262 relations: Adultery, Agence France-Presse, AHA Foundation, Aisha, Al Gore, Al-Qaeda, ALA-LC romanization, American Enterprise Institute, American Jewish Committee, Amharic, Amsterdam, Anisfield-Wolf Book Award, Apostasy in Islam, Arab Spring, Arabic, Arranged marriage, Atheïstisch manifest, Atheism, Atheist Alliance International, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Axel Springer, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Bellwether, Benjamin Netanyahu, Berlingske, Bernard Lewis, Bibi de Vries, Bonn, Brandeis University, British Indian, Burqa, Canada, Capital punishment, Child marriage, Christian revival, Christian Tybring-Gjedde, Christopher DeMuth, Christopher Hitchens, Circumcision, Cisca Dresselhuys, Civilizing mission, Classical liberalism, Consummation, Council on American–Islamic Relations, Council on Foreign Relations, Cousin marriage, Criticism of Islam, Criticism of Islamism, Criticism of religion, Cultural assimilation, ..., Darod, David Bernstein (law professor), Düsseldorf, Deborah Scroggins, Der Spiegel, Developing country, Development aid, Driebergen, Dutch language, Dutch nationality law, Elsevier, Elsevier (magazine), Ernst Hirsch Ballin, Ethiopia, Ethnic group, European Commission, European Union, Expatica, Fatwa, Fellow, Female genital mutilation, Flanders, Forced marriage, Foreign minister, Foundation for Freedom of Expression, Frederick M. Lawrence, Free Press (publisher), Freedom From Religion Foundation, Frits Bolkestein, Geert Wilders, General Intelligence and Security Service, Germany, Gerrit Zalm, Google Video, Hadith, Hans Wiegel, Hans-Dietrich Genscher, Haredi Judaism, Harem, Harper (publisher), HarperCollins, Hate speech, Heretic: Why Islam Needs a Reformation Now, Herman Philipse, Hijab, Hirsi Magan Isse, Hofstad Network, Honor killing, Hoover Institution, House of Representatives (Netherlands), HP/De Tijd, Human Rights Service, Ian Buruma, Ibrahim Hooper, Illegal immigration, Imam, Immigration policy, Immigration to Europe, Infidel: My Life, Irshad Manji, Islam, Islamic culture, Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic terrorism, Islamism, Islamophobia, Israel, Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, Jan Peter Balkenende, Jeffrey Herf, Joan of Arc, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, Joseph Conrad, Joseph E. B. Lumbard, Joshua Muravchik, Jozias van Aartsen, Jyllands-Posten, Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy, Kassel, Kenya, Labour Party (Netherlands), Leah Rabin, Leiden University, Liberalism and progressivism within Islam, Liberals (Sweden), Life imprisonment in the Netherlands, List of contemporary Muslim scholars of Islam, London Evening Standard, Los Angeles Times, Low Countries, Lower house, Maajid Nawaz, Madrid, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Martin Luther, Massachusetts, Master of Science, Max Rodenbeck, Mehdi Hasan, Member of parliament, Minister without portfolio, Ministry of Justice and Security, Mogadishu, Mohammed Bouyeri, Monopoly on violence, Montreal Gazette, Moroccan-Dutch, Motion (democracy), Muhammad, Muslim Brotherhood, Muslim world, Nairobi, Nancy Drew, Neelie Kroes, Neo-orientalism, Niall Ferguson, Nobel Peace Prize, Nomad: From Islam to America, Nova Civitas, Nuclear weapon, Opzij, Orientalism, Osama bin Laden, Palestinians, Parole, Patt Morrison, Pedophilia, People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, Permanent residence (United States), Philip Merrill Award for Outstanding Contributions to Liberal Arts Education, Phoenix, Arizona, Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, PJ Media, Political science, Prize for Liberty, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Quran, Raheel Raza, Reader's Digest, Reason (magazine), Rebiya Kadeer, Reformed Political Party, Residence permit, Resistance movement, Richard Miniter, Right of asylum, Rita Verdonk, Robert Zoellick, Roger L. Simon, Rula Jebreal, Salman Rushdie, Saudi Arabia, Second Balkenende cabinet, September 11 attacks, Sharia, Siad Barre, Sigmund Freud, Simone de Beauvoir Prize, Social integration, Social work, Somali Democratic Republic, Somali language, Somali Rebellion, Somali Salvation Democratic Front, Southern Poverty Law Center, Special school (Netherlands), Standpoint (magazine), Stanford University, States General of the Netherlands, Submission (2004 film), Swahili language, Tagesschau (German TV series), Taida Pasić, Taslima Nasrin, The Caged Virgin, The Daily Beast, The Economist, The Guardian, The Holocaust, The New York Review of Books, The New York Times, The Observer, The Satanic Verses, The Sunday Times, The Sydney Morning Herald, The Washington Times, Theo van Gogh (film director), Time (magazine), Time 100, Timothy Garton Ash, Tom Lantos, Triple J, Trouw, Tunku Varadarajan, TV 2 (Denmark), United Nations Development Programme, United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, United States Deputy Secretary of State, University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown, Venstre (Denmark), Vice president, Wafa Sultan, Wahhabism, Wiardi Beckman Stichting, Women in Islam, Women's rights, Women's Studies International Forum, Yitzhak Rabin, Zembla (TV series), 2015 San Bernardino attack. 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Adultery (from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
The AHA Foundation is a nonprofit organization for the defense of women's rights.
‘Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr (613/614 – 678 CE;عائشة بنت أبي بكر or عائشة, transliteration: ‘Ā’ishah, also transcribed as A'ishah, Aisyah, Ayesha, A'isha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha) was one of Muhammad's wives.
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script.
The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a conservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. which researches government, politics, economics and social welfare.
American Jewish Committee (AJC) is a Jewish advocacy group established on November 11, 1906.
Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
The Anisfield-Wolf Book Award is an American literary award dedicated to honoring written works that make important contributions to the understanding of racism and the appreciation of the rich diversity of human culture.
Apostasy in Islam (ردة or ارتداد) is commonly defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam by a Muslim in word or through deed.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by individuals other than the couple themselves, particularly family members, such as the parents.
Atheïstisch manifest: drie wijsgerige opstellen over godsdienst en moraal ("Atheist Manifesto: Three Philosophical Essays on Religion and Morality") is an essay bundle by the Dutch philosopher Herman Philipse.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Atheist Alliance International (AAI) is a global federation of atheist organizations and individuals, committed to educating the public about atheism, secularism and related issues.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
Axel Cäsar Springer (2 May 1912 – 22 September 1985) was a German journalist and the founder and owner of the Axel Springer SE publishing company.
The Robert and Renée Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (also known as the Belfer Center) is a permanent research center located within the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.
A bellwether is one that leads or indicates trends; a trendsetter.
Benjamin "Bibi" Netanyahu (born 21 October 1949) is an Israeli politician serving as the 9th and current Prime Minister of Israel since 2009, previously holding the position from 1996 to 1999.
Berlingske, previously known as Berlingske Tidende (Berling's Times), is a Danish national daily newspaper based in Copenhagen.
Bernard Lewis, FBA (31 May 1916 – 19 May 2018) was a British American historian specializing in oriental studies.
Bibi de Vries (born March 15, 1963 in Egmond aan Zee, North Holland) was a member of the Dutch liberal VVD (Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie) parliamentary party in the House of Representatives.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
Brandeis University is an American private research university in Waltham, Massachusetts, 9 miles (14 km) west of Boston.
British Indians (also Indian British or Indian Britons) are citizens of the United Kingdom (UK) whose ancestral roots lie in India.
A burqa (برقع), also known as chadri or paranja in Central Asia, is an enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions to cover themselves in public, which covers the body and the face.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching a certain age, specified by several global organizations such as UNICEF as minors under the age of 18.
Revivalism is increased spiritual interest or renewal in the life of a church congregation or society, with a local, national or global effect.
Christian Tybring-Gjedde (born 8 August 1963) is a Norwegian politician for the Progress Party, and former senior civil servant.
Christopher C. DeMuth (born August 5, 1946) is an American lawyer and a distinguished fellow at the Hudson Institute.
Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
Francisca Wilhelmina "Cisca" Dresselhuys (born in Leeuwarden on 21 April 1943) was the first head editor of the Dutch feminist monthly magazine Opzij from 1 November 1981 until 1 April 2008.
The mission civilisatrice (in English "civilizing mission") was a rationale for intervention or colonization, purporting to contribute to the spread of civilization, and used mostly in relation to the Westernization of indigenous peoples in the 15th - 20 th centuries.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
In many traditions and statutes of civil or religious law, the consummation of a marriage, often called simply consummation, is the first (or first officially credited) act of sexual intercourse between two people, either following their marriage to each other or after a prolonged romantic attraction.
The Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR) is a Muslim civil rights and advocacy group.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Cousin marriage is marriage between cousins (i.e. people with common grandparents or people who share other fairly recent ancestors).
Criticism of Islam has existed since its formative stages.
The ideas and practices of the leaders, preachers, and movements of the Islamic revival movement known as Islamism (also known as Political Islam), have been criticized by Muslims (often Islamic modernists and liberals) and non-Muslims.
Criticism of religion is criticism of the ideas, the truth, or the practice of religion, including its political and social implications.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
The Darod (Daarood, دارود) is a Somali clan.
David E. Bernstein (born 1967) is a professor at the George Mason University School of Law in Arlington, Virginia, where he has taught since 1995.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Deborah Scroggins (November 27, 1961 in Atlanta, Georgia"Deborah Scroggins." Contemporary Authors Online. Detroit: Gale, 2007.) is an American journalist and author.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid, official development assistance (ODA), or foreign aid) is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.
Driebergen is a former village and municipality in the Dutch province of Utrecht.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch nationality law is based primarily on the principle of jus sanguinis and is governed by the Kingdom Act on the Netherlands nationality (Rijkswet op het Nederlanderschap), which was signed by the monarch on 19 December 1984 and officially publicised on 27 December 1984.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Elsevier Weekblad is a Dutch weekly news magazine.
Ernst Maurits Henricus Hirsch Ballin (born 15 December 1950) is a retired Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Expatica is an online news and information portal that specifically serves English-speaking expatriates and the international community.
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
A fellow is a member of a group (or fellowship) that work together in pursuing mutual knowledge or practice.
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
A foreign minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations.
The Foundation for Freedom of Expression is a private trust to help protect Ayaan Hirsi Ali as well as other dissidents in the Muslim world by way of international charitable donations.
Frederick M. Lawrence (born 1955) is an American lawyer, civil rights scholar and Secretary and 10th Secretary and CEO of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, the nation’s first and most prestigious honor society, founded in 1776.
Free Press was a book publishing imprint of Simon & Schuster.
The Freedom From Religion Foundation (FFRF) is an American non-profit organization based in Madison, Wisconsin with members from all 50 states.
Frederik "Frits" Bolkestein (born 4 April 1933) is a retired Dutch politician of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD).
Geert Wilders (born 6 September 1963) is a Dutch politician who is the founder and the current leader of the Party for Freedom (Partij voor de Vrijheid – PVV).
The General Intelligence and Security Service (Algemene Inlichtingen- en Veiligheidsdienst (AIVD)) is the Intelligence and Security agency of the Netherlands.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gerrit Zalm (born 6 May 1952) is a retired Dutch politician of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD).
Google Video was a free video hosting service from Google, similar to YouTube, that allowed video clips to be hosted on Google servers and embedded on to other websites.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hans Wiegel (born 16 July 1941) is a retired Dutch politician of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD).
Hans-Dietrich Genscher (21 March 1927 – 31 March 2016) was a German statesman and a member of the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP), who served as the Minister of the Interior of West Germany from 1969 to 1974, and as the Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor of West Germany and then the reunified Germany from 1974 to 1992 (except for a two-week break in 1982), making him the longest-serving occupant of either post.
Haredi Judaism (חֲרֵדִי,; also spelled Charedi, plural Haredim or Charedim) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture.
Harem (حريم ḥarīm, "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family"), also known as zenana in South Asia, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations.
Harper is an American publishing house, currently the flagship imprint of global publisher HarperCollins.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Hate speech is speech that attacks a person or group on the basis of attributes such as race, religion, ethnic origin, national origin, gender, disability, sexual orientation, or gender identity.
Heretic: Why Islam Needs a Reformation Now is a 2015 book by Ayaan Hirsi Ali, in which the author advocates that a Muslim reformation is the only way to end the horrors of terrorism, sectarian warfare and the repression of women and minorities.
Herman Philipse (born 13 May 1951) is a professor of philosophy at Utrecht University in the Netherlands.
A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.
Hirsi Magan Isse (Xirsi Magan Ciise, هيرسي ماجان عيسى; 1935 — 2008) was a scholar and a leading figure of the Somali revolution.
The Hofstad Network (Dutch: Hofstadnetwerk or Hofstadgroep, or) was the name given to a group of mostly young Dutch persons, mainly North African ancestry, which Interpol had described as a terrorist organization.
An honor killing or shame killing is the murder of a member of a family, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their family, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, engaging in non-heterosexual relations or renouncing a faith.
The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.
The House of Representatives (pronounced; commonly referred to as the, literally Second Chamber) is the lower house of the bicameral parliament of the Netherlands, the States General, the other one being the Senate.
HP/De Tijd is a Dutch language monthly opinion magazine published by Audax Publishing in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Human Rights Service (HRS) is a Norwegian foundation established in 2001.
Ian Buruma (馬毅仁, born December 28, 1951) is a Dutch writer, editor and historian who lives and works in the United States.
Ibrahim Hooper (born Douglas Hooper) is the National Communications Director and spokesman for the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), a Washington D.C.-based Muslim civil rights and advocacy organization.
Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.
Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.
An immigration policy is any policy of a state that deals with the transit of people across its borders into the country, but especially those that intend to work and stay in the country.
Immigration to Europe has a long history, but increased substantially in the later 20th century.
Infidel (2006/published in English 2007) is the autobiography of Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a Somali-Dutch activist and politician.
Irshad Manji (born 1968) is a Canadian Muslim author, educator, and advocate of a reformist interpretation of Islam.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic people -- i.e., the culture of the Islamicate.
Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.
Islamic terrorism, Islamist terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism is defined as any terrorist act, set of acts or campaign committed by groups or individuals who profess Islamic or Islamist motivations or goals.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Islamophobia is the fear, hatred of, or prejudice against, the Islamic religion or Muslims generally, especially when seen as a geopolitical force or the source of terrorism.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jakob Gijsbert "Jaap" de Hoop Scheffer (born 3 April 1948) is a retired Dutch politician and diplomat of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).
Jan Pieter "Jan Peter" Balkenende Jr. (born 7 May 1956) is a retired Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 July 2002 until 14 October 2010.
Jeffrey C. Herf (born April 24, 1947) is an American historian.
Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc; 6 January c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.
The John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University (also known as Harvard Kennedy School and HKS) is a public policy and public administration school, of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Johnstown is a city in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, United States, west-southwest of Altoona and east of Pittsburgh.
Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language.
Joseph E.B. Lumbard is currently a professor at The American University of Sharjah in the Department of Arabic and Translation Studies.
Joshua Muravchik (born September 17, 1947 in New York City) is a distinguished fellow at the DC-based World Affairs Institute.
Jozias Johannes van Aartsen (born 25 December 1947) is a Dutch politician of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) serving as Acting Mayor of Amsterdam since 4 December 2017.
Morgenavisen Jyllands-Posten (English: The Morning Newspaper "The Jutland Post"), commonly shortened to JP, is a Danish daily broadsheet newspaper.
The Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy (or Muhammad cartoons crisis) (Danish: Muhammedkrisen) began after the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten published 12 editorial cartoons on 30 September 2005, most of which depicted Muhammad, a principal figure of the religion of Islam.
Kassel (spelled Cassel until 1928) is a city located at the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The Labour Party (Partij van de Arbeid,, abbreviated as PvdA, or P van de A) is a social-democratic political party in the Netherlands.
Leah Rabin (לאה רבין, née Schloßberg; 8 April 1928 – 12 November 2000) was the widow of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, who was assassinated in 1995.
Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.
Liberalism and progressivism within Islam involve professed Muslims who have produced a considerable body of liberal thought on the re-interpretation and reform of Islamic understanding and practice.
The Liberals (Liberalerna, L) is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Sweden.
Since the abolition of the death penalty in the Netherlands in 1870, life imprisonment has almost always meant imprisonment until death; unlike in other countries in Europe, there is no possibility of parole for anyone sentenced to life imprisonment.
This article is an incomplete list of noted modern-era (20th to 21st century) Islamic scholars.
The London Evening Standard (or simply Evening Standard) is a local, free daily newspaper, published Monday to Friday in tabloid format in London.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
Maajid Usman Nawaz (born 2 November 1977) is a British activist and politician.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
A Master of Science (Magister Scientiae; abbreviated MS, M.S., MSc, M.Sc., SM, S.M., ScM, or Sc.M.) is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries, or a person holding such a degree.
Max Rodenbeck is an American journalist and author, based in Cairo.
Mehdi Raza Hasan (born July 1979) is a British political journalist, broadcaster and author.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
A minister without portfolio is either a government minister with no specific responsibilities or a minister who does not head a particular ministry.
The Ministry of Justice and Security (Ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid; JenV) is the Dutch Ministry responsible for justice, imprisonment and public security.
Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.
Mohammed Bouyeri (محمد بويري; born 8 March 1978) is a Moroccan-Dutch Islamic terrorist and convicted murderer serving a life sentence without parole in Vught for the assassination of Dutch film director Theo van Gogh.
The monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force, also known as the monopoly on violence (Gewaltmonopol des Staates), is a core concept of modern public law, which goes back to Jean Bodin's 1576 work Les Six livres de la République and Thomas Hobbes' 1651 book Leviathan.
The Montreal Gazette, formerly titled The Gazette, is the only English-language daily newspaper published in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, after three other daily English newspapers shut down at various times during the second half of the 20th century.
The terms Moroccan-Dutch or Dutch-Moroccans refer to immigrants from Morocco to the Netherlands and their descendants.
A motion is a formal step to introduce a matter for consideration by a group.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya.
Nancy Drew is a fictional American character in a mystery fiction series created by publisher Edward Stratemeyer as the female counterpart to his Hardy Boys series.
Neelie Kroes (born 19 July 1941) is a retired Dutch politician of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD).
Neo-orientalism is a term, often used pejoratively, to describe modern incarnations of Orientalist thinking.
Niall Campbell Ferguson (born 18 April 1964) Niall Ferguson is a conservative British historian and political commentator.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
Nomad: From Islam to America: A Personal Journey Through the Clash of Civilizations (first published May 18, 2010) is a memoir by Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a sequel to her ''New York Times'' bestseller Infidel.
Nova Civitas was a Flemish think tank based on the principles of classic liberalism in combination with Anglo-Saxon conservatism.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Opzij is a mainstream Dutch feminist monthly magazine.
Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world).
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
Parole is a temporary release of a prisoner who agrees to certain conditions before the completion of the maximum sentence period, originating from the French parole ("voice, spoken words").
Patt Morrison is a journalist, author, and radio-television personality based in Los Angeles and Southern California.
Pedophilia, or paedophilia, is a psychiatric disorder in which an adult or older adolescent experiences a primary or exclusive sexual attraction to prepubescent children.
The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie, VVD) is a conservative-liberal political party in the Netherlands.
United States lawful permanent residency, informally known as having a green card, is the immigration status of a person authorized to live and work in the United States of America permanently.
The Philip Merrill Award for Outstanding Contributions to Liberal Arts Education is an annual prize given by the American Council of Trustees and Alumni to an individual who has “made an extraordinary contribution to the advancement of liberal arts education, core curricula, and the teaching of Western civilization and American history.” The award is named for the late public servant, publisher, entrepreneur, and philanthropist Philip Merrill.
Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arizona.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
The Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, also known as "the Trib," was the second largest daily printed newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States until it transitioned to an all-digital format on December 1, 2016.
PJ Media (originally known as Pajamas Media) is an American conservative news, opinion, and commentary collaborative blog that was founded in 2004.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
The Prize for Liberty (Prijs voor de Vrijheid in Dutch, sometimes translated as Prize of Liberty, Liberty Award or Prize for Freedom) is an annual award granted by the Flemish classical liberal think tank Libera!.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Raheel Raza (born 1949–50) is a Pakistani-Canadian journalist, author, public speaker, media consultant, anti-racism activist, and interfaith discussion leader.
Reader's Digest is an American general-interest family magazine, published ten times a year.
Reason is an American libertarian monthly magazine published by the Reason Foundation.
Rebiya Kadeer (رابىيە قادىر, Рабийә Қадир; born 15 November 1946) is an ethnic Uyghur, businesswoman, and political activist.
The Reformed Political Party (Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij, SGP) is an orthodox CalvinistThese sources describe the SGP as a Calvinist political party.
A residence permit (less commonly residency permit) is a document or card required in some regions, allowing a foreign national to reside in a country for a fixed or indefinite length of time.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
Richard Miniter (born 1967) is an investigative journalist and author whose articles have appeared in The New York Times, The Washington Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, Newsweek, The New Republic, National Review, PJ Media, and Reader’s Digest.
The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.
Maria Cornelia Frederika "Rita" Verdonk (born 18 October 1955) is a retired Dutch politician.
Robert Bruce Zoellick (born July 25, 1953) is an American public official and lawyer who was the eleventh president of the World Bank, a position he held from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2012.
Roger Lichtenberg Simon (born November 22, 1943) is an American novelist and Academy Award-nominated screenwriter.
Rula Jebreal (رولا جبريل, רולא ג'בריל; born April 24, 1973) is a Palestinian foreign policy analyst, journalist, novelist and screenwriter with dual Israeli and Italian citizenship.
Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born 19 June 1947) is a British Indian novelist and essayist.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Second Balkenende cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 27 May 2003 until 7 July 2006.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Mohamed Siad Barre (Maxamed Siyaad Barre; محمد سياد بري; October 6, 1919 – January 2, 1995) was a Somali politician who served as the President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
The Simone de Beauvoir Prize (Prix Simone de Beauvoir pour la liberté des femmes) is an international human rights prize for women's freedom, awarded since 2008 to individuals or groups fighting for gender equality and opposing breaches of human rights.
Social integration is the process during which newcomers or minorities are incorporated into the social structure of the host society.
Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.
The Somali Democratic Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiya Soomaaliya, الجمهورية الديمقراطية الصومالية al-Jumhūrīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah aṣ-Ṣūmālīyah, Repubblica Democratica Somala) was the name that the Marxist–Leninist military dictatorship government of former President of Somalia Major General Mohamed Siad Barre gave to Somalia during its rule, after having seized power in a bloodless 1969 coup d'état.
Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
The Somali Rebellion was the beginning of the civil war in Somalia that occurred in the late 1970s and early 1990s.
Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF) (Jabhadda Diimuqraadiga Badbaadinta Soomaaliyeed), initially known as the Democratic Front for Salvation of Somalia, was a political and paramilitary umbrella organization in Somalia.
The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American nonprofit legal advocacy organization specializing in civil rights and public interest litigation.
In the Dutch education system, particular education ("bijzonder onderwijs") refers to a separate category of education distinct from both public and private education, in which a school is administered by an independent board, as opposed to a government authority, while still receiving government funding.
Standpoint is a monthly British cultural and political magazine.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).
Submission is a 2004 English-language Dutch short drama film produced and directed by Theo van Gogh, and written by Ayaan Hirsi Ali (a former member of the Dutch House of Representatives for the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy); it was shown on the Dutch public broadcasting network (VPRO) on 29 August 2004.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
Tagesschau (German for Review of the Day) is a German national and international television news service produced by the editorial staff of ARD-aktuell on behalf of the German public-service television network ARD.
Taida Pasić (Serbian Cyrillic: Таида Пасић) (born 10 April 1987 in Pristina, Yugoslavia) became famous as a result of the circumstances arising from her application for temporary stay in the Netherlands.
Taslima Nasrin (also Taslima Nasreen, born 25 August 1962) is a Bangladeshi-Swedish author and former physician who has been living in exile since 1994.
The Caged Virgin: A Muslim Woman's Cry for Reason, also published as The Caged Virgin: An Emancipation Proclamation for Women and Islam, (De maagdenkooi), is a 2004 book by the former Dutch parliamentarian Ayaan Hirsi Ali.
The Daily Beast is an American news and opinion website focused on politics and pop culture.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Satanic Verses is Salman Rushdie's fourth novel, first published in 1988 and inspired in part by the life of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam.
The Sunday Times is the largest-selling British national newspaper in the "quality press" market category.
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia.
The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics.
Theodoor "Theo" van Gogh (23 July 1957 – 2 November 2004) was a Dutch film director, film producer, television director, television producer, television presenter, screenwriter, actor, critic and author.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Time 100 (often written in all-caps as TIME 100) is an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world assembled by the American news magazine Time.
Timothy Garton Ash CMG FRSA (born 12 July 1955) is a British historian, author and commentator.
Thomas Peter Lantos (born Tamás Péter Lantos; February 1, 1928 – February 11, 2008) was an American politician who served as a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from California, serving from 1981 until his death as the representative from a district that included the northern two-thirds of San Mateo County and a portion of southwestern San Francisco.
Triple J (often triple j) is a government-funded, national Australian radio station intended to appeal to listeners between the ages of 18 and 34 which began broadcasting in January 1975.
Trouw (fidelity) is a Dutch daily newspaper appearing in compact size.
Tunku Varadarajan (born Patanjali Varadarajan in 1962) is an English writer and journalist, formerly editor of Newsweek Global and Newsweek International.
TV 2 is a government-owned subscription television station in Denmark based in Odense, Funen.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is a component of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
The Deputy Secretary of State of the United States is the principal deputy to the Secretary of State.
University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown, also known as UPJ or Pitt-Johnstown, is a four-year, degree-granting state-related university institution that is a residential, regional campus of the University of Pittsburgh.
VenstreThe party name is officially not translated into any other language, but is in English often referred to as the Liberal Party.
A vice president (in British English: vice-president for governments and director for businesses) is an officer in government or business who is below a president (managing director) in rank.
Wafa Sultan (وفاء سلطان; born June 14, 1958) is a medical doctor who trained as a psychiatrist in Syria, and a U.S. author and critic of Muslim society and Islam.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
The Wiardi Beckman Stichting (The Wiardi Beckman Foundation) is a Dutch think tank linked to the left-of-centre Labour Party (PvdA).
The experiences of Muslim women (Muslimāt, singular مسلمة Muslima) vary widely between and within different societies.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
Women's Studies International Forum is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering feminist research in the area of women's studies and other disciplines.
Yitzhak Rabin (יצחק רבין,; 1 March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general.
Zembla is a Dutch television documentary programme produced by BNNVARA (previously VARA, and until 2010, also NPS).
On December 2, 2015, 14 people were killed and 22 others were seriously injured in a terrorist attack consisting of a mass shooting and an attempted bombing at the Inland Regional Center in San Bernardino, California.