established in 1881, during the French colonial Empire era, and lasted until Tunisian independence in 1956.
The French Resistance (La Résistance française) is the name used to denote the collection of French resistance movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during World War II.
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French Somaliland (Côte française des Somalis, lit. "French Coast of Somalis"; Dhulka Faransiiska ee Soomaaliya; أرض الصومال الفرنسي, ʾArḍ Aṣ-Ṣūmāl Al-Fransī) was a French colony in the Horn of Africa.
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The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) governed France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed, to 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany led to the Vichy France government.
French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, AOF) was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger.
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Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (18 March 1903 – 11 January 1944) was Foreign Minister of Fascist Italy from 1936 until 1943 and Benito Mussolini's son-in-law.
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Gaullism (Gaullisme) is a French political stance based on the thought and action of Resistance leader (and later President) Charles de Gaulle.
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The Geary–Khamis dollar, more commonly known as the international dollar, is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power parity that the U.S. dollar had in the United States at a given point in time.
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The General Government, sometimes also General Governorate (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія) was a territory in Poland and Ukraine carved out by Adolf Hitler at the onset of World War II after the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.
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Genghis Khan (often pronounced;; c. 1162 18 August 1227), born Temüjin, was the founder and Great Khan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his demise.
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The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German armed forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the Nazi annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.
The German occupation of Norway began on 9 April 1940 after Nazi forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway.
In October and November 1940, German–Soviet Axis talks occurred concerning the Soviet Union's potential entry as a fourth Axis Power in World War II.
The 1940 German-Soviet Commercial Agreement (also known as Economic Agreement of February 11, 1940, Between the German Reich and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) was an economic arrangement between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed on February 11, 1940 by which the Soviet Union agreed in period from February 11, 1940 to February 11, 1941, in addition to the deliveries under German–Soviet Commercial Agreement, signed on August 19, 1939 deliver the commodities (oil, raw materials and grain) to the value of 420 to 430 million Reichsmarks.
The German–Soviet Credit Agreement (also referred to as the German–Soviet Trade and Credit Agreement) was an economic arrangement between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany whereby Soviet Union received an acceptance credit of 200 million Reichsmark.
The Gestapo (abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei, "Secret State Police") was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
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Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean.
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Giuseppe Bottai (3 September 1895 – 9 January 1959) was an Italian lawyer, economist, journalist, and member of the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini.
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A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in a foreign country.
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The Government of National Salvation (Vlada narodnog spasa, Влада народног спаса; Regierung der nationalen Rettung), also referred to as the Nedić regime, was the second Serbian puppet government, after the Commissioner Government, established on the Territory of the (German) Military Commander in Serbia during World War II.
The Government of National Unity (Hungarian: Nemzeti Összefogás Kormánya) existed during the occupation of Hungary by Nazi Germany between October 1944 and May 1945.
The Governorate of Dalmatia (Governatorato di Dalmazia), was a territory divided in three Provinces of Italy during Italian Kingdom and Italian Empire epoch, created in April 1941 at the start of World War II in Yugoslavia from the existing Province of Zara together with occupied Yugoslav territory annexed by Italy after the invasion of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers and the signing of the Rome Treaties.
The Gran Sasso raid refers to Operation Eiche (German for "Oak"), the rescue of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini by German paratroopers led by Major Otto-Harald Mors and Waffen-SS commandos in September 1943, during World War II.
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The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the 1930s.
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Greater Albania is an irredentist concept of lands that are considered to form the national homeland by many Albanians, based on claims on the present-day or historical presence of Albanian populations in those areas.
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The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (大東亞共榮圏 Dai-tō-a Kyōeiken) was an imperial propaganda concept created and promulgated for occupied Asian populations during the first third of the Shōwa era by the government and military of the Empire of Japan.
The Greater Germanic Reich (German: Großgermanisches Reich), fully styled the Greater Germanic Reich of the German Nation (German: Großgermanisches Reich Deutscher Nation) is the official state name of the political entity that Nazi Germany tried to establish in Europe during World War II.
The state of Greater Lebanon, the predecessor of modern Lebanon, was created in 1920.
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The Greek government-in-exile was the government in exile of Greece formed in the aftermath of the Battle of Greece, and the subsequent occupation of Greece by Nazi Germany and the Fascist Italy.
The Greek Resistance (Εθνική Αντίσταση, i.e., "National Resistance") is the blanket term for a number of armed and unarmed groups from across the political spectrum that resisted the Axis occupation of Greece in the period 1941–1944, during World War II.
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Greenwood Publishing Group (GPG) is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.
Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the products and services produced in one year by labour and property supplied by the residents of a country.
The Gulag (ru-Gulag.ogg) was the government agency that administered the main Soviet forced labor camp systems during the Stalin era, from the 1930s until the 1950s.
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(May 10, 1878 – October 3, 1929) was a German politician and statesman who served as Chancellor in 1923 (for a brief period of 102 days) and Foreign Minister 1923–1929, during the Weimar Republic.
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Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag A/S, usually referred to simply as Gyldendal is a Danish publishing house.
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Gyula Gömbös de Jákfa (26 December 1886 – 6 October 1936) was a Hungarian military officer and politician, and served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1 October 1932 until his death on 6 October 1936.
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Haakon VII (Prince Carl of Denmark and Iceland, born Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel; 3 August 1872 21 September 1957), known as Prince Carl of Denmark until 1905, was the first king of Norway after the 1905 dissolution of the union with Sweden.
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Al Habbaniyah or Habbaniya (Arabic: الحبانية) is a city in Al-Anbar Province, in central Iraq.
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Mohammed Effendi Amin el-Husseini (محمد أمين الحسيني; 1897 – 4 July 1974) was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in Mandatory Palestine.
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was a Japanese political slogan that became popular from the Second Sino-Japanese War to World War II, and was popularized in a speech by Prime Minister of Japan Fumimaro Konoe on January 8, 1940.
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Hanoi (or; Vietnamese: Hà Nội) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city.
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Johannes Friedrich "Hans" von Seeckt (22 April 1866 – 27 December 1936) was a German military officer who served as Chief of Staff to August von Mackensen, and was a central figure in planning the victories Mackensen achieved for Germany in the east during the First World War.
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He Yingqin (April 2, 1890 – October 21, 1987), also spelled Ho Ying-chin, was one of the most senior generals of the Kuomintang (KMT) during Republican China, and a close ally of Chiang Kai-shek.
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Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Nazi Germany.
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The Hellenic State (Ελληνική Πολιτεία, Elliniki Politeia, also translated as Greek State) was the collaborationist government of Greece during the country's occupation by the Axis powers in the Second World War.
Henri Honoré Giraud (18 January 1879 – 11 March 1949) was a French general who was captured in both World Wars, but escaped both times.
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Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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Hertza region (Край Герца, Kraj Herca; Ţinutul Herța) is a border region within an administrative district (raion) of Hertsa (Herţa) in the southern part of Chernivtsi Oblast in southwestern Ukraine, near Romania.
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Hideki Tojo (Kyūjitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;; December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 17, 1941, to July 22, 1944.
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was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death on January 7, 1989.
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Baron was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, Japanese ambassador to Nazi Germany before and during World War II — and unknowingly a major source of communications intelligence for the Allies.
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The history of the Jews of France deals with the Jews and Jewish communities in France.
Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht (22 January 1877 – 3 June 1970) was a German economist, banker, liberal politician, and co-founder in 1918 of the German Democratic Party.
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Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
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Houghton Mifflin Harcourt is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Human overpopulation occurs if the number of people in a group exceeds the carrying capacity of the region occupied by that group.
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The hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic was a three-year period of hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic (modern-day Germany) between June 1921 and January 1924.
A hypothetical Axis victory in World War II is a common concept of alternate history.
The Iwakuro Kikan or the I Kikan was an intelligence mission and liaison office for the Japanese Army and the Indian National Army during the Second World War in the South east Asian theatre.
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Sir Ian Kershaw, FBA (born 29 April 1943) is a British historian and author whose work has chiefly focused on the social history of 20th century Germany.
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The as part of the Supreme War Council was established in 1893 to coordinate efforts between the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy during wartime.
The, literally "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire", was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan, from 1871 to 1945.
The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, literally "Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's defeat and surrender in World War II.
The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, Независна Држава Хрватска, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia), often referred to simply by the abbreviation NDH, was a World War II puppet state of Germany and Italy, which was established in parts of Axis-occupied Yugoslavia.
The Indian Independence League (also known as IIL) was a political organisation operated from the 1920s to the 1940s to organise those living outside of India into seeking the removal of British colonial rule over India.
Indian nationalism refers to the many underlying forces that defined the principles of the Indian independence movement, and strongly continue to influence the politics of India, as well as being the heart of many contrasting ideologies that have caused ethnic and religious conflict in Indian society.
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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
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Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: in Mongolian script, and in Mongolian Cyrillic), officially Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in the north of the country, containing most of China's border with Mongolia (the rest of the China-Mongolia border is taken up by the Xinjiang autonomous region and Gansu province) and a small section of the border with Russia.
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The Institute of Southeast Asian Studies is a research institute located in Singapore.
The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO; Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация (ВМРО), Vatreshna Makedonska Revolyutsionna Organizatsiya (VMRO), Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација, Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija) was a revolutionary national liberation movement in the Ottoman territories in Europe, that operated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories, which could involve the activities of the government and individual.
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The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign, or the 1939 Defensive War in Poland (Kampania wrześniowa or Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and alternatively the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiß in Germany (Case White), was a joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent, that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe.
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The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
Ion Victor Antonescu (June 15, 1882 – June 1, 1946) was a Romanian soldier and authoritarian politician who, as the Prime Minister and Conducător during most of World War II, presided over two successive wartime dictatorships.
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Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
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Isan (Isan/ภาคอีสาน; also written as Isaan, Isarn, Issan, Esan, or Esarn; from Pali īsān or Sanskrit īśān "Northeast") consists of 20 provinces in the northeastern region of Thailand.
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was a Japanese Marshal Admiral and the commander-in-chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II until his death.
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The Italian Co-belligerent Army (Esercito Cobelligerante Italiano), Army of the South (Esercito del Sud), or Italian Liberation Corps (Corpo Italiano di Liberazione) were names applied to the Royal Italian Army during the period when it fought on the side of the Allies during World War II, that is to say from September 1943 onwards.
On December 11, 1941, Italy declared war on the United States in response to that country's declaration of war upon the Empire of Japan following the attack on Pearl Harbor four days earlier.
Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony established in 1936.
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The Italian Empire (Italian: Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic.
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Italian Eritrea was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in the territory of present-day Eritrea.
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Italian Fascism (Fascismo Italiano), also known simply as Fascism (Fascismo), is the original fascist ideology, as developed in Italy.
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The Italian governorate of Montenegro (Governatorato del Montenegro) existed from October 1941 to September 1943 as an occupied territory under military government of Fascist Italy during World War II.
Imperialism, colonialism and irredentism played an important role in the foreign policy of Fascist Italy.
The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7 – April 12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.
Italian irredentism (irredentismo italiano) was a nationalist movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Italy with irredentist goals which promoted the unification of geographic areas in which indigenous ethnic Italians and Italian-speaking persons formed a majority, or substantial minority, of the population.
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Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
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Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what represents present-day Libya.
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Italian nationalism is the nationalism asserts that Italians are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Italians.
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The Italian resistance movement (Resistenza italiana or just Resistenza) is an umbrella term for resistance groups that opposed the occupying German forces and the Italian Fascist puppet regime of the Italian Social Republic during the later years of World War II.
The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, RSI), informally known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò), was a puppet state of Nazi Germany during the later part of World War II (from 1943 until 1945).
Italian unification (Unificazione italiana), mainly know as Risorgimento (meaning the Resurgence), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
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The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910, also known as the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty, was made by representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire on August 22, 1910.
In September 1940, the to prevent the Republic of China from importing arms and fuel through French Indochina along the Sino-Vietnamese Railway, from the port of Haiphong through Hanoi to Kunming in Yunnan.
The Japanese Invasion of Malaya began just after midnight on 8 December 1941 (local time) before the attack on Pearl Harbor.
The Japanese invasion of Thailand occurred on 8 December 1941.
Jasenovac concentration camp (Logor Jasenovac and,; יאסענאוואץ, sometimes spelled "Yasenovatz") was an extermination camp established in Slavonia by the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II.
(October 4, 1894 in Warsaw – June 5, 1944 in Stăneşti, Romania) served the Second Republic of Poland as diplomat and military officer, and close associate of Józef Piłsudski.
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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس), located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world.
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The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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SS-Obergruppenführer Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946) was Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany from 1938 until 1945.
Joint Base Pearl Harbor–Hickam (JBPHH) is a United States military base adjacent to Honolulu, Hawaii.
José Paciano Laurel y García, PLH (March 9, 1891 – November 6, 1959) was a Filipino politician and judge.
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Joseph Stalin (birth surname: Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
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In June 1941, Serbs in eastern Herzegovina rebelled against the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH), an Axis puppet state established during World War II on the territory of the defeated Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.
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The Karelian Isthmus (Karelsky peresheyek; Karjalankannas) is the approximately 45–110 km wide stretch of land, situated between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia, to the north of the River Neva (between 61°21’N, 59°46’N and 27°42’E, 31°08’E).
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The Katyn massacre (zbrodnia katyńska, mord katyński, "Katyń crime"; Катынский расстрел Katynskij ra'sstrel, "Katyn shooting") was a series of mass executions of Polish nationals carried out by the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), the Soviet secret police, in April and May 1940.
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Kayah State (ကယားပြည်နယ်, formerly, Karenni State) is a state of Myanmar.
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Kálmán Darányi de Pusztaszentgyörgy et Tetétlen (22 March 1886 in Budapest – 1 November 1939 in Budapest) was a Hungarian politician who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1936 to 1938.
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Kengtung (Shan:;,; เชียงตุง,,; also spelled Kyaingtong, Chiang Tung, Cheingtung, and Kengtong) is a town in Shan State, Burma.
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The Khmer Issarak (Free Khmer, or Independent Khmer) (ខ្មែរឥស្សរៈ) was a "loosely structured" anti-French and anti-colonial independent movement.
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Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ, or more formally ខេមរភាសា) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
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Khuang Aphaiwong (17 May 1902 - 15 March 1968; ควง อภัยวงศ์, also spelled Kuang, Abhaiwong, or Abhaiwongse; was three times the prime minister of Thailand: from August 1944 to 1945, from January to May 1946, and from November 1947 to April 1948.
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King Michael's Coup was a coup d'état led by King Michael of Romania during World War II on 23 August 1944.
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The Kingdom of Bulgaria, also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom was a constitutional monarchy, created on 22 September 1908 (old style), as а result of an elevation of the Bulgarian state to kingdom from principality.
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The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság), also known as the Regency, existed from 1920 to 1946 as a de facto country under Regent Miklós Horthy.
The Kingdom of Iraq (المملكة العراقية) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of WWI.
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The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state founded in 1861 when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy.
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The Kingdom of Romania (Romanian: Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy which existed between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the first three Constitutions of Romania (1866, 1923, 1938).
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The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed during the interwar period (1918–1939) and first half of World War II (1939–1943).
The Klaipėda Region (Klaipėdos kraštas) or Memel Territory (Memelland or Memelgebiet) was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 and refers to the most northern part of the German province of East Prussia, when as Memelland it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors.
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Konstantin Hermann Karl Freiherr (Baron) von Neurath (2 February 1873 – 14 August 1956) was a German diplomat remembered mostly for having served as Foreign minister of Germany between 1932 and 1938.
Kotor (Котор,; Cattaro) is a coastal town in Montenegro.
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Kragujevac (Крагујевац) is the fourth largest city in Serbia, the main city of the Šumadija region and the administrative centre of Šumadija District.
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Kraljevo (Краљево / Kraljevo) is a city in Serbia, built beside the river Ibar, west of its confluence with the Western Morava.
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Kronstadt (Кроншта́дт), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt (Krone for "crown" and Stadt for "city"; Retusaari, Kroonlinn), is a municipal town in Kronshtadtsky District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located on Kotlin Island, west of St. Petersburg proper near the head of the Gulf of Finland.
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The Kuomintang of China (or; KMT), or sometimes spelled as Guomindang (GMD) by its Pinyin transliteration, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC).
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The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century.
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The Lao (ລາວ, Thai or Isan: ลาว, IPA: láːw) are an ethnic group native to Laos and northeastern Thailand (where they are known as Isan), they to the family of Tai peoples.
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The Lapland War (Lapin sota; Lapplandskriget; Lapplandkrieg) was fought between Finland and Germany from September 1944 to April 1945 in Finland's northernmost Lapland Province.
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Latvia (Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe, one of the three Baltic states.
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The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
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Lebensraum (German: “living space”) was a racist ideology that proposed the aggressive, territorial expansion of Germany.
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The legal purge in Norway after World War II took place between May 1945 and August 1948 against anyone who was deemed to have collaborated with the Nazi occupation of the country.
The Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism (Légion des volontaires français contre le bolchévisme, or simply Légion des volontaires français, LVF) was a collaborationist French militia founded on July 8, 1941.
The Lend-Lease policy, formally titled "An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States", was a program under which the United States supplied Free France, United Kingdom, the Republic of China, and later the USSR and other Allied nations with food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945.
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The Adolf Hitler's directives or Führer's directives were instructions and strategic plans issued by Adolf Hitler himself.
A free port (porto franco) or free zone (zona franca), sometimes also called a bonded area (US: Foreign-Trade Zone), is a port or other area with relaxed jurisdiction of customs or related national regulations.
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This is a list of Native Pro-Axis Leaders and Governments or Direct Control in Occupied Territories, including.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in Northern Europe.
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The Little Entente was an alliance formed in 1920 and 1921 by Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia with the purpose of common defense against Hungarian revision and the prevention of a Habsburg restoration.
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The Low Countries (de Lage Landen., les Pays-Bas.) is a coastal region in western Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
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Luang Prabang, or Louangphrabang (Lao: ຫຼວງພຣະບາງ, literally: "Royal Buddha Image (in the Dispelling Fear mudra)," pronounced), is the capital city of Luang Prabang Province in north central Laos.
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Ludwig August Theodor Beck (29 June 1880 – 21 July 1944) was a German general and Chief of the German General Staff during the early years of the Nazi regime in Germany before World War II.
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Luigi Capello (14 April 1859 – 25 June 1941) was an Italian army officer.
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Lynne Rienner Publishers is an independent scholarly and textbook publishing firm based in Boulder, CO.
M.E. Sharpe, Inc., an academic publisher, was founded by Myron Sharpe in 1958 with the original purpose of publishing translations from Russian in the social sciences and humanities.
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Macedonia (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) is a geographic and historical region of Greece in the southern Balkans.
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Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.
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Macedonians or Macedonian Bulgarians (Македонски българи or Mакедонци), sometimes also referred to as Macedono-Bulgarians or Macedo-Bulgarians is a regional, ethnographic group of ethnic Bulgarians, inhabiting or originating from Macedonia.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the preeminent leader of the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India.
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The Malayan Campaign was fought by Allied and Axis forces in Malaya, from 8 December 1941 – 31 January 1942 during the Second World War.
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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia.
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Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.
The Manchu are a Chinese ethnic minority and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
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Manchukuo was a puppet state in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia, which was governed under a form of constitutional monarchy.
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Manchuria is a modern name given to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
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The Mannerheim Line (Mannerheim-linja, Mannerheimlinjen) was a defensive fortification line on the Karelian Isthmus built by Finland against the Soviet Union.
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Manuel Acuña Róxas (January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was the fifth President of the Philippines who served from 1946 until his death in 1948.
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Martial law is the imposition of the highest-ranking military officer as the military governor or as the head of the government, thus removing all power from the previous executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.
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Materiel (from the French matériel for equipment or hardware, related to the word material, and sometimes so spelled in English) is military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.
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Mein Kampf ("My Struggle") is an autobiographical manifesto by National Socialist leader Adolf Hitler, in which he outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany.
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Mengjiang (Mengkiang;; Hepburn: Mōkyō), also known in English as Mongol Border Land, was an autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, existing as a puppet state of the Empire of Japan under nominal Chinese sovereignty.
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A member of the armed forces mentioned in dispatches (or despatches, MiD) is one whose name appears in an official report written by a superior officer and sent to the high command, in which is described his or her gallant or meritorious action in the face of the enemy.
Michael I (Mihai I; born 25 October 1921) was King of Romania from 20 July 1927 to 8 June 1930 and again from 6 September 1940 to 30 December 1947.
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Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya (Vitéz"Vitéz" refers to a Hungarian knightly order founded by Miklós Horthy ("Vitézi Rend"); literally, "vitéz" means "knight" or "valiant".;; English: Nicholas Horthy Nikolaus Horthy Ritter von Nagybánya; 18 June 18689 February 1957) was a Hungarian admiral and statesman who served as formally the Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary between World Wars I and II and throughout most of World War II, from 1 March 1920 to 15 October 1944.
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Milan Aćimović (Милан Аћимовић, 1898–1945) was a Serbian politician who collaborated with the Axis in Yugoslavia during World War II.
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Milan Nedić (Милан Недић; 2 September 1878 – 4 February 1946) was a Serbian general and politician.
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The Milice française (French Militia), generally called the Milice, was a paramilitary force created on January 30, 1943 by the Vichy regime (with German aid) to help fight against the French Resistance during World War II.
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Greece entered World War II on 28 October 1940, when the Italian army invaded from Albania, beginning the Greco-Italian War.
Military occupation is effective provisional control of a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign.
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A mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum.
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The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark (Udenrigsministeriet) and its overseas representations (i.e. the Danish embassies, diplomatic missions, consulates and trade offices) are in charge of Denmark's foreign affairs.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, named after the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, officially the Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a non-aggression pact signed between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in Moscow on 23 August 1939.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was an August 23, 1939, agreement between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany colloquially named after Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop.
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
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The Mongolian People's Republic (Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU)) was a socialist state in Central Asia which existed between 1924 and 1992.
The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
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Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.
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Morocco (المغرب; ⵍⵎⴰⵖⵔⵉⴱ or Muṛṛakuc, ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ; Maroc), officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa.
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The Moscow Armistice was signed between Finland on one side and the Soviet Union and United Kingdom on the other side on September 19, 1944, ending the Continuation War.
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The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 12 March 1940, and the ratifications were exchanged on 21 March.
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A mufti (مفتي; müftü) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh).
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The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by rogue Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.
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Munich (also in UK English; München,, Minga) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
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The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation "Sudetenland" was coined.
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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.
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Myanmar (or (also with the stress on first syllable)), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand.
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The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking or Rape of Nanjing, was an episode during the Second Sino-Japanese War of mass murder and mass rape by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (then spelled Nanking), then capital of the Republic of China.
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was the Japanese League of Nations mandate consisting of several groups of islands (modern-day Palau, Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, and Marshall Islands) in the Pacific Ocean which came under the administration of Japan after the defeat of the German Empire in World War I.
Nasjonal Samling (National Unity), abbreviated NS, was a Norwegian fascist party active from 1933 to 1945.
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The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic.
The National Assembly of the Philippines (Kapulungáng Pambansâ ng Pilipinas, Asamblea Nacional de Filipinas) refers to the legislatures of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1941, and of the Second Philippine Republic during Japanese occupation.
The National Liberation Movement (Lëvizja Nacional Çlirimtare or Lëvizja Antifashiste Nacional Çlirimtare (LANÇ)), also translated as National Liberation Front, was an Albanian resistance organization that fought in World War II.
The National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging in Nederland,, NSB) was a Dutch fascist and later national socialist political party.
The Nationalist faction (Bando nacional) or Rebel faction (Bando sublevado) was a major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.
The Nationalist government refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1927 to 1948, led by the Kuomintang (KMT) party.
Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945 that practised Nazism.
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The involvement of the Netherlands in World War II began with its invasion by Nazi Germany on 10 May 1940.
The neutral powers were countries that remained neutral throughout the Second World War.
The Neva (Нева́) is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast (historical region of Ingria) to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland.
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Sir Nevile Meyrick Henderson KCMG (10 June 1882 – 30 December 1942) was a British diplomat and Ambassador of the United Kingdom to Nazi Germany from 1937 to 1939.
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New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
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The New Fourth Army was a unit of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China established in 1937.
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The New Order (German: Neuordnung) or the New Order of Europe (German: Neuordnung Europas) was the political order which Nazi Germany wanted to impose on the conquered areas under its dominion.
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Nice (Niçard Niça or Nissa, Nizza or Nizza Marittima, Νίκαια, Latin: Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France, after Paris, Marseille, Lyon and Toulouse, and it is the capital of the Alpes Maritimes département.
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Nicholas I Mirkov Petrovich-Nyegosh (Никола I Мирков Петровић-Његош, Serbian Latin: Nikola I Mirkov Petrović-Njegoš) (– 1 March 1921) was the ruler of Montenegro from 1860 to 1918, reigning as sovereign prince from 1860 to 1910 and as king from 1910 to 1918.
The Night of the Long Knives (German), sometimes called Operation Hummingbird or, in Germany, the Röhm Putsch (German spelling: Röhm-Putsch), or sometimes mockingly Reichsmordwoche, was a purge that took place in Nazi Germany from June 30 to July 2, 1934, when the Nazi regime carried out a series of political murders.
The Normandy landings (codenamed Operation Neptune) were the landing operations on 6 June 1944 (termed D-Day) of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
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Norodom Sihanouk (នរោត្តម សីហនុ; 31 October 192215 October 2012) was the King of Cambodia from 1941 to 1955 and again from 1993 to 2004.
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North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa.
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Northern Italy is a cultural and geographical region, without any administrative purpose, used to indicate the northern part of the Italian state, also informally referred as Il Nord, Settentrione or Alta Italia.
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Northern Transylvania is a region of Transylvania, with an area of, situated within the territory of Romania, that during World War II, as a consequence of the territorial agreement known as the Second Vienna Award, became part of Hungary.
The Norwegian resistance to the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany began after Operation Weserübung in 1940 and ended in 1945.
Nygaardsvold's Cabinet was appointed on 20 March 1935, the second Labour cabinet in Norway.
The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during the Second World War (1939–1945) began with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and formally concluded with the defeat of Nazism by the Allies in May 1945.
The occupation of the Baltic states refers to the military occupation of the three Baltic states—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact on 14 June 1940 followed by their incorporation into the USSR as constituent republics, unrecognised internationally by most countries.
The Occupation of the Ruhr (Ruhrbesetzung) was a period of military occupation of the German Ruhr valley by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 in response to the Weimar Republic's failure to continue its reparation payments in the aftermath of World War I.
The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II.
During World War II, Operation Attila was a plan for the Nazi occupation of Vichy France.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, which began on 22 June 1941.
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Operation Overlord was the code name for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied western Europe during World War II.
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Operation Panzerfaust, known as Unternehmen Panzerfaust in Germany, was a military operation to keep the Kingdom of Hungary at Germany's side in the war, conducted in October 1944 by the German military (Wehrmacht).
Operation Silver Fox (Silberfuchs) was a joint German–Finnish military operation plan during World War II, though it was mainly operated and engaged by Germans.
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Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa during the North African Campaign of the Second World War which started on 8 November 1942.
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The U Go offensive, or Operation C (ウ号作戦), was the Japanese offensive launched in March 1944 against forces of the British Empire in the northeast Indian region of Manipur.
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Operation Weserübung was the code name for Germany's assault on Denmark and Norway during the Second World War and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign.
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Oran (وهران, Wahrān; Berber: ⵡⴻⵀⵔⴰⵏ) is a major city on the northwestern Mediterranean coast of Algeria, and the second largest city of the country.
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Orava is the traditional name of a region situated in northern Slovakia (as Orava) and partially also in southern Poland (as Orawa).
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Otava Publishing Company Ltd. (Kustannusosakeyhtiö Otava in Finnish) is a major Finnish publisher of books.
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Otto Skorzeny (12 June 19085 July 1975) was an Austrian SS-Standartenführer (colonel) in the German Waffen-SS during World War II.
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The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theatre of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and East Asia.
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The Pact of Steel (Stahlpakt, Patto d'Acciaio), known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was a military and political alliance between the Kingdom of Italy and Germany.
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Palestine (فلسطين.,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; Hebrew: פלשתינה Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.
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Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
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Pan-Asianism (also known as Asianism or Greater Asianism) is an ideology that promotes the unity of Asian peoples.
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The Paris Peace Treaties were signed on 10 February 1947, as the outcome of the Paris Peace Conference, held from 29 July to 15 October 1946.
The Party of Hungarian Life (Magyar Élet Pártja, MÉP), also previously known as the Party of National Unity (Nemzeti Egység Pártja) from 1932 to 1939, was a Hungarian Szegedist political party.
Pearl Harbor is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu.
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Pechenga (Пече́нга; Finnish and Petsamo; Petsjenga; Beahcán; Peäccam) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Pechengsky District, Murmansk Oblast, Russia.
The Persian Gulf is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
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Peter II of Yugoslavia, also known as Peter II Karađorđević (Serbo-Croatian: Petar II Karađorđević, Serbian Cyrillic: Петар II Карађорђевић; 6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970), was the last King of Yugoslavia and the last reigning member of the Karađorđević dynasty, founded early in the 19th century.
Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.
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Phayap Army (ทัพพายัพ RTGS: Thap Phayap or Payap, northwest) was the Thai force that invaded Burma on 10 May 1942 during the Burma Campaign of World War II.
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"Pheng Xat Lao" (lit. English: Hymn of the Lao People) is the national anthem of the Lao People's Democratic Republic.
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Prince Phetsarath Ratanavongsa (Somdej Chao Maha Oupahat Pethsarath Ratanavongsa lit: His Highness (the) Vice-King Phetsarath Ratanavongsa) (ເພັດຊະລາດ; 19 January 1890 – 14 October 1959) was prime minister of Laos from 1942 to 1945, and was the first and last vice-king of the Kingdom of Laos.
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain, Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain or The Lion of Verdun), was a French general who reached the distinction of Marshal of France, and was later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de l'État Français), from 1940 to 1944.
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The Philippine Falange, the informal name for the Spanish National Assemblies of the Philippines(Juntas Nacional Española) was a Philippine falangist political party that was a branch of the Spanish Falange.
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The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.
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Phnom Penh (or; ភ្នំពេញ,, formerly romanized as Panomping) is the capital and largest city of Cambodia.
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A phosphate (PO43−) as an inorganic chemical is a salt of phosphoric acid.
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Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram (แปลก พิบูลสงคราม;; alternatively transcribed as Pibulsongkram or Pibulsonggram; 14 July 1897 – 11 June 1964), contemporarily known as Luang Pibulsonggram, often as Phibunsongkhram (Pibul Songgram) or simply Phibun (Pibul) in the West, was Prime Minister and virtual military dictator of Thailand from 1938 to 1944 and 1948 to 1957.
Plutocracy or plutarchy, is a form of oligarchy and defines a society ruled or controlled by the small minority of the wealthiest citizens.
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The Po Valley, Po Plain, Plain of the Po, or Padan Plain (Pianura Padana or Val Padana) is a major geographical feature of Italy.
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Poglavnik was the title used by Ante Pavelić, leader of World War II Croatian movement Ustaše and of the Independent State of Croatia between 1941 and 1945.
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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.
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Border conflicts between Poland and Czechoslovakia began in 1918 between the Second Polish Republic and First Czechoslovak Republic, both freshly created states.
The Polish–Romanian Alliance was a series of treaties signed in the interwar period by the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Romania.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was an armed conflict that pitted Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine against the Second Polish Republic and the Ukrainian People's Republic over the control of an area equivalent to today's Ukraine and parts of modern-day Belarus.
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Ponderano is a municipality in the province of Biella, Piemont, northwestern Italy.
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The Popular Front (French: Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period.
The President of the Philippines (Pangulo ng Pilipinas) is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines.
Pridi Banomyong (ปรีดี พนมยงค์;; May 11, 1900 – May 2, 1983) was a Thai politician.
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The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraq's head of government.
The is the head of government of Japan.
Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta (Aimone Roberto Margherita Maria Giuseppe Torino; 9 March 1900 – 29 January 1948) was a prince of Italy's reigning House of Savoy and an officer of the Royal Italian Navy.
Prokletije (Проклетије, Bjeshkët e Namuna, both translated as "cursed mountains") is a mountain range on the western Balkan peninsula, extending from northern Albania to Kosovo and eastern Montenegro.
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The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was the majority ethnic-Czech protectorate of Nazi Germany established following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia by annexing Sudetenland territory of Czech Lands as a Reichsgau.
Provisional government is an emergency or interim government set up when a political void has been created by the collapse of a very large government.
The Provisional Government of the Republic of China (or Chūka Minkoku Rinji Seifu) was a Chinese provisional government protected by the Empire of Japan that existed from 1937 to 1940 during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, literally the "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico"), is a United States territory located in the northeastern Caribbean.
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Puyi (7 February 1906 – 17 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, commonly known as Henry Pu Yi (Pu-yi), was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.
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The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, also called the Empire of the Great Qing, or the Manchu dynasty, was the last imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917.
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A quisling is a person who collaborates with an enemy occupying force.
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The Quisling regime or Quisling government are common names used to refer to the collaborationist government led by Vidkun Quisling in occupied Norway during the Second World War.
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Royal Air Force Station Habbaniya, more commonly known as RAF Habbaniya, (originally RAF Dhibban) was a Royal Air Force station at Habbaniyah, about west of Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, on the banks of the Euphrates near Lake Habbaniyah.
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Rashid Aali al-Gaylani (رشيد عالي الكيلاني, also spelled Sayyad Rashid Aali al-Gillani, Sayyad Rashid Ali al-Gailani, or sometimes Sayyad Rashid Ali el Keilany) (1892 – August 28, 1965) served as Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Iraq on three occasions.
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that he or she thinks are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society.
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The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya: RKKA, frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия; KA, in English: Red Army) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
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A referendum (in some countries synonymous with plebiscite — or a vote on a ballot question) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to vote on a particular proposal.
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The Reformed Government of the Republic of China (Zhōnghuá Mínguó Wéixīn Zhèngfǔ or 中華民国政府改革) was a Chinese provisional government protected by Japan that existed from 1938 to 1940 during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
A regent (from the Latin regens, " ruling") is "a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated." The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency.
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was a special title and rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945 for the commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS).
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The Reichskommissariat Niederlande was the civilian occupation regime set up by Germany in the German-occupied Netherlands during World War II.
The Reichskommissariat Norwegen was the civilian occupation regime set up by Nazi Germany in German-occupied Norway during World War II.
Nazi Germany established the Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) in 1941 as the civilian occupation regime in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), the northeastern part of Poland and the west part of the Belarusian SSR during World War II.
During World War II, Reichskommissariat Ukraine (abbreviated as RKU), was the civilian occupation regime of much of German-occupied Ukraine (which included adjacent areas of modern Belarus and pre-war Poland).
The Reichstag (English: Diet of the Realm) was a legislative body of Weimar Germany (the "German Reich") from 1919, when it succeeded the Weimar National Assembly, until the Nazi takeover in 1933.
The Reichswehr (English: Reich Defence) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the newly founded Wehrmacht ("Defence Force").
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The remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March 1936 when German military forces entered the Rhineland.
The Reorganized National Government was the name of the collaborationist government established in the Republic of China from 1940-1945.
A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.
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The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia; Repùblica Vèneta), or traditionally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice, was a state originating from the lagoon communities in the area of Venice, now northeastern Italy.
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Resistance movements during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda, to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
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The Rhône (Rhône,; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising in Switzerland, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
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Risto Heikki Ryti (–) was the fifth president of Finland, from 1940 to 1944.
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Rodopi, founded in 1966 in Amsterdam, Netherlands, is an academic publishing company with offices in the Netherlands and the United States.
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The Roman Legion (1941-1943) or Vlach "Roman Legion" or Vlach Legion (as it is mentioned in some cases in later bibliography) is the name used by the political and paramilitary organization created by Alcibiades Diamandi, a Vlach origin agent of Italy and Romania from Samarina,Οι Κουτσόβλαχοι, Εθνολογική και λαογραφική μελέτη, Α. Κολτσίδας (Antones Mich Koltsidas), 1976, σελ.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group living mostly in Europe and the Americas, who originate from the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent.
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Following the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939, the Kingdom of Romania under King Carol II officially adopted a position of neutrality.
Two Romanian armies, the Third and the Fourth, were involved in the Battle of Stalingrad, helping to protect the northern and southern flanks respectively of the German 6th Army as it tried to conquer the city of Stalingrad, defended by the Soviet Red Army in mid to late 1942.
The Rome Protocols were a series of three international agreements signed in Rome on 17 March 1934 between the governments of Austria, Hungary and Italy.
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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
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Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
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The Royal Danish Navy (Søværnet in Danish) is the sea-based branch of the Danish Defence force.
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The Royal Yugoslav Army (Jugoslavenska vojska, Југословенска војска) was the armed force of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from the state's formation until the force's surrender to the Axis powers on April 17, 1941.
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The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region or Ruhr valley, is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
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The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; r) commonly referred to as Soviet Russia or simply as Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I was a sovereign state in 1917–22, the largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic of the Soviet Union in 1922–91 and a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with own legislation in 1990–91.
The Ryti–Ribbentrop letter of agreement (Ryti–Ribbentrop-sopimus) of June 26, 1944, was a personal letter from President Risto Ryti of Finland to German Führer Adolf Hitler whereby Ryti agreed not to reach a separate peace in the war with the Soviet Union without approval from Nazi Germany, in order to secure German military aid for Finland to stop the Soviet offensive.
Saint Petersburg (p) is the second largest city in Russia, politically incorporated as a federal subject (a federal city).
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The Sandžak Muslim militia (Муслиманска Усташка Милиција, or Муслиманска Милиција) was established in Sandžak and eastern Herzegovina in Axis occupied Yugoslavia between April or June and August 1941 during World War II.
Sang Phathanothai (1914 – June, 1986) was a Thai politician, union leader, and journalist.
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The Savoia-Marchetti SM.75 Marsupiale (Marsupial) was an Italian passenger and military transport aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s.
The Hungarian Second Army (Második Magyar Hadsereg) was one of three field armies (hadsereg) raised by the Kingdom of Hungary (Magyar Királyság) which saw action during World War II.
The Second Happy Time, also known among German submarine commanders as the American shooting season, was the informal name for a phase in the Second Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis submarines attacked merchant shipping and U.S. naval vessels along the east coast of North America.
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The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war that started in October 1935 and ended in May 1936.
The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Firipin kyōwakoku, Repúbliká ng Pilipinas), or known in the Philippines as Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, was a puppet state established on October 14, 1943, during the Japanese occupation.
The Second Polish Republic, also known as the Second Commonwealth of Poland or the interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 – September 9, 1945), so named due to the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95, was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1945.
The Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española) was the republican regime that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939, preceded by the Restoration and followed by Francoist Spain after the Spanish Civil War.
Sekula Drljević (7 September 1884 – 10 November 1945) was a Montenegrin politician and lawyer.
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The Senate of the Philippines (Filipino: Senado ng Pilipinas, also Mataas na Kapulungan ng Pilipinas or "upper chamber") is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress; the House of Representatives is the lower house.
Mom Rajawongse Seni Pramoj (May 26, 1905July 28, 1997) (หม่อมราชวงศ์เสนีย์ ปราโมช,, pronunciation) was three times the prime minister of Thailand and a politician in the Democrat Party.
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The Serbian State Guard (Srpska državna straža or SDS, Српска државна стража; Serbische Staatsgarde) was an auxiliary paramilitary force used to impose law and order within the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia during the German military occupation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in World War II.
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The Serbian Volunteer Corps or SDK (Srpski dobrovoljački korpus, Српски добровољачки корпус; Serbisches Freiwilligenkorps), also known as Ljotićevci after their ideological leader Dimitrije Ljotić, was a collaborationist anti-Partisan military formation that was raised in the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia during World War II.
Shan State (ရှမ်းပြည်နယ်,; Shan: မိူင်းတႆး; รัฐฉาน) is a state of Myanmar.
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Sicily (Sicilia, Old Norse: Sikiley) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea; along with surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy officially referred to as Regione Sicilia.
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The Siege of Leningrad, also known as the Leningrad Blockade (блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: blokada Leningrada) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken by the German Army Group North against Leningrad—historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg—in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
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Simon & Schuster, Inc., a division of CBS Corporation, is a publisher founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard L. Simon and M. Lincoln ("Max") Schuster.
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Sisavang Vatthana (ເຈົ້າສີສະຫວ່າງວັດທະນາ) or sometimes Savang Vatthana (full name Samdach Brhat Chao Mavattaha Sri Vitha Lan Xang Hom Khao Phra Rajanachakra Lao Parama Sidha Khattiya Suriya Varman Brhat Maha Sri Savangsa Vadhana) (13 November 1907 – 13 May (?) 1978; or perhaps as late as 1984) was the last king of the Kingdom of Laos.
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Sisavang Phoulivong (or Sisavangvong, ເຈົ້າມະຫາຊີວິດສີສະຫວ່າງວົງ) (14 July 1885 – 29 October 1959) was king of the Kingdom of Luang Phrabang and later the Kingdom of Laos from 28 April 1904 until his death on 29 October 1959.
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The Slovak National Uprising (Slovenské národné povstanie, abbreviated SNP) or 1944 Uprising was an armed insurrection organized by the Slovak resistance movement during World War II.
The (First) Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika) otherwise known as the Slovak State (Slovenský štát) was a client state of Nazi Germany which existed between 14 March 1939 and 4 April 1945.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a country in Central Europe.
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Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a nation state in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
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Sofia (София, Sofiya) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
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Son Ngoc Thanh (Sơn Ngọc Thành, សឺង ង៉ុកថាញ់) (December 7, 1908 – August 8, 1977) was a Cambodian nationalist and republican politician, with a long history as a rebel and (for brief periods) a government minister.
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South Tyrol (German and Ladin: Südtirol, Italian: Sudtirolo), also known by its Italian name Alto Adige, is an autonomous province in northern Italy.
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Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
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Southern Dobruja (Bulgarian: Южна Добруджа, Yuzhna Dobrudzha or simply Добруджа, Dobrudzha) is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra.
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In international law, a sovereign state is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
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The Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operaciya) began on 9 August 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo and was the last campaign of the Second World War and the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War which resumed hostilities between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan after almost six years of peace.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina was the military occupation of the formerly Romanian regions of Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, and Hertza by the Soviet Red Army during June 28 – July 4, 1940.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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The Soviet–Japanese border conflicts was a series of combats and skirmishes, without any formal declaration of war, occurred between 1932 and 1945.
The, also known as the was a pact between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the brief Soviet–Japanese Border War (1939).
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
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Spanish Guinea (Spanish: Guinea Española) was a set of insular and continental territories controlled by Spain since 1778 in the Gulf of Guinea and on the Bight of Bonny, in Central Africa.
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Spanish Sahara (Sáhara Español; الصحراء الاسبانية Al-Sahrā'a Al-Isbānīyah) was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled as a territory by Spain between 1884 and 1975.
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Spazio vitale (Italian for "vital space") was the territorial expansionist concept of Italian Fascism.
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In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
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Spiš (Latin: Cips/Zepus/Scepus, Zips, Szepesség, Spisz) is a region in north-eastern Slovakia, with a very small area in south-eastern Poland (14 villages).
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Split (Spalato, see Name section) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia.
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The stab-in-the-back myth (Dolchstoßlegende) was the notion, widely believed in right-wing circles in Germany after 1918, that the German Army did not lose World War I but was instead betrayed by the civilians on the home front, especially the republicans who overthrew the monarchy.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
The State of Burma (Burmese) was created in 1943 during the Japanese occupation of Burma.
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Stjepan Radić (11 June 1871 – 8 August 1928) was a Croatian politician and the founder of the Croatian People's Peasant Party (Hrvatska pučka seljačka stranka) in 1905.
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Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945), widely known throughout India as Netaji (Hindustani: "Respected Leader"), was an Indian nationalist and prominent figure of the Indian independence movement, whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Japan left a troubled legacy.
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The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety, Kraj Sudetów) is the German name (used in English in the first half of the 20th century) to refer to those northern, southwest, and western areas of Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by German speakers, specifically the border districts of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia located within Czechoslovakia.
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The Universal Suez Ship Canal Company (Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez, or simply Compagnie de Suez for short) was the corporation that constructed and operated the Suez Canal between 1859 and 1869.
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Sukarno (Surabaya, 6 June 1901 – Jakarta, 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia, serving in office from 1945 to 1967.
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Sussex Academic Press is a book publishing company based in Eastbourne, United Kingdom.
Switzerland (Schweiz;Swiss Standard German spelling and pronunciation. The Swiss German name is sometimes spelled as Schwyz or Schwiiz. Schwyz is also the standard German (and international) name of one of the Swiss cantons. Suisse; Svizzera; Svizra or),The latter is the common Sursilvan pronunciation.
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The Syria–Lebanon campaign, also known as Operation Exporter, was the Allied invasion of Vichy French-controlled Syria and Lebanon in June–July 1941, during World War II.
The Syrian Republic (الجمهورية السورية; République syrienne) was formed in 1930 as a component of the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon, succeeding the State of Syria.
Taiwan (see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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Tangier (also in English: Tangiers; طنجة Ṭanja; Berber: Ṭanja, ⵟⴰⵏⵊⴰ; archaic Berber name: Tingi or Tinigi; Tingis; Tanger) is a major city in northern Morocco with a population of approximately 974,000.
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Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in the United Kingdom that publishes books and academic journals.
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The Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia (Gebiet des Militärbefehlshabers in Serbien) was the area of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that was placed under a military government of occupation by the Wehrmacht following the invasion, occupation and dismantling of Yugoslavia in April 1941.
Texas A&M University Press (also known informally as TAMU Press) is a scholarly publishing house associated with Texas A&M University.
Thailand (or; ประเทศไทย), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย), formerly known as Siam (สยาม), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Mainland Southeast Asia.
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Thailand officially adopted a position of neutrality until it was invaded by Japan in December 1941.
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a non-fiction book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the 1920s to 1945.
The Second World War is a history of the period from the end of the First World War to July 1945, written by Winston Churchill.
Thrace (demonym Thracian; Θρᾴκη, Thrāikē; modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakija; Trakya; in Antiquity also referred to as Europe prior to extending the meaning for the whole continent) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe, centered on the modern borders of Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey.
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The Three Alls Policy was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II, the three "alls" being "kill all, burn all, loot all".
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Tirana (Standard Tiranë; regional Gheg Albanian: Tirona) is the capital and largest city of Albania.
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Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, and justifies using weapons and tactics that result in significant civilian or other non-combatant casualties, whether collateral damage or not.
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The Transnistria Governorate (Guvernământul Transnistriei) was a Romanian-administered territory, conquered by the Axis Powers from the Soviet Union during Operation Barbarossa and occupied from 19 August 1941 to 29 January 1944.
Trần Trọng Kim (January 1, 1883– December 2, 1953) was a Vietnamese scholar and politician who served as the Prime Minister of the short-lived Empire of Vietnam, a puppet state created by Imperial Japan in 1945.
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In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's sovereign or nation.
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The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest, Belarus), after two months of negotiations.
The Treaty of Craiova was signed on 7 September 1940 between the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Romania.
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The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano (Russian: Сан-Стефанский мир; Peace of San-Stefano, Сан-Стефанский мирный договор; Peace treaty of San-Stefano, Turkish: Ayastefanos Muahedesi or Ayastefanos Antlaşması) was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at San Stefano, then a village west of Constantinople, on 3 March 1878, by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Aleksandr Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Safvet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadoullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire.
The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement of 1920 to formally end World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary.
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The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.
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The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Adolf Hitler, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.
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The Turkish Straits (Türk Boğazları) are a series of waterways in Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea (and hence the Mediterranean) to the Black Sea.
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Tuzla is a city in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
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Ukraine (Україна, tr. Ukraina) is a country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland and Slovakia to the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
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Christian August Ulrich von Hassell (12 November 1881 – 8 September 1944) was a German diplomat during World War II.
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The United States Naval Institute (USNI), based in Annapolis, Maryland, is a private, non-profit, professional military association that seeks to offer independent, nonpartisan forums for debate of national defense and security issues.
The University of Missouri Press is a university press operated by the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri and London, England.
The University of Wisconsin Press (sometimes abbreviated as UW Press) is a non-profit university press publishing peer-reviewed books and journals.
The Uprising in Montenegro (Устанак у Црној Гори) was a general and popular uprising against Italian occupation forces in Montenegro (Axis occupied Yugoslavia).
The Ural Mountains (p; Урал тауҙары), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
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The Ustaše, also known as "Ustashe", "Ustashas", and "Ustashi", were members of the Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret), a Croatian fascist, ultranationalist and terrorist organization, active, in its original form, between 1929 and 1945.
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The Ustaše Militia (Ustaška vojnica, Усташка војница) was the party army of the Ustaše, established by the fascist regime of Ante Pavelić in the Axis puppet state the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) in Yugoslavia during World War II.
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The Vardar Banovina or Vardar Banate or Vardarska Banovina (Vardarska banovina, Вардарска бановина) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941.
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Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is a walled enclave within the city of Rome.
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Velebit (Alpi Bebie) is the largest though not the highest mountain range in Croatia.
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Venice (Venezia; alternative obsolete form: Vinegia; Venetian: Venèxia; Venetiae; Benetke) is a city in northeastern Italy sited on a group of 118 small islands separated by canals and linked by bridges.
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Vichy is a city in the Allier department in Auvergne in central France.
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Vichy France is the Allies' description of the government of the French State (État français), following its relocation to the spa town of Vichy, headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain from 1940 to 1944 during World War II.
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Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling (18 July 1887 – 24 October 1945) was a Norwegian military officer and politician.
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The Vienna Award (also Vienna Arbitration or Vienna Diktat) is either of two arbitral decisions of Germany and Italy rewarding disputed territory to Hungary.
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Vientiane (ວຽງຈັນ, Viang chan) is the capital and largest city of Laos, on the banks of the Mekong River near the border with Thailand.
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The Vietnamese Famine of 1945 (Nạn đói Ất Dậu - Famine of the Yiyou Year) was a famine that occurred in northern Vietnam from October 1944 to May 1945, during the Japanese occupation of French Indochina in World War II.
Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in the north of Vietnam and is the national and official language of the country.
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Vizille is a commune in the Isère department in southeastern France.
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Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (p), alias Lenin (p) (– 21 January 1924) was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
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The Castle of Voghera in a 19th-century etching. Voghera (Vogherese dialect of Emilian: Vughera; Latin: Forum Iulii Iriensium) is a town and comune of Lombardy, Italy, in the province of Pavia.
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The Voronezh Front (Воронежский Фронт) was a major formation of the Soviet Union's Red Army during the Second World War.
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Vyborg (p; Viipuri,; Viborg; Wiborg; Viiburi) is a town and the administrative center of Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of the Vyborg Bay, to the northwest of St. Petersburg and south of Russia's border with Finland, where the Saimaa Canal enters the Gulf of Finland.
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The Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive or Karelian offensive was a strategic operation by the Soviet Leningrad and Karelian Fronts against Finland on the Karelian Isthmus and East Karelia fronts of the Continuation War, on the Eastern Front of World War II.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was created as the armed wing of the Nazi Party's Schutzstaffel (SS, "Protective Squadron"), and gradually developed into a multi-ethnic and multi-national military force of Nazi Germany.
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Walter Karl Ernst August von Reichenau (8 October 1884 – 17 January 1942) was a German officer and Generalfeldmarschall during World War II.
Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei; 4 May 1883 – 10 November 1944); born as Wang Zhaoming (Wang Chao-ming), but widely known by his pen name "Jingwei", was a Chinese politician.
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The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force"From wehren, "to defend" and Macht, "power, force". See the Wiktionary article for more information.) was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1946.
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The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) was the federal republic and semi-presidential representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the German Empire.
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Welthauptstadt Germania ("World Capital Germania") refers to the projected renewal of the German capital Berlin during the Nazi period, part of Adolf Hitler's vision for the future of Germany after the planned victory in World War II.
Werner Eduard Fritz von Blomberg (2 September 1878 – 14 March 1946) was a German ''Generalfeldmarschall'', Minister of War, and Commander-in-Chief of the German Armed Forces until January 1938.
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Werner Thomas Ludwig Freiherr von Fritsch (4 August 1880 – 22 September 1939) was a prominent Wehrmacht officer, member of the German High Command, and the second German general to be killed during World War II.
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The Western Bloc or Capitalist Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and its allies.
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Western Thrace (Θράκη, Thráki,; Batı Trakya; Западна Тракия, Zapadna Trakiya or Беломорска Тракия, Belomorska Trakiya) is a geographic and historical region of Greece, located between the Nestos and Evros rivers in the northeast of the country.
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The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident (from Latin: occidens "sunset, West"; as contrasted with the Orient), is a term referring to different nations depending on the context.
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Westview Press is an American publishing house.
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Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
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The Winter War (Talvisota, Vinterkriget, r) was a military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland in 1939–1940.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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Nearly every country in the world participated in World War II, with the exception of a few states that remained neutral.
Military operations in World War II on the territory of Yugoslavia started on 6 April 1941, when the kingdom was swiftly conquered by Axis forces and partitioned between Germany, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria and client regimes.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, held from February 4 to 11, 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Premier Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization.
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The Yugoslav coup d'état occurred on 27 March 1941 in Belgrade, Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
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The Yugoslav government-in-exile was the official government of Yugoslavia, headed by King Peter II, which evacuated from Belgrade in April 1941, after the Axis invasion of the country, first to Greece, then Palestine, then to Egypt and finally, in June 1941, to the United Kingdom.
Yugoslav PartisansSerbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani, Партизани or the National Liberation Army,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачка војска (НОВ); Народноослободителна војска (НОВ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska (NOV) officially the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV i POJ), Народноослободилачка војска и партизански одреди Југославије (НОВ и ПОЈ); Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија (НОВ и ПОЈ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV in POJ) was Europe's most effective anti-Nazi resistance movement, often compared to the Polish resistance movement, albeit the latter was an exceptional, non-communist autonomic movement.
New!!: Axis powers and Yugoslav Partisans ·
'Yugoslavia' (Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Jugoslavija, Југославија), once spelled and called "Jugoslavia", was a country in Southeast Europe during most of the 20th century.
New!!: Axis powers and Yugoslavia ·
Yunnan (-) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
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Zadar (see other names) is the 5th largest city in Croatia situated on the Adriatic Sea.
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Zhou Fohai (Hepburn: Shū Futsukai; May 29, 1897 – February 28, 1948), Chinese politician, and second in command of the Executive Yuan in Wang Jingwei's collaborationist Reformed Government of the Republic of China.
New!!: Axis powers and Zhou Fohai ·
The zone libre (free zone) was a partition of the French metropolitan territory during the World War II, established at the Second Armistice at Compiègne on 22 June 1940.
New!!: Axis powers and Zone libre ·
The Zweites Buch ("Second Book") is an unedited transcript of Adolf Hitler's thoughts on foreign policy written in 1928; it was written after Mein Kampf and was not published in his lifetime.
New!!: Axis powers and Zweites Buch ·
The 33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French) and Charlemagne Regiment are collective names used for units of French volunteers in the Wehrmacht and later Waffen-SS during World War II.
3rd Ukrainian Front was a Front of the Red Army during World War II.
New!!: Axis powers and 3rd Ukrainian Front ·
The 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking was one of the elite Panzer divisions of the thirty eight Waffen SS divisions.
Achsenmächte, Axis (WWII), Axis (World War II), Axis Alliance, Axis Forces, Axis Power, Axis Powers, Axis Powers of World War II, Axis countries, Axis forces, Axis nations, Axis of WWII, Axis power, Axis powers of World War II, Axis powers of world war ii, Axis states, Axis states of World War II, Axis troops, Original Axis of Evil, Potenze dell'Asse, Rome-Berlin Axis, Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis, Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis, Rome–Berlin Axis, Sūjikukoku, The Axis, WWII Axis Powers, World War II Axis, 枢軸国.