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Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan)

Index Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan)

Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015. [1]

375 relations: Abdul Qayyum Khan, Abdus Salam, Acre, Adjutant general, Administrative units of Pakistan, Afzal Rahman Khan, Agriculture in Pakistan, Air Headquarters (Pakistan Air Force), Air marshal, Aiwan-e-Sadr, Akhter Husain, Alexei Kosygin, Aligarh Muslim University, American nationalism, Americanism (ideology), Amir Mohammad Khan, Andrei Gromyko, Andrew Skeen, Anti-American sentiment in Pakistan, Anti-Indian sentiment, Arthur McDonald, Asghar Khan, Axis of evil, Ayub Medical College, Ayub National Park, Baghdad Pact, Bangladesh, Bangladesh Awami League, Bangladesh Liberation War, Banking in Pakistan, Brigade combat team, Brigadier, British Armed Forces, British Army, British Indian Army, British Raj, Burma Campaign, Burma Campaign 1942–43, Burma Campaign 1944–45, Business cycle, Cabinet of Pakistan, Captain (armed forces), Cardiac arrest, Cartel, Central Intelligence Agency, Chairman, Chaudhry Ali Akbar Khan, Chaudhry Mohammad Ali, Chief Justice of Pakistan, Chief Martial Law Administrator, ..., Chief of Air Staff (Pakistan), Chief of Army Staff, Chief of Army Staff (Bangladesh), Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan), Chief of General Staff (Pakistan), Chief of Naval Staff (Pakistan), Chief of the Army Staff (India), China, China–Pakistan relations, Christine Keeler, Chronology of Pakistan's rocket tests, CIA activities in Pakistan, Civil decorations of Pakistan, Civil–military relations, Civilian control of the military, Cold War, Cold War (1953–1962), Colonel, Colonel (United Kingdom), Commander-in-chief, Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army, Conservatism in Pakistan, Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, Constitution of Pakistan of 1956, Constitution of Pakistan of 1962, Conventional warfare, Conventional weapon, Culture of Pakistan, Dawn (newspaper), Dhaka, Dharna, Dictator, Dismissal (employment), Distribution of wealth, Douglas Gracey, Dwarka, Dwight D. Eisenhower, East Bengal, East Bengali legislative election, 1954, East Pakistan, Eating, Economic history of Pakistan, Economics of nuclear power plants, Economy of Pakistan, Elections in Pakistan, Electoral College (Pakistan), Electoral College (United States), Electoral fraud, Enclave and exclave, Energy conservation, Energy policy of Pakistan, English society, European Union, Excellency, Fatima Jinnah, Feroz Khan Noon, Field marshal, Five-star rank, Foreign aid to Pakistan, Foreign direct investment, Foreign Military Sales, Foreign relations of Pakistan, Four Asian Tigers, Francis Gary Powers, Freedom of speech, Freedom of the press, Freedom of thought, Gang of Four (Pakistan), General Headquarters (Pakistan Army), General of the Army (United States), General officer, General officer commanding, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Geographical segregation, Glossary of poker terms, Gohar Ayub Khan, Government of Pakistan, Governor-General of Pakistan, Graffiti, Gross national product, Habibullah Khan Khattak, Haji Mohammad Siddiq Choudri, Haripur District, Hazara, Pakistan, Headline, Hilal-i-Jur'at, Hindko, History of Pakistan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, I. 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Johnson, M16 rifle, M24 Chaffee, M48 Patton, Major, Major general, Malik Ghulam Muhammad, Malik Nur Khan, Mangla Dam, Media of Pakistan, Mian Hayaud Din, Miangul Aurangzeb, Military Assistance Advisory Group, Military Intelligence (Pakistan), Minister of Defence (Pakistan), Minister of Finance (Pakistan), Minister of Foreign Affairs (Pakistan), Ministry of Defence (Pakistan), Ministry of Finance, Revenue and Economic Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Pakistan), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Soviet Union), Ministry of Interior (Pakistan), Mir Dad Khan, Mohammad Ali Bogra, Mohammad Ishfaqul Mazid, Mount Vernon, Movement for the Restoration of Democracy, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muhammad Ayub Khuhro, Muhammad Azam Khan, Muhammad Musa, Muhammad Shahabuddin, Muhammad Shoaib, Muhammed Akbar Khan, Mule, Myocardial infarction, National Assembly of Pakistan, National Highways of Pakistan, National Security Council (Pakistan), NATO, Naval Headquarters (Pakistan Navy), Nawaz Sharif, Nepotism, Nikita Khrushchev, Nishan-e-Pakistan, Non-Aligned Movement, Nonpartisanism, North American F-86 Sabre, North-West Frontier Province (1901–2010), Nuclear power, Nuclear power plant, Nuclear technology, Nuclear weapon, Officer (armed forces), Oligarchy, Omar Ayub Khan, One Unit, One-star rank, Operation Dwarka, Order of St Michael and St George, Order of the British Empire, Order of the Crown of the Realm, Oxford, Oxford University Press, PAF Camp Badaber, Pakistan, Pakistan Air Force, Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction, Pakistan Armed Forces, Pakistan Armed Forces Eastern Command, Pakistan Army, Pakistan Muslim League, Pakistan Muslim League (N), Pakistan Muslim League (Q), Pakistan Navy, Pakistan Peoples Party, Pakistan Refinery, Pakistan Secretary of Defence, Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf, Pakistan–Soviet Union relations, Pakistan–United States military relations, Pakistan–United States relations, Pakistani general election, 2013, Pakistani intelligence community, Pakistani nationality law, Pakistani presidential election, 1965, Pakistani rupee, Paralysis, Parliamentary history of Pakistan, Partition of India, Pashto, Pashtuns, Pejorative, Peshawar, Planning Commission (Pakistan), PNS Ghazi, Political corruption, Politics of Pakistan, Polygamy, Premier of the Soviet Union, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Presidency of John F. 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Abdul Qayyum Khan

Abdul Qayyum Khan (عبدالقیوم خان) (16 July 1901 – 23 October 1981) was a major figure in Pakistan politics, in particular in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province, where he was deputy speaker of the provincial assembly, Chief Minister and served as Interior Minister of Pakistan in the central government from 1972 to 1977.

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Abdus Salam

Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.

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Acre

The acre is a unit of land area used in the imperial and US customary systems.

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Adjutant general

An adjutant general is a military chief administrative officer.

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Administrative units of Pakistan

The administrative units of Pakistan (انتظامی اکائیاں) consist of five provinces (Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh), one autonomous territory (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) and one federal territory (Islamabad Capital Territory).

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Afzal Rahman Khan

Vice-Admiral Afzal Akram Rahman Khan (Urdu: افضل رحمان خان; born: 1921— 2005; popularly known as Admiral A. R. Khan), HQA, HPk, HJ, was a three-star rank admiral, politician, and the Commander in Chief of Pakistan Navy, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1959 until 1966.

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Agriculture in Pakistan

Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water.

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Air Headquarters (Pakistan Air Force)

Air Headquarters (AHQ) is the Headquarters of Pakistan Air Force, located at Islamabad.

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Air marshal

Air Marshal (Air Mshl or AM) is a three-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.

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Aiwan-e-Sadr

The Aiwan-e-Sadr or Presidency Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of Pakistan.

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Akhter Husain

Akhter Husain (Urdu), HPk, OBE, (1 March 1902 – 15 July 1983) was an eminent senior statesman and civil servant of Pakistan.

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Alexei Kosygin

Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (p; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.

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Aligarh Muslim University

Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is an Indian public central university.

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American nationalism

American nationalism or United States nationalism is a form of civic nationalism found in the United States.

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Americanism (ideology)

Americanism is a set of the United States patriotic values aimed at creating a collective American identity, and can be defined as "an articulation of the nation's rightful place in the world, a set of traditions, a political language, and a cultural style imbued with political meaning".

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Amir Mohammad Khan

Nawab Malik Amir Mohammad Khan also known as Nawab of Kalabagh was a prominent feudal lord, politician and the chief of his tribal estate Kalabagh, in Mianwali District of north western Punjab, Pakistan.

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Andrei Gromyko

Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko (Андре́й Андре́евич Громы́ко; Андрэ́й Андрэ́евіч Грамы́ка; – 2 July 1989) was a Soviet communist politician during the Cold War.

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Andrew Skeen

General Sir Andrew Skeen, KCB, KCIE, CMG (20 January 1873 – 18 February 1935) served in the British Indian Army, rising to the position of Chief of the General Staff in India.

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Anti-American sentiment in Pakistan

Anti-American sentiment in Pakistan has been evident through public demonstrations and burning of the flag of the United States.

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Anti-Indian sentiment

Anti-Indian sentiment or Indophobia refers to negative feelings and hatred towards India, Indians, and Indian culture.

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Arthur McDonald

Air Marshal Sir Arthur William Baynes McDonald, KCB, AFC, FRAeS (14 June 1903 – 26 July 1996) was a senior Royal Air Force officer.

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Asghar Khan

Mohammad Asghar Khan (اصغر خان 17 January 1921 – 5 January 2018), was a Pakistani politician and an autobiographer, later a dissident serving for the cause of pacifism, peace, and the human rights.

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Axis of evil

The phrase axis of evil was first used by U.S. President George W. Bush in his State of the Union address on January 29, 2002, and often repeated throughout his presidency, to describe foreign governments that, during his administration, sponsored terrorism and sought weapons of mass destruction.

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Ayub Medical College

Ayub Medical College (Urdu, Hindko:, د ایوب طب پوهنځی, or AMC) is a leading public medical institute located in Abbottabad, Pakistan.

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Ayub National Park

Ayub National Park, commonly known as Ayub Park or historically Topi Rakh Park (Rakh lit. reserve in Potwari), named after the Pakistani president and general Ayub Khan, is a national park located on Jhelum road not far away from the old presidency in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

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Baghdad Pact

The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

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Bangladesh

Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Bangladesh Awami League

The Bangladesh Awami League (BAL) (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ; translated from Urdu: Bangladesh People's League), often simply called the Awami League or AL, is one of the two major political parties of Bangladesh.

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Bangladesh Liberation War

The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.

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Banking in Pakistan

Banking in Pakistan first formally started in Pakistan during the period of British colonialism in the South Asia.

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Brigade combat team

The brigade combat team (BCT) is the basic deployable unit of maneuver in the US Army.

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Brigadier

Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country.

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British Armed Forces

The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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British Indian Army

The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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Burma Campaign

The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.

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Burma Campaign 1942–43

The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II took place over four years from 1942 to 1945.

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Burma Campaign 1944–45

The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was fought primarily by British Commonwealth, Chinese and United States forces against the forces of Imperial Japan, who were assisted to some degree by Thailand, the Burmese Independence Army and the Indian National Army.

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Business cycle

The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.

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Cabinet of Pakistan

The Cabinet of Pakistan (کابینہ پاکستان, Kabina-e-Pakistan) is a formal body composed of senior government officials chosen and led by the Prime Minister.

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Captain (armed forces)

The army rank of captain (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers.

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Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.

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Cartel

A cartel is a group of apparently independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Chairman

The chairman (also chairperson, chairwoman or chair) is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly.

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Chaudhry Ali Akbar Khan

Chaudhry Ali Akbar Khan (1911–1967) was a Pakistani politician and diplomat who stayed as the Member of Legislative Assembly 1945, Minister of Education, Minister of Industries 1950s, Federal Minister for Home Affairs (1965–1966), Ambassador to Sudan (1957–1959), Ambassador to Saudi Arabia (1959–1962).

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Chaudhry Mohammad Ali

Chaudhry Muhammad Ali (چوہدری محمد علی 15 July 1905 – 2 December 1980), best known as Muhammad Ali, was the fourth Prime Minister of Pakistan, appointed on 12 August 1955 until being removed through a successful passage of vote of no confidence motion in the National Assembly on 12 September 1956.

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Chief Justice of Pakistan

The Chief Justice of Pakistan (initials as CJP) is the head of the court system of Pakistan (the judicature branch of government) and the chief judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan.

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Chief Martial Law Administrator

The office of the Chief Martial Law Administrator was a senior government authoritative post created in countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia that gave considerable executive authority and powers to the holder of the post to enforce martial law in the country in an events to ensure the continuity of government.

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Chief of Air Staff (Pakistan)

The Chief of Air Staff (سربراہ پاک فضائيہ) (reporting name: CAS), is a military appointment and a statutory office held by the four-star rank air force general in the Pakistan Air Force, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.

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Chief of Army Staff

The Chief of Army Staff (COAS) or Chief of Staff of the Army is a title commonly used for the appointment held by the most senior officer in several nations' armies.

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Chief of Army Staff (Bangladesh)

Chief of Army Staff (abbreviated as CAS) of Bangladesh Army also known as 'army chief' is the highest ranking officer of the Bangladesh Army.

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Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan)

The Chief of Army Staff (سربراہ پاک فوج) (reporting name: COAS), is a military appointment and statutory office held by the four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.

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Chief of General Staff (Pakistan)

Chief of General Staff, shortly abbreviated as CGS, is the most coveted position within the Pakistan Army.

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Chief of Naval Staff (Pakistan)

The Chief of the Naval Staff ((سربراہ پاک بحریہ (reporting name as CNS), is a military appointment and a Statutory office held by the four-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy, who is nominated and appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and confirmed by the President of Pakistan. The Chief of Naval Staff is one of the senior-most appointments in the Pakistan military who is one of the senior members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee in a separate capacity, providing senior consultation to the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee to act as a principle military advisor to the Prime Minister of Pakistan and its civilian government in the line of defending and safeguarding the expedition, maritime and sealine borders of the nation. The Chief of Naval Staff exercise its responsibility of command and control of the operational, combatant, logistics, administration, and training commands within the Pakistan Navy, in a clear contrast to the U.S. Navy's Chief of Naval Operations (CNO). Due to its responsibility and importance, the Chief of Naval Staff plays a critical role in assessing the coastal defence and conducting reconnaissance to insure its strike capability against aggressive forces. In Principle, the appointment is constitutionally subjected for three years but extensions may be granted by the President upon recommendations and approvals from the Prime Minister. The Chief of Naval Staff is based on the Navy NHQ, and the current Chief of Naval Staff is Admiral Admiral Z.M. Abbasi serving as chief of naval staff, who took over the command as chief of naval staff on 6 October 2017.

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Chief of the Army Staff (India)

The Chief of the Army Staff is the commander and usually the highest-ranking officer of the Indian Army.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China–Pakistan relations

China–Pakistan relations began in 1950 when Pakistan was among the first countries to end official diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (on Taiwan) and recognize the People's Republic of China (PRC) regime on mainland China.

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Christine Keeler

Christine Margaret Keeler (22 February 1942 – 4 December 2017) was an English model and topless showgirl.

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Chronology of Pakistan's rocket tests

The Suparco's spaceflight missions and tests were the sounding rocket launches of the Space Research Commission (SUPARCO) that was aimed for developing high-altitude rockets and space booster for the development of the country's space programme.

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CIA activities in Pakistan

This is a list of activities ostensibly carried out by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) within Pakistan.

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Civil decorations of Pakistan

The Pakistan Civil Awards were established on March 19, 1957, following the proclamation of Pakistan as an independent republic on March 23, 1956.

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Civil–military relations

Civil–military relations (Civ-Mil or CMR) describes the relationship between civil society as a whole and the military organization or organizations established to protect it.

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Civilian control of the military

Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a country's strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Cold War (1953–1962)

The Cold War (1953–1962) discusses the period within the Cold War from the death of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in 1953 to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.

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Colonel

Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.

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Colonel (United Kingdom)

Colonel (Col) is a rank of the British Army and Royal Marines, ranking below brigadier, and above lieutenant colonel.

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Commander-in-chief

A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.

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Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army

The Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army reporting name: C-in-C) was generally recognized to be a single and senior most appointment held by the four-star officer in the Pakistan Army. Though, not a statutory office in existence, the Commander was subordinate to the Defence Minister but this was contested. Direct appointments to the command of the Pakistan Army came from the British Army Council until 1951, when the first native commander-in-chief was nominated and appointed by the Government of Pakistan. The C-in-C was assisted by deputy C-in-C till mid 60's, the last deputy C-in-C was Yahya Khan served till 1966. The C-in-C designation was changed to 'Chief of Army Staff' in 1972, Tikka Khan was the first person to hold the new title. Six men have served as C-in-C, the first two of them were native British and the post was largely akin to the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army.

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Conservatism in Pakistan

Conservatism in Pakistan (پاكستانی قدامت پسندی), generally relates to the traditional, social, and religious identities in the politics of Pakistan.

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Constituent Assembly of Pakistan

The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan (পাকিস্তান্ গণপরিষদ্ Pākistān Gaṇapariṣad; آئین ساز اسمبلی, Aāin Sāz Asimblī.), was formed to write Pakistan's constitution and serve as its first parliament.

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Constitution of Pakistan of 1956

The Constitution of 1956 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from March 1956 until the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état.

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Constitution of Pakistan of 1962

The Constitution of 1962 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from June 1962 until martial law was declared in March 1969.

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Conventional warfare

Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation.

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Conventional weapon

The terms conventional weapons or conventional arms generally refer to weapons that are in relatively wide use that are not weapons of mass destruction (e.g. nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons).

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Culture of Pakistan

The society and culture of Pakistan (ثقافتِ پاکستان) comprises numerous ethnic groups: the Punjabis, Saraikis, Pothwaris, Kashmiris, Sindhis in east, Makrani in the south; Baloch, Hazaras and Pashtuns in the west; and the Dards, Wakhi, Baltis, Shinaki and Burusho communities in the north.

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Dawn (newspaper)

DAWN is Pakistan's oldest, leading and most widely read English-language newspaper.

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Dhaka

Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.

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Dharna

A dharna (Hindi: धरना, Nepali:धर्ना; Urdu: دهرنا) is a non-violent sit-in protest, which may include fast undertaken at the door of an offender, especially a debtor, in India as a means of obtaining compliance with a demand for justice, state response of criminal cases, or payment of a debt.

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Dictator

A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power.

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Dismissal (employment)

Dismissal (referred to informally as firing or sacking) is the termination of employment by an employer against the will of the employee.

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Distribution of wealth

--> The distribution of wealth is a comparison of the wealth of various members or groups in a society.

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Douglas Gracey

General Sir Douglas David Gracey & Bar (3 September 1894 – 5 June 1964) was a British Indian Army officer who fought in both the First and Second World Wars.

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Dwarka

Dwarka is an ancient city and a municipality of Devbhoomi Dwarka district in the state of Gujarat in northwestern India.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

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East Bengal

East Bengal (পূর্ব বাংলা Purbô Bangla) was a geographically noncontiguous province of the Dominion of Pakistan covering Bangladesh.

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East Bengali legislative election, 1954

Legislative elections were held in East Bengal between 8 and 12 March 1954, the first since Pakistan became an independent country in 1947.

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East Pakistan

East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.

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Eating

Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth.

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Economic history of Pakistan

Since the country's independence in 1947, the economy of Pakistan has emerged as a semi-industrialised one, based heavily on textiles, agriculture and food production, though recent years have seen a surge towards technological diversification.

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Economics of nuclear power plants

New nuclear power plants typically have high capital costs for building the first several plants, after which costs tend to fall for each additional plant built as the supply chains develop and the regulatory processes improve.

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Economy of Pakistan

The economy of Pakistan is the 25th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), and 42nd largest in terms of nominal gross domestic product.

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Elections in Pakistan

Since its establishment in 1947, Pakistan has had an asymmetric federal government and is a federal parliamentary democratic republic.

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Electoral College (Pakistan)

The President of Pakistan is chosen by an electoral college, in Pakistan.

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Electoral College (United States)

The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.

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Electoral fraud

Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.

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Enclave and exclave

An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.

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Energy conservation

Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service.

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Energy policy of Pakistan

The is formulated and determined by the federal, provincial, and local institutional entities in Pakistan, which address the issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption of energy, such as gas mileage and petroleum standards.

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English society

English society is the group behaviour of the English, how they organise themselves and make collective decisions.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Excellency

Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy.

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Fatima Jinnah

Fatima Jinnah English IPA: fətɪ̈mɑ d͡ʒinnəɦ, (فاطمہ جناح; 31 July 1893 – 9 July 1967) was a Pakistani dental surgeon, biographer, stateswoman and one of the leading founders of Pakistan.

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Feroz Khan Noon

Sir Malik Feroz Khan Noon (ملک فیروز خان نون; 7 May 1893 – 9 December 1970),, best known as Feroze Khan, was the seventh Prime Minister of Pakistan, appointed in this capacity on 16 December 1957 until being removed when President Iskandar Ali Mirza imposed martial law on 8 October 1958.

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Field marshal

Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.

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Five-star rank

A five-star rank is a very senior military rank, first established in the United States in 1944, with a five-star general insignia, and corresponding ranks in other countries.

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Foreign aid to Pakistan

Pakistan receives foreign aid from several countries and international organizations.

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Foreign direct investment

A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.

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Foreign Military Sales

The U.S. Department of Defense's Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program facilitates sales of U.S. arms, defense equipment, defense services, and military training to foreign governments.

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Foreign relations of Pakistan

Pakistan is the second largest Muslim-majority country in terms of population (after Indonesia) and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Muslim majority nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role.

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Four Asian Tigers

The Four Asian Tigers, Four Asian Dragons or Four Little Dragons, are the economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, which underwent rapid industrialization and maintained exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7 percent a year) between the early 1960s (mid-1950s for Hong Kong) and 1990s.

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Francis Gary Powers

Francis Gary Powers (August 17, 1929 – August 1, 1977)—often referred to as simply Gary Powers—was an American pilot whose Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) U-2 spy plane was shot down while flying a reconnaissance mission in Soviet Union airspace, causing the 1960 U-2 incident.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.

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Freedom of thought

Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience or ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints.

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Gang of Four (Pakistan)

The Gang of Four, was a quantified and common colloquial implicit term for a set of four military leaders in the Pakistan military who were central figures in the military dictatorship in Pakistan wherein generals and admirals of the Pakistan Armed Forces had control over the country.

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General Headquarters (Pakistan Army)

General Headquarters (GHQ) is the headquarters of Pakistan Army located at Rawalpindi.

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General of the Army (United States)

General of the Army (abbreviated as GA) is a five-star general officer and the second highest possible rank in the United States Army.

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General officer

A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.

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General officer commanding

The General Officer Commanding (GOC) is the usual title given in the armies of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth (and some other, such as in Ireland) nations to a General Officer who holds a command appointment.

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General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.

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Geographical segregation

Geographical segregation exists whenever the proportions of population rates of two or more populations are not homogenous throughout a defined space.

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Glossary of poker terms

The following is a glossary of poker terms used in the card game of poker.

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Gohar Ayub Khan

Gohar Ayub Khan (گوہر ایوب خان; born 15 January 1937), is a Pakistani politician, business oligarch, retired army officer, and conservative figure of the Pakistan Muslim League, who held ministerial positions during the administration of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.

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Government of Pakistan

The Government of Pakistan (حکومتِ پاکستان) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

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Governor-General of Pakistan

The Governor-General of Pakistan (گورنر جنرل پاکستان), was the representative in Pakistan of the British monarch, from the country's independence in 1947.

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Graffiti

Graffiti (plural of graffito: "a graffito", but "these graffiti") are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted, typically illicitly, on a wall or other surface, often within public view.

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Gross national product

Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country.

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Habibullah Khan Khattak

Lieutenant General Habibullah Khan Khattak also known as Muhammad Habibullah Khan (October 17, 1913 – 1994) was a Pakistani Army officer born in Karak, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan.

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Haji Mohammad Siddiq Choudri

Vice-Admiral Haji Mohammad Siddiq Choudri (Urdu: حاجى محمد صديق چودھری; b. 1912—27 February 2004),, popular as HMS Choudhri, was a three-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy who was the first native chief of staff of Pakistan Navy.

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Haripur District

Haripur (Urdu: ہری پور, "The Town of Hari") is a district in the Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan with an altitude of around above sea level.

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Hazara, Pakistan

Hazara (Hindko/ہزارہ, هزاره) is a region in the North-Eastern part of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

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Headline

The headline is the text indicating the nature of the article below it.

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Hilal-i-Jur'at

The Hilal-i-Jur'at (ہلال جرات, as if it were Halāl-e-Jurāt; English: Crescent of Courage, sometimes spelled as Hilal-e-Jur'at, Hilal-e-Jurat, Hilal-i-Jurrat and Hilal-i-Juraat)Various official sources that are highly reputable spell the name of the medal differently, so the Pakistan Army website spelling is being taken as the official spelling construction.

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Hindko

Hindko (ہندکو ALA-LC) is a cover term for a diverse group of Lahnda (Western Punjabi) dialects spoken by people of various ethnic backgrounds in several discontinuous areas in northwestern Pakistan, primarily in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab.

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History of Pakistan

The history of Pakistan encompasses the history of the region constituting modern-day Pakistan.

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Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy

Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (English IPA: ɦusæŋ ʃɑid sɦuɾɑwɑɾdɪə; حسین شہید سہروردی; হোসেন শহীদ সোহ্‌রাওয়ার্দী; 8 September 18925 December 1963) is a Bengali politician and a lawyer who served as the fifth Prime Minister of Pakistan, appointed in this capacity on 12 September 1956 until resigning on 17 October 1957.

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I. I. Chundrigar

Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar(Urdu: ابراہیم اسماعیل چندریگر; September 15 1897–26 September 1960), best known as I. I. Chundrigar, was the sixth Prime Minister of Pakistan, appointed in this capacity on 17 October 1957 until being removed due to the vote of noconfidence movement on 11 December 1957.

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Iftikhar Khan

Major General Muhammed Iftikhar Khan (10 January 1907 - 13 December 1949) was an army officer of the British Indian Army and later Pakistan Army.

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Income inequality metrics

Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are used by social scientists to measure the distribution of income, and economic inequality among the participants in a particular economy, such as that of a specific country or of the world in general.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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India and the Non-Aligned Movement

India played an important role in the multilateral movements of colonies and newly independent countries that wanted into the Non-Aligned Movement.

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India–Pakistan relations

Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events.

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India–United States relations

India–United States relations (or Indo-American relations) refers to the international relations that exist between the Republic of India and the United States of America.

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Indian Army

The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.

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Indian Independence Act 1947

The Indian Independence Act 1947 (1947 c. 30 (10 & 11. Geo. 6.)) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan.

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Indian Navy

The Indian Navy (IN; IAST: Bhāratīya Nau Senā) is the naval branch of the Indian Armed Forces.

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Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".

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Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts

Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern states of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.

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Indus Waters Treaty

The Indus Waters Treaty (English) or सिंधु जल संधि (Hindi) or "سندھ طاس معاہدہ" (Urdu) is a water-shareing treaty between India and Pakistan, brokered by the World Bank (then the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) The Guardian, Monday 3 June 2002 01.06 BST The treaty was signed in Karachi on September 19, 1960 by the first Prime Minister of India Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and then President of Pakistan Ayub Khan.

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Industry of Pakistan

Pakistan ranked as number 43-44 among the countries of the world in nominal GDP, 26th in GDP with purchasing power parity and Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 24% of GDP.

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Insurance in Pakistan

Insurance in Pakistan is regulated under the Insurance Ordinance, 2000.

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Intelligence Bureau (Pakistan)

The Intelligence Bureau (سراغرسانی کا دفتر; Reporting name: IB), is a civilian intelligence agency in Pakistan.

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Interior Secretary of Pakistan

The Interior Secretary of Pakistan is the Federal Secretary for the Ministry of Interior.

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Interservice rivalry

Interservice rivalry is the rivalry between different branches of a country's armed forces, in other words the competition for limited resources among a nation's land, naval, and air forces.

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Iskander Mirza

Sahibzada Iskander Ali Mirza (اسکندر مرزا, ইস্কান্দার মির্জা); 13 November 1899 – 13 November 1969),, was the first President of Pakistan, elected in this capacity in 1956 until being dismissed by his appointed army commander General Ayub Khan in 1958. Mirza was educated at the University of Mumbai before attending the military academy in Sandhurst in the United Kingdom. After a brief military service in the British Indian Army, he joined the Indian Political Service and spent the majority of his career as a political agent in the Western region of the British India until elevated as joint secretary at the Ministry of Defence in 1946. After the independence of Pakistan as result of the Partition of India, Mirza was appointed as first Defence Secretary by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan, only to oversee the military efforts in first war with India in 1947, followed by failed secessionism in Balochistan in 1948. In 1954, he was appointed as Governor of his home province of East Bengal by Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra to control the law and order sparked as a result of the popular language movement in 1952, but later elevated as Interior Minister in Bogra administration in 1955. Playing a crucial role in ousting of Governor-General Sir Malik Ghulam, Mirza assumed his position in 1955 and was elected as the first President of Pakistan when the first set of Constitution was promulgated in 1956. His presidency, however, marked with political instability which saw his unconstitutional interferences in the civilian administration that led to the dismissal of four prime ministers in a mere two years. Facing challenges in getting the political endorsements and reelection for the presidency, Mirza surprisingly suspended the writ of the Constitution by having imposed martial law against his own party's administration governed by Prime Minister Feroze Khan on 8 October 1958, enforcing it through his army commander General Ayub Khan who dismissed him when the situation between them escalated, also in 1958. Mirza lived in the United Kingdom for the remainder of his life and was buried in Iran in 1969. His legacy and image is viewed negatively by some Pakistani historians who believe that Mirza was responsible for political instability in the country.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islam in Pakistan

Islam is the largest and the state religion of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

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Islamabad

Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.

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Islamic Center of Washington

The Islamic Center of Washington is a mosque and Islamic cultural center in Washington, D.C..

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James M. Langley

James McLellan Langley (October 11, 1894 – June 23, 1968) was an American newspaper editor and diplomat.

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Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.

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Jawaharlal Nehru

Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.

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Jayanto Nath Chaudhuri

General Jayanto Nath Chaudhuri, OBE (10 June 1908 – 6 April 1983) was an Indian four-star general who served as the Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army from 1962 to 1966 and the Military Governor of Hyderabad State from 1948 to 1949.

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Jeep CJ

The Jeep CJ models are both a series and a range of small, open-bodied off-road vehicles and compact pickup trucks, built and sold by several successive incarnations of the Jeep automobile marque from 1945 to 1986.

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John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.

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Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee

The Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (جوانٹ چيفس ﺁف اسٹاف كميٹى; JCSC), is an administrative body of senior high-ranking uniformed military leaders of the unified Pakistan Armed Forces who advises the civilian Government of Pakistan, National Security Council, Defence Minister, President and Prime minister of Pakistan on important military and non-military strategic matters.

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Junior commissioned officer

Junior Commissioned Officer (JCO) is a term describing a group of military ranks found in the Indian Army, Pakistan Army, Bangladesh Army and Nepal Army.

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Kaptai Dam

Kaptai Dam (কাপ্তাই বাঁধ) is on the Karnaphuli River at Kaptai, upstream from Chittagong in Rangamati District, Bangladesh.

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Karachi

Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.

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Karachi Nuclear Power Complex

The Karachi Nuclear Power Complex or KNPC is located in Paradise Point, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

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Kashmir

Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

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Kashmir conflict

The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947.

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Khan Habibullah Khan

Habibullah Khan Marwat (also known as Khan Habibullah Khan Marwat) (14 October 1901 – 5 December 1978) was the 1st Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan and former Peshawar High Court judge.

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Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.

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Krishak Sramik Janata League

The (is a political party in Bangladesh. Bangabir Kader Siddique is the president of the party, and Habibur Rahman Talukdar the general secretary. In the 2001 parliamentary election, the party won 1 out of 300 elected members.

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Lahore

Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.

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Law enforcement in Pakistan

Law enforcement in Pakistan (قانون نافذ کرنے والے ادارے) is one of the three main components of the criminal justice system of Pakistan, alongside the courts and the prisons.

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Leave of absence

A leave of absence (LOA) is a period of time that one must be away from one's primary job, while maintaining the status of employee.

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Liaquat Ali Khan

Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (Næʍābzādāh Liāqat Alī Khān,لِیاقت علی خان; born October 1895 – 16 October 1951), widely known as Quaid-e-Millat (Leader of the Nation) and Shaheed-e-Millat (شہِیدِ مِلّت Martyr of the Nation), was one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan, statesman, lawyer, and political theorist who became and served as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan; in addition, he also held cabinet portfolio as the first foreign, defence, and the frontier regions minister from 1947 until his assassination in 1951.

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Lieutenant colonel

Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.

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Lieutenant-general (United Kingdom)

Lieutenant general (Lt Gen), formerly more commonly lieutenant-general, is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines.

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List of ambassadors of the United States to Pakistan

The U.S. embassy in Karachi was established August 15, 1947 with Edward W. Holmes as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim, pending the appointment of an ambassador.

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List of barrages and headworks in Pakistan

This is a list of barrage and Headworks in Pakistan.

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List of dams and reservoirs in Pakistan

According to the International Commission on Large Dams, total dams and reservoirs in Pakistan over the height of are 150.

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List of honorary British knights and dames

This is an incomplete list of people who have been created honorary Knights or Dames by the British crown, as well as those who have been raised to the two comparable Orders of Chivalry (Order of Merit and Order of the Companions of Honour) and the Royal Victorian Chain, which do not carry pre-nominal styles.

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List of Justices of the Supreme Court of Pakistan

The Supreme Court of Pakistan is the highest and apex court in the judicial hierarchy in Pakistan.

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List of Ministers of National Defence of Turkey

The following is a list of Ministers of National Defence of Turkey.

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List of newspapers in Pakistan

Following is a list of newspapers in Pakistan.

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List of Pakistan Air Force Bases

This is a list of air bases of the Pakistan Air Force.

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List of power stations in Pakistan

This is a list of Power Stations in Pakistan.

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List of Presidents of Pakistan

The President of Pakistan is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

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List of television channels in Pakistan

This is a list of television channels in Pakistan.

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List of trade unions in Pakistan

This is a list of some major Trade Unions in Pakistan Major Confederation.

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Lists of capitals

Below is a list of lists of capitals.

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Lockheed U-2

The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed "Dragon Lady", is an American single-jet engine, ultra-high altitude reconnaissance aircraft operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

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Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.

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M16 rifle

The M16 rifle, officially designated Rifle, Caliber 5.56 mm, M16, is a United States military adaptation of the ArmaLite AR-15 rifle.Kern, Danford Allan (2006).. m-14parts.com. A thesis presented to the Faculty of the US Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE, Military History. Fort Leavenworth, KansasKokalis, Peter G.. Nodakspud.com The original M16 was a selective fire 5.56mm rifle with a 20-round magazine. In 1964, the M16 entered U.S. military service and the following year was deployed for jungle warfare operations during the Vietnam War. In 1969, the M16A1 replaced the M14 rifle to become the U.S. military's standard service rifle.Ezell, Edward Clinton (1983). Small Arms of the World. New York: Stackpole Books. pp. 46–47..Urdang, p. 801. The M16A1 improvements include a bolt-assist, chrome plated bore and a new 30-round magazine. In 1983, the U.S. Marine Corps adopted the M16A2 rifle and the U.S. Army adopted it in 1986. The M16A2 fires the improved 5.56×45mm NATO (M855/SS109) cartridge and has a new adjustable rear sight, case deflector, heavy barrel, improved handguard, pistol grip and buttstock, as well as a semi-auto and three-round burst only fire selector. Adopted in 1998, the M16A4 is the fourth generation of the M16 series.Weapons of the Modern Marines, by Michael Green, MBI Publishing Company, 2004, page 16 It is equipped with a removable carrying handle and Picatinny rail for mounting optics and other ancillary devices. The M16 has also been widely adopted by other militaries around the world. Total worldwide production of M16s has been approximately 8 million, making it the most-produced firearm of its 5.56 mm caliber. The U.S. Military has largely replaced the M16 in combat units with a shorter and lighter version named the M4 carbine.

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M24 Chaffee

The M24 Chaffee (officially Light Tank, M24) is an American light tank used during the later part of World War II; it was also used in post–World War II conflicts including the Korean War, and by the French in the War in Algeria and the First Indochina War.

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M48 Patton

The M48 Patton is a main battle tank (MBT) that was designed in the United States.

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Major

Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.

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Major general

Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.

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Malik Ghulam Muhammad

Sir Malik Ghulam Muhammad (ملک غلام محمد 20 April 1895– 29 August 1956), was a Pakistani financier who served as the third Governor-General of Pakistan, appointed in this capacity in 1951 until being dismissed in 1955 due to health conditions.

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Malik Nur Khan

Air Marshal Malik Nur Khan (ملک نور خان.; 22 February 1923 – 15 December 2011), commonly known as Nur Khan, was a three-star rank air force general, politician, sports administrator, and the Commander in Chief of Pakistan Air Force, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1965 until 1969.

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Mangla Dam

The Mangla Dam (منگلا بند) is a multipurpose dam located on the Jhelum River in the Mirpur District of Azad Kashmir in Pakistan.

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Media of Pakistan

Media in Pakistan provides information on television, radio, cinema, newspapers, and magazines in Pakistan.

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Mian Hayaud Din

Major General Mian Hayaud Din HJ MBE MC sc, idc (2 July 1910 – 20 May 1965) was an army officer of the British Indian Army during second world war and later of the Pakistan Army.

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Miangul Aurangzeb

Miangul Aurangzeb (Urdu/Pashto: میاں گل اورنگزیب‎ 28 May 1928 – 3 August 2014) was the last Wali Ahad (Crown Prince) of the former Swat State, the son of the last Wali of Swat, Miangul Jahan Zeb and the son -in-law of the former president of Pakistan, Muhammad Ayub Khan.

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Military Assistance Advisory Group

Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) is a designation for United States military advisers sent to other countries to assist in the training of conventional armed forces and facilitate military aid.

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Military Intelligence (Pakistan)

The Directorate for Military Intelligence, known as "Military Intelligence" (MI), is the intelligence arm of the Pakistan Army.

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Minister of Defence (Pakistan)

The Minister of Defence heads the Ministry of Defence and who Pakistan Army, Pakistan Air Force, and Pakistan Navy.

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Minister of Finance (Pakistan)

The Minister of Finance is Cabinet member who is leads the Ministry of Finance.

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Minister of Foreign Affairs (Pakistan)

The following is the list of all the previous foreign ministers of Pakistan to date.

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Ministry of Defence (Pakistan)

The Ministry of Defence (وزارت دفاع, Wazarat-e-Difa, abbreviated as MoD), is a ministry of the Government of Pakistan, tasked in defending Pakistan's interests and values at home and abroad.

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Ministry of Finance, Revenue and Economic Affairs

The Ministry of Finance, Revenue & Economic Affairs or Ministry of Finance (وزارت مالیات, Wazarat-e-Malyat, abbreviated as MoF) is a ministry of the Government of Pakistan tasked to ensure a strong Pakistani economy by developing policies of sound economic management and providing expert advice to the government.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Pakistan)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (وزارت خارجہ, Wazarat-e-Kharja, abbreviated as MoFA) is a ministry of the Government of Pakistan tasked in managing Pakistan's diplomatic and consular relations as well as its foreign policy.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Soviet Union)

The Ministry of External Relations (MER) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Министерство иностранных дел СССР), formed on 16 July 1923, was one of the most important government offices in the Soviet Union.

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Ministry of Interior (Pakistan)

The Ministry of Interior and Narcotics Control (وزارت داخلہ, abbreviated as MoI) is a Cabinet-level ministry of the Government of Pakistan, tasked and primarily responsible for implementing the internal policies, state security, administration of internal affairs involving the state, and assisting the government on territorial affairs of Federally Administered Tribal Areas (Fata), and insular areas of Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA).

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Mir Dad Khan

Risaldar Mir Dad Khan Tarin, OBI (died), was a native officer of the British Indian Army, who belonged to the Hazara region of the North West Frontier Province (now Khyber Pakthunkhwa in Pakistan).

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Mohammad Ali Bogra

Sahibzada Mohammad Ali Bogra (মোহাম্মদ আলী বগুড়া); (19 October 1909 – 23 January 1963), also sometimes known as Mohammad Ali of Bogra, was a Bengali politician, statesman, and a career diplomat who served as third Prime Minister of Pakistan, appointed in this capacity in 1953 until he stepped down in 1955 in favor of Finance Minister Muhammad Ali.

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Mohammad Ishfaqul Mazid

Muhammed Ishfakul Majid (17 March 1903 – 31 March 1976) was the first Bengali-speaking general in the Pakistan Army.

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Mount Vernon

Mount Vernon was the plantation house of George Washington, the first President of the United States, and his wife, Martha Dandridge Custis Washington.

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Movement for the Restoration of Democracy

The Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (اتحاد برائے بحالی جمہوریت; known as MRD), was a historically populist and massive left–wing political alliance formed to oppose and end the military government of President General Zia-ul-Haq.

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Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.

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Muhammad Ayub Khuhro

Muhammad Ayub Khuhro (14 August 1901 – 1980) was a politician from Sindh, Pakistan, who became its first Chief Minister after independence of Pakistan and subsequently serving two additional terms in the 1950s.

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Muhammad Azam Khan

Lieutenant General Muhammad Azam Khan (1908–1994) was a senior general of the Pakistan army who was a minister under General Ayub Khan, the first military ruler of Pakistan.

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Muhammad Musa

General Muhammad Musa Khan Hazara (جنرل محمد موسی خان ہزارہ, جنرال محمد موسی خان هزاره) (1908 – 12 March 1991),, was a four-star rank army general, politician, and the Commander in Chief of Pakistan Army, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1958 until 1966.

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Muhammad Shahabuddin

Muhammad Shahabuddin (Urdu: محمد شہاب الدین) was the Chief Justice of Pakistan and Governor of East Pakistan.

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Muhammad Shoaib

Muhammad Shoaib (محمد شعیب) (1907–1997) was Finance Minister of Pakistan November 15, 1958 – June 8, 1962 and December 15, 1962 – March 23, 1965.

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Muhammed Akbar Khan

Muhammed Akbar Khan (محمد اکبر خان), MBE (19 April 1897 - 1993) served as a British Indian recruit in the First World War and an officer in Second World War.

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Mule

A mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare).

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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National Assembly of Pakistan

Qaumi Assembly Pakistan (قومی اسمبلئ پاکستان or National Assembly of Pakistan (ایوانِ زیریں پاکستان) is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the President of Pakistan and Aiwan-e Bala (upper house). The Qaumi Assembly and the Aiwan-e Bala both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 342 members who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly (MNAs), of which 272 are directly elected members and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. A political party must secure 172 seats to obtain and preserve a majority. Members are elected through the first-past-the-post system under universal adult suffrage, representing electoral districts known as National Assembly constituencies. According to the constitution, the 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities are allocated to the political parties according to their proportional representation. Each National Assembly is formed for a five-year term, commencing from the date of the first sitting, after which it is automatically dissolved. Currently the National Assembly can not be dissolved by the President of Pakistan, it is dissolved by the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Election for 13th National Assembly was held on 18 February 2008. On March 17, 2013 13th National Assembly was dissolved on completion of its five-year term under Article 52 of the Constitution. Pakistani general election, 2013 (for the 14th National Assembly) was held on May 11, 2013. Members of 14th National Assembly took oath on June 1, 2013. The 14th National Assembly dissolved on 31 May 2018 after completing its 5 year term.

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National Highways of Pakistan

National Highways of Pakistan (پاکستان کی قومی شاہراہ) are a network of toll highways in Pakistan, which are owned, maintained and operated by the National Highways Authority under the Ministry of Communications.

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National Security Council (Pakistan)

The National Security Council (شورا قومی حفاظتی) (reporting name: NSC) is a federal institutional and consultative body chaired by the Prime Minister of Pakistan as its chairman.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Naval Headquarters (Pakistan Navy)

Naval Headquarters (NHQ) is the headquarters of Pakistan Navy established in 1947 at Karachi.

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Nawaz Sharif

Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu/میاں محمد نواز شریف, born 25 December 1949) is a Pakistani business magnate and former politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Pakistan for three non-consecutive terms, all of the three terms were unsuccessful.

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Nepotism

Nepotism is based on favour granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities.

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Nikita Khrushchev

Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.

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Nishan-e-Pakistan

The Nishan-e-Pakistan (نشان پاکستان, English: Order of Pakistan) is the highest of civil awards and decorations given by the Government of Pakistan for the highest degree of service to the country and nation of Pakistan.

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Non-Aligned Movement

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.

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Nonpartisanism

Nonpartisanism is a lack of affiliation with, and a lack of bias toward, a political party.

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North American F-86 Sabre

The North American F-86 Sabre, sometimes called the Sabrejet, is a transonic jet fighter aircraft.

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North-West Frontier Province (1901–2010)

The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.

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Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.

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Nuclear power plant

A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.

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Nuclear technology

Nuclear technology is technology that involves the nuclear reactions of atomic nuclei.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Officer (armed forces)

An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.

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Oligarchy

Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.

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Omar Ayub Khan

Omar Ayub Khan (عمر ایوب خان) is a Pakistani politician who has been a member of the National Assembly of Pakistan from 2002 to 2007 and again from 2014 to 2015.

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One Unit

The One Unit (ایک وحدت) was a geopolitical program launched by the government of Pakistan led by then-Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra on 22 November 1954.

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One-star rank

An officer of one-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-6.

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Operation Dwarka

Operation Dwarka was a naval operation by the Pakistan Navy to attack the Indian coastal town of Dwarka on 7 September 1965.

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Order of St Michael and St George

The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III.

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Order of the British Empire

The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.

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Order of the Crown of the Realm

The Most Exalted Order of the Crown of the Realm (Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara) is a Malaysian Federal Award.

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Oxford

Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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PAF Camp Badaber

PAF Camp Badaber, formerly known as Peshawar Air Station is a non-flying air force base of the Pakistan Air Force and a former United States Air Force-Central Intelligence Agencylistening post, used by the 6937th Communications Group from July 17, 1959 until being evacuated on 7 January 1970.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pakistan Air Force

The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (پاک فِضائیہ—, or alternatively پاکیستان هاوایی فوج, reporting name: PAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, tasked primarily with the aerial defence of Pakistan, with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy.

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Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction

Pakistan is one of nine states to possess nuclear weapons. Pakistan began development of nuclear weapons in January 1972 under Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan with a commitment to having the bomb ready by the end of 1976. Since PAEC, consisting of over twenty laboratories and projects under nuclear engineer Munir Ahmad Khan, was falling behind schedule and having considerable difficulty producing fissile material, Abdul Qadeer Khan was brought from Europe by Bhutto at the end of 1974. As pointed out by Houston Wood, Professor of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, in his article on gas centrifuges, "The most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is the production of fissile material"; as such, this work in producing fissile material as head of the Kahuta Project was pivotal to Pakistan developing the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb by the end of 1984.Levy, Adrian and Catherine Scott-Clark, Deception: Pakistan, the United States, and the Secret Trade in Nuclear Weapons. New York. Walker Publishing Company. 1977: page 112. Print. The Kahuta Project started under the supervision of a coordination board that oversaw the activities of KRL and PAEC. The Board consisted of A G N Kazi (secretary general, finance), Ghulam Ishaq Khan (secretary general, defence), and Agha Shahi (secretary general, foreign affairs), and reported directly to Bhutto. Ghulam Ishaq Khan and General Tikka Khan appointed military engineer Major General Ali Nawab to the program. Eventually, the supervision passed to Lt General Zahid Ali Akbar Khan in President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's Administration. Moderate uranium enrichment for the production of fissile material was achieved at KRL by April 1978. Pakistan's nuclear weapons development was in response to the loss of East Pakistan in 1971's Bangladesh Liberation War. Bhutto called a meeting of senior scientists and engineers on 20 January 1972, in Multan, which came to known as "Multan meeting". Bhutto was the main architect of this programme, and it was here that Bhutto orchestrated nuclear weapons programme and rallied Pakistan's academic scientists to build the atomic bomb in three years for national survival. At the Multan meeting, Bhutto also appointed Munir Ahmad Khan as chairman of PAEC, who, until then, had been working as director at the nuclear power and Reactor Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in Vienna, Austria. In December 1972, Abdus Salam led the establishment of Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) as he called scientists working at ICTP to report to Munir Ahmad Khan. This marked the beginning of Pakistan's pursuit of nuclear deterrence capability. Following India's surprise nuclear test, codenamed Smiling Buddha in 1974, the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council, the goal to develop nuclear weapons received considerable impetus. Finally, on 28 May 1998, a few weeks after India's second nuclear test (Operation Shakti), Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai district, Balochistan. This operation was named Chagai-I by Pakistan, the underground iron-steel tunnel having been long-constructed by provincial martial law administrator General Rahimuddin Khan during the 1980s. The last test of Pakistan was conducted at the sandy Kharan Desert under the codename Chagai-II, also in Balochistan, on 30 May 1998. Pakistan's fissile material production takes place at Nilore, Kahuta, and Khushab Nuclear Complex, where weapons-grade plutonium is refined. Pakistan thus became the seventh country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapons. Although, according to a letter sent by A.Q. Khan to General Zia, the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb using highly enriched uranium as fissile material produced at KRL had been achieved by KRL in 1984.

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Pakistan Armed Forces

The Pakistan Armed Forces (پاکستان مُسَلّح افواج, Pākistān Musallah Afwāj) are the military forces of Pakistan.

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Pakistan Armed Forces Eastern Command

The Eastern Military High Command of the Pakistan Armed Forces was a field-level military command headed by an appointed senior 3-star officer, who was designated the Unified Commander of the Eastern Military High Command.

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Pakistan Army

Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.

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Pakistan Muslim League

The Pakistan Muslim League (پاکستان مسلم لیگ; known as PML), is the name of several Pakistani political parties that have dominated the Right-wing platform since the 1960s.

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Pakistan Muslim League (N)

The Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) (پاکستان مسلم لیگ (ن) PML-N) is a centre-right conservative party in Pakistan.

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Pakistan Muslim League (Q)

The Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid e Azam Group) پاکستان مسلم لیگ (ق); Acronyms: PML(Q), PML-Q, PMLQ) is a centre-nationalist political party in Pakistan. As of the 2013 Parliamentary election, it has a representation of 2 seats. It previously served as an ally of former Prime minister Raja Pervez Ashraf's then government, and led a joint election campaign in 2013 alongside Pakistan Peoples Party in Punjab and Balochistan provinces against its rival Pakistan Muslim League (N), a fiscal conservative and centre-right force. Its leadership and members were once part of the Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) presided by former prime minister Nawaz Sharif. After the 1997 general elections, political differences arose that ultimately led to the creation of a faction inside the party. The dissidents, led by Shujaat Hussain, called for strong and vocal support for the 1999 military coup d'état staged and led by then-Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Pervez Musharaff. In 2002, dissident leaders launched the party, focused on President Pervez Musharraf’s government. It later became an integral part of Musharraf's government and appointed their own Prime minister, Shaukat Aziz. Dissident leader Shujaat Hussain was named party president, while the party began the annihilation of PML(N)'s structure. Full advantage was taken by Musharraf, who granted opportunities to the party with a goal of exclusive support of the government and to diminish the public support of Sharif. National security adviser Tarik Aziz had played a pivotal role who "had engineered the idea in advance of the elections of 2002 of converting the PML(N)'s centre-right ideology back to centrism, PML(Q), the Q standing for "Quaid-e-Azam". However the idea collapsed when PML (N) emerged as the largest conservative front and the largest opposition party. The party suffered many setbacks thereafter when its membership began to disintegrate after forming a separate bloc with close association with the PML-N, including the Like-Minded and Avami League blocs and second, the former president's bloc. Senior members joined PML-N, while the junior leadership defected to the PTI. In September 2010, PML (Q) joined its similar ideological faction, PML-F, forming the Pakistan Muslim League (Pir Pagara), but this was short-lived when in May 2011 the party joined the Yousaf Raza Gillani led-government to fulfill the gap left by its rival PML-N. However, the party announced its resignation from the Parliament, citing the failure of the Pakistan Peoples Party to resolve the energy crisis as the reason, which had direct impact on the federal government. The situation become better by giving relief in fuel prices on 15th June 2012.

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Pakistan Navy

The Pakistan Navy (rtl; Pɑkistan Bahri'a) (reporting name: PN) is the naval warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, responsible for Pakistan's of coastline along the Arabian Sea, and the defence of important civilian harbours and military bases.

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Pakistan Peoples Party

The Pakistan Peoples Party (پاکِستان پیپلز پارٹی, commonly referred to as the PPP) is a left-wing, socialist-progressive political party of Pakistan.

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Pakistan Refinery

Pakistan Refinery Limited is located at Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

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Pakistan Secretary of Defence

The Defence Secretary of Pakistan is the Federal Secretary for Ministry of Defence of Pakistan.

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Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf

Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) (پاکستان تحريک انصاف, English: Pakistan Movement for Justice) is a political party in Pakistan founded in 1996 by former national cricket captain Imran Khan.

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Pakistan–Soviet Union relations

The Soviet Union–Pakistan relations (Russian: Союз Советских Социалистических Республик -Пакистан; or USSR-Pakistan relations) refers to historical, political, international, and cultural relationships between the state of Pakistan and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

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Pakistan–United States military relations

Military relations between Pakistan and the United States have been present since the two established diplomatic relations in 1947.

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Pakistan–United States relations

Pakistan–United States relations refers to the bilateral relationship between Pakistan and the United States.

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Pakistani general election, 2013

General elections were held in Pakistan on 11 May 2013 to elect the members of the 14th National Assembly and to the four provincial assemblies of Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

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Pakistani intelligence community

The Pakistani intelligence community comprises the various intelligence agencies of Pakistan that work internally and externally to manage, research and collect intelligence necessary for national security.

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Pakistani nationality law

The Pakistani nationality law governs citizenship of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

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Pakistani presidential election, 1965

Pakistan's first ever Presidential Elections were held on January 2, 1965.

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Pakistani rupee

The Pakistani rupee (روپیہ / ALA-LC:; sign: ₨; code: PKR) is the currency of Pakistan.

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Paralysis

Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.

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Parliamentary history of Pakistan

The political history of Pakistan (پاکستان کی سیاسی تاريخ.) is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders of Pakistan.

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Partition of India

The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.

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Pashto

Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.

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Pashtuns

The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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Pejorative

A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.

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Peshawar

Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

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Planning Commission (Pakistan)

The Planning Commission (denoted as PC) is a financial and public policy development institution of the Government of Pakistan.

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PNS Ghazi

PNS Ghazi (previously USS Diablo (SS-479); reporting name: Ghazi),, was a diesel-electric and the first fast-attack submarine of the Pakistan Navy, leased from the United States in 1963.

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Political corruption

Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.

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Politics of Pakistan

The politics of Pakistan takes place within the framework established by the constitution.

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Polygamy

Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.

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Premier of the Soviet Union

The Premier of the Soviet Union (Глава Правительства СССР) was the head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

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Presidencies and provinces of British India

The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.

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Presidency of John F. Kennedy

The presidency of John F. Kennedy began on January 20, 1961, when Kennedy was inaugurated as the 35th President of the United States, and ended on November 22, 1963, upon his assassination and death, a span of days.

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President of Pakistan

The President of Pakistan (صدر مملکت پاکستان —), is the ceremonial head of state of Pakistan and a figurehead who represents the "unity of the Republic." in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.

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Presidential system

A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Price/wage spiral

In macroeconomics, the price/wage spiral (also called the wage/price spiral or wage-price spiral) represents a vicious circle process in which wage increases cause price increases which in turn cause wage increases, possibly with no answer to which came first.

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Prime Minister of India

The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.

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Prime Minister of Pakistan

The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".

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Prime Minister's Office (Pakistan)

The Prime Minister's Office (also referred to as PMO) is the official residence and principle workplace of the Prime Minister of Pakistan, located at 44000 Constitution Avenue, Islamabad, Pakistan.

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Privatisation in Pakistan

The Privatization process in Pakistan (sometimes referred to as Denationalization programme or simply the Privatization in Pakistan) was a policy measure programme in the economic period of Pakistan.

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Punjab

The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.

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Punjab Regiment (Pakistan)

The Punjab Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Pakistan Army.

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Rann of Kutch

The Rann of Kutch is a large area of salt marshes located mostly in Gujarat (primarily the Kutch district), India and the southern tip of Sindh, Pakistan.

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Rehana

Rehana is a village and one of the 44 union councils, administrative subdivisions, of Haripur District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

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Repentance

Repentance is the activity of reviewing one's actions and feeling contrition or regret for past wrongs, which is accompanied by commitment to change for the better.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Republican Party (Pakistan)

The Pakistani Republican Party was formed in October 1955, by a break away faction of the Muslim League and other politicians supporting the creation of the West Pakistan province, on the instigation of key leaders in the military and civil service.

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Risaldar-major

Risaldar-major was originally a cavalry officer of the British Indian Army, the rank was created in 1886 - a risaldar-major was the most senior risaldar (army rank equivalent to a captain) of the regiment.

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Round table (discussion)

Round table is a form of academic discussion.

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Royal Air Force

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.

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Royal Military College, Sandhurst

The Royal Military College (RMC), founded in 1801 and established in 1802 at Great Marlow and High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, England, but moved in October 1812 to Sandhurst, Berkshire, was a British Army military academy for training infantry and cavalry officers of the British and Indian Armies.

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S-75 Dvina

The S-75 (Russian: С-75; NATO reporting name SA-2 Guideline) is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defence system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance.

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Sartaj Aziz

Sartaj Aziz (سرتاج عزيز.; born 7 February 1929) is a Pakistani is the deputy chairman of the Planning Commission of Pakistan.

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Second lieutenant

Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.

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Self-coup

A self-coup (or autocoup, from the Spanish autogolpe) is a form of putsch or coup d'état in which a nation's leader, despite having come to power through legal means, dissolves or renders powerless the national legislature and unlawfully assumes extraordinary powers not granted under normal circumstances.

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Service number

A service number is an identification code used to identify a person within a large group.

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Shaukat Aziz

Shaukat Aziz (شوکت عزیز) (born 6 March 1949 in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan) is a Pakistani economist and financier who served as 18th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 20 August 2004 to 15 November 2007, as well as the Finance Minister of Pakistan from 6 November 1999 to 15 November 2007.

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Shaukat Hayat Khan

Major (retd) Sardar Shaukat Hayat Khan (Urdu: شوكت حيات خان; 24 September 1915 – 25 September 1998) was an influential politician, military officer, and Pakistan Movement activist who played a major role in the organising of the Muslim League in the British-controlled Punjab.

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Sheikh Mujibur Rahman

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান);; (17 March 1920 – 15 August 1975), shortened as Sheikh Mujib or just Mujib, was a Bengali politician and statesman.

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Sher Ali Khan Pataudi

Major General Nawabzada Sher Ali Khan of Pataudi (نوابزادہ شیر علی خان پٹوڈی) HJ (13 May 1913 – 29 May 2002) was the second son of Nawab Ibrahim Ali Khan of Pataudi, in Pataudi.

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Sindh

Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.

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Sino-Indian War

The Sino-Indian War (भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.

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Sino-Pakistan Agreement

The Sino-Pakistan Agreement (also known as the Sino-Pakistan Frontier Agreement and Sino-Pak Boundary Agreement) is a 1963 document between the governments of Pakistan and China establishing the border between those countries.

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Six point movement

The Six Point Movement was a movement in East Pakistan, spearheaded by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, which called for greater autonomy for East Pakistan.

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Socialism in Pakistan

The influences of socialism and socialist movements in Pakistan have taken many different forms as a counterpart to political conservatism, from the groups like Lal Salam which is the Pakistani section of the International Marxist Tendency, The Struggle, to the Stalinist group like Communist Party through to the reformist electoral project enshrined in the birth of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) While capitalism has always held its sway, the prevalence of the socialist ideology has nevertheless continued to be found in a number of instances in Pakistan's political past and prominent personalities.

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South Waziristan

South Waziristan (Urdu: جنوبی وزیرستان) is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the southern part of Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, that covers some 11,585 km² (4,473 mi²).

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Soviet Air Defence Forces

The Soviet Air Defence Forces (войска ПВО, voyska protivovozdushnoy oborony, voyska PVO, V-PVO, lit. Anti-Air Defence Troops; and formerly protivovozdushnaya oborona strany, PVO strany, lit. Anti-Air Defence of the Nation) was the air defence branch of the Soviet Armed Forces.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission

The Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) is an executive and bureaucratic space agency of the Government of Pakistan, responsible for the nation's public and civil space programme and for aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Staff (military)

A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit.

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State religion

A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.

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State visits to the United States

State and official visits to the United States are formal visits by the head of state (state visit) or chief of government (official visit) from one country to the United States, during which the president of the United States acts as official host of the visitor.

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Structure of the Pakistan Army

The Structure of the Pakistan Army can be broken down two ways, administrative, and operational.

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Supreme Court of Pakistan

The Supreme Court of Pakistan (عدالت عظمیٰ پاکستان; Adālat-e-Uzma Pākistān) is the apex court in the judicial hierarchy of Pakistan.

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Tareen

The Tareen (or Tarin) (ترین) is a tribe of Western Pashtun who inhabit Southern Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan and Hazara region of northwestern Pakistan.

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Tashkent

Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.

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Tashkent Declaration

The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed on 10 January 1966 that resolved the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.

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The Pentagon

The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.

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Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkish Armed Forces

The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF; Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri, TSK) are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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University of Reading

The University of Reading is a public university located in Reading, Berkshire, England.

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Usurper

A usurper is an illegitimate or controversial claimant to power, often but not always in a monarchy.

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Vice admiral

Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal.

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Viceroy's commissioned officer

A viceroy's commissioned officer (VCO) was a senior Indian member of the British Indian Army.

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Villa

A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house.

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Voter turnout

Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election.

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Wajid Ali Khan Burki

Lieutenant-General Wajid Ali Khan Burki MBE (1900–1988), was a high-profile military official who served as Minister-in-Charge of the Ministry of Health under the military government of Field Marshal Ayub Khan.

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Waziristan campaign (1936–1939)

The Waziristan campaign 1936–1939 comprised a number of operations conducted in Waziristan by British and Indian forces against the fiercely independent tribesmen that inhabited this region.

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Wāli of Swat

The Wāli of Swat (Urdu: والی سوات) was the official title of the leader (wāli) of the erstwhile princely state of Swat and also the nomenclature of the dynasty that ruled there from 1926 to 1969.

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West Pakistan

West Pakistan (مغربی پاکستان,; পশ্চিম পাকিস্তান) was one of the two exclaves created at the formation of the modern State of Pakistan following the 1947 Partition of India.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Wheelchair

A wheelchair, often abbreviated to just "chair", is a chair with wheels, used when walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, or disability.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Writ

In common law, a writ (Anglo-Saxon gewrit, Latin breve) is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction; in modern usage, this body is generally a court.

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Yahya Khan

Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (آغا محمد یحییٰ خان; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), widely known as Yahya Khan,, was the third President of Pakistan, serving in this post from 25 March 1969 until turning over his presidency in December 1971.

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Yousuf Ayub Khan

Yousuf Ayub Khan (born 1961) is a Pakistani politician and businessman.

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Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.

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14th Punjab Regiment

The 14th Punjab Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947.

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1958 Pakistani coup d'état

The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état refers to the events between October 7, when the President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution of Pakistan and declared martial law, and October 27, when Mirza himself was deposed by Gen.

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1960 U-2 incident

On 1 May 1960, a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down by the Soviet Air Defence Forces while performing photographic aerial reconnaissance deep into Soviet territory.

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1969 Mass uprising in East Pakistan

1969 uprising in East Pakistan (ঊনসত্তরের গণঅভ্যুত্থান) was a democratic political movement in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) that took place in 1969.

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19th Punjabis

The 19th Punjabis was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army.

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4th Horse (Hodson's Horse)

4th Horse (Hodson's Horse) is a cavalry regiment of the Indian Army which originated as part of the British Indian Army.

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Redirects here:

Ayub Khan (Field Marshal), Ayub Khan (field marshal), Ayub Khan (general), Field Marshal (Pakistan), Field Marshal Ayub Khan, Field Marshal Khan, Gen Ayub, Gen. Ayub Khan, General Mohammad Ayub Khan, Mohammad Ayub Khan, Muhammad Ayub Khan, President Ayub Khan, محمد ايوب خان.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayub_Khan_(President_of_Pakistan)

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