176 relations: Abdomen, Abscess, Acupuncture, Adam Hart-Davis, Aether (classical element), Agada, Agni, Agnivesa, Alternative medicine, Amputation, Anal fistula, Angina, Ap (water), Aphrodisiac, Arsenic, Atharvaveda, Atreya, Ayurvedic acupressure, Baba Hari Dass, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery, Bangalore, Basti (Panchakarma), Bhaisajyaguru, Bhasma, Bioprospecting, Blood vessel, Bologna, Bone marrow, Bower Manuscript, Brahma, Buddhism, Calculus (medicine), Cancer Research UK, Cannabis indica, Cardamom, Cardiovascular disease, Cauterization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central Council of Indian Medicine, Charaka, Charaka Samhita, Cinnamon, Clinical trials on Ayurvedic drugs, Common Era, Copper sulfate, Couching (ophthalmology), Current Science, Dalhana, Dhanvantari, Dhātu (Ayurveda), ..., Diabetes mellitus, Digestion, Dinacharya, Divodasa, Dosha, Edema, Encarta, Epileptic seizure, Excretion, Faxian, Flight surgeon, Food and Drug Administration, Gallstone, Georgian folk medicine, Government of India, Guṇa, Gujarat Ayurved University, Harita, Harriet A. Hall, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Heavy metals, History of alternative medicine, Homeopathy, Hypertension, Indian Academy of Sciences, Indian subcontinent, Indus Valley Civilisation, Italian Renaissance, Jainism, JAMA (journal), Jivaka Komarabhacca, Joseph Constantine Carpue, Lead, Lead poisoning, Leprosy, Ligature (medicine), List of unproven and disproven cancer treatments, Lithotomy, Mahabharata, Maharashtra, Maharashtra Andhashraddha Nirmoolan Samiti, Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health, Mahavamsa, Malas (Ayurveda), Mantra, Massage, Medical research, Medieval medicine of Western Europe, Meditation, Mercury (element), Metabolism, Microsoft, Midwifery, Mihintale, Ministry of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Ministry of Health, Nutrition and Indigenous Medicine, Motilal Banarsidass, Mount Madonna Institute, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Nadi (yoga), Nagarjuna, Nasya, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Informatics Centre, National Institutes of Health, Oil pulling, Opium, Orient Blackswan, Oxford University Press, Pancha Bhoota, Panchakarma, Pandukabhaya of Anuradhapura, Parliament of India, Persian language, Plastic surgery, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Prithvi, Processing (Chinese materia medica), Protoscience, Pseudoscience, Rajasthan, Ramuan, Rasa shastra, Rejuvenation (aging), Rhinoplasty, Samkhya, Samskara (ayurvedic), Sattvic diet, Shirodhara, Shodhana, Siddha medicine, Siddhi, Sinhalese people, Springer Science+Business Media, Sulfur, SUNY Press, Superstition in India, Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Svedana, The Gentleman's Magazine, The Hindu, Thrombus, Tonsillectomy, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional Knowledge Digital Library, Traditional Tibetan medicine, Tripiṭaka, Tuberculosis, University of Colombo, University of Delhi, USA Today, Vaisheshika, Vamana, Vasant Lad, Vasoconstriction, Vayu, Vedas, Vedic period, World Health Organization, World Intellectual Property Organization, World Trade Organization, Yoga, Yunani medicine. Expand index (126 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
Adam John Hart-Davis (born 4 July 1943) is an English scientist, author, photographer, historian and broadcaster, well known in the UK for presenting the BBC television series Local Heroes and What the Romans Did for Us, the latter spawning several spin-off series involving the Victorians, the Tudors, the Stuarts and the Ancients.
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (αἰθήρ aithēr), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.
Agada is one of the eight branches into which ayurveda medicine is traditionally divided.
Agni (अग्नि, Pali: Aggi, Malay: Api) is an Indian word meaning fire, and connotes the Vedic fire god of Hinduism.
Agnivesha (अग्निवेश) is a legendary rishi (sage), reputedly one of the earliest authors on ayurveda (Indian medicine).
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.
Anal fistula (plural fistulae), or fistula-in-ano, is a chronic abnormal communication between the epithelialised surface of the anal canal and (usually) the perianal skin.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
Ap is the Vedic Sanskrit term for "water", which in Classical Sanskrit only occurs in the plural, 'Varuna' or (sometimes re-analysed as a thematic singular), whence Hindi.
An aphrodisiac or love drug is a substance that increases libido when consumed.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
The Atharva Veda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, from and veda, meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life".
Atreya (आत्रेय) Rishi, or Atreya Punarvasu, was a descendant of Atri, one of the great Hindu sages (rishis) whose accomplishments are detailed in the Puranas.
Ayurvedic acupressure (also known as Marma therapy) is a particular kind of massage or an alternative medical treatment, which integrates the knowledge of ancient Ayurveda and the principles of acupressure, allegedly to completely heal and cure physical, mental, emotional and spiritual illnesses.
Baba Hari Dass (Devanagari: बाबा हरि दास); born 26 March 1923 in Almora near Nainital, Uttar Pradesh, now Uttarakhand, India, is a yoga master, a silent monk, and a commentator of Indian scriptural tradition of Dharma and Moksha.
Bachelor of Ayurved Medicine and Surgery (B.A.M.S.) is a professional degree in Ayurveda offered by Ayurveda schools in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and other South Asian countries.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Basti is treatment done with medicinal substances, like herbal oils and decoctions in a liquid medium, into the rectum of the person.
Bhaiṣajyaguru, formally Bhaiṣajya-guru-vaiḍūrya-prabhā-rāja ("King of Medicine Master and Lapis Lazuli Light"), is the Buddha of healing and medicine in Mahāyāna Buddhism.
Bhasma in Ayurveda has been defined as a substance obtained by calcination.
Bioprospecting is the process of discovery and commercialization of new products based on biological resources.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
The Bower Manuscript is an early birch bark document, dated to the Gupta era (between the 4th and the 6th century).
Brahma (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मा, IAST: Brahmā) is a creator god in Hinduism.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
A calculus (plural calculi), often called a stone, is a concretion of material, usually mineral salts, that forms in an organ or duct of the body.
Cancer Research UK is a cancer research and awareness charity in the United Kingdom and Isle of Man, formed on 4 February 2002 by the merger of The Cancer Research Campaign and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund.
Cannabis indica, formally known as Cannabis sativa forma indica, is an annual plant in the Cannabaceae family.
Cardamom, sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Cauterization (or cauterisation, or cautery) is a medical practice or technique of burning a part of a body to remove or close off a part of it.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) is a statutory body under Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, set up in 1971 under the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, (Act 48) which was passed in 1970.
Charaka (चरक) (~6th – 2nd century BCE) was one of the principal contributors to Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India.
The Charaka Saṃhitā or Compendium of Charaka (Sanskrit चरक संहिता IAST: caraka-saṃhitā) is a Sanskrit text on Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine).
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.
Clinical trials on Ayurvedic drugs are clinical trials carried out on Ayurvedic medicine.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Copper sulfate may refer to.
Couching is the earliest documented form of cataract surgery.
Current Science is an English-language peer-reviewed multidisciplinary scientific journal.
Dalhana was a medieval commentator on the Sushruta Samhita, an early text on Indian medicine.
Dhanvantari appears in the Puranas as the god of Ayurveda.
Dhātus (dhä·tōōs), n.pl.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Dinacharya (Sanskrit: दिनचर्या "daily-routine") is a concept in Ayurvedic medicine that looks at the cycles of nature and bases daily activities around these cycles.
Divodāsa ("heaven's servant") is a name of a tribal king in the Rigveda (celebrated for his liberality and protected by Indra and the Ashvins in the Rigveda, RV 1.112.14; 1.116.18), the son of Vadhryashva RV 6.61.5.
Dosha (Sanskrit दोषः, doṣa), according to Ayurveda, is one of three substances that are present in a person's body.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Faxian (337 – c. 422) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who travelled by foot from China to India, visiting many sacred Buddhist sites in what are now Xinjiang, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka between 399-412 to acquire Buddhist texts.
A flight surgeon is a military medical officer practicing in the clinical field variously known as aviation medicine, aerospace medicine, or flight medicine.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of gallstones or to the diseases caused by gallstones. Most people with gallstones (about 80%) never have symptoms. When a gallstone blocks the bile duct, a crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic (gallbladder attack) can result. This happens in 1–4% of those with gallstones each year. Complications of gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), jaundice, and infection of a bile duct (cholangitis). Symptoms of these complications may include pain of more than five hours duration, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, dark urine, and pale stools. Risk factors for gallstones include birth control pills, pregnancy, a family history of gallstones, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, or rapid weight loss. The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from cholesterol are termed cholesterol stones, and those mainly from bilirubin are termed pigment stones. Gallstones may be suspected based on symptoms. Diagnosis is then typically confirmed by ultrasound. Complications may be detected on blood tests. The risk of gallstones may be decreased by maintaining a healthy weight through sufficient exercise and eating a healthy diet. If there are no symptoms, treatment is usually not needed. In those who are having gallbladder attacks, surgery to remove the gallbladder is typically recommended. This can be carried out either through several small incisions or through a single larger incision, usually under general anesthesia. In rare cases when surgery is not possible medication may be used to try to dissolve the stones or lithotripsy to break down the stones. In developed countries, 10–15% of adults have gallstones. Rates in many parts of Africa, however, are as low as 3%. Gallbladder and biliary related diseases occurred in about 104 million people (1.6%) in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths. Women more commonly have stones than men and they occur more commonly after the age of 40. Certain ethnic groups have gallstones more often than others. For example, 48% of Native Americans have gallstones. Once the gallbladder is removed, outcomes are generally good.
Georgian folk medicine (or Georgian traditional medicine) originated at the crossroads of the East and West and therefore integrates the principles of both medical traditions.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
depending on the context means "string, thread, or strand", or "virtue, merit, excellence", or "quality, peculiarity, attribute, property".
Gujarat Ayurved University is located in Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.
Harita (also known as Harita, Haritsa and Haritasa) was an ancient prince of the Suryavansha dynasty, best known as the ancestor of the Kshatriya lineage, Harita gotra.
Harriet A. Hall (born July 2, 1945) is a U.S. retired family physician, former U.S. Air Force flight surgeon and skeptic who writes about alternative medicine and quackery for Skeptic and Skeptical Inquirer.
The Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (formerly Harvard School of Public Health) is the public health graduate school of Harvard University, located in the Longwood Medical Area of Boston, Massachusetts adjacent Harvard Medical School.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
The history of alternative medicine refers to the history of a group of diverse medical practices that were collectively promoted as "alternative medicine" beginning in the 1970s, to the collection of individual histories of members of that group, or to the history of western medical practices that were labeled "irregular practices" by the western medical establishment.
Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
The Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore was founded by C. V. Raman, and was registered as a Society on 24 April 1934.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association.
Jivaka, also titled Jivaka Komarabhacca, was a famous physician in Ancient India, including personal physician of Indian King Bimbisara and Gautama Buddha.
Joseph Constantine Carpue (4 May 1764 – 30 January 1846) was an English surgeon who was born in London.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
In surgery or medical procedure, a ligature consists of a piece of thread (suture) tied around an anatomical structure, usually a blood vessel or another hollow structure (e.g. urethra) to shut it off.
This is a list of alternative treatments that have been promoted to treat or prevent cancer in humans but which lack scientific and medical evidence of effectiveness.
Lithotomy from Greek for "lithos" (stone) and "tomos" (cut), is a surgical method for removal of calculi, stones formed inside certain organs, such as the kidneys (kidney stones), bladder (bladder stones), and gallbladder (gallstones), that cannot exit naturally through the urinary system or biliary tract.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Maharashtra Andhashraddha Nirmoolan Samiti (MANS; or Committee for Eradication of Blind Faith, CEBF) is an organisation dedicated to fighting superstition in India, particularly in the province of Maharashtra.
Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health (MVAH) (also known as Maharishi Ayurveda or Maharishi Vedic Medicine) is a form of alternative medicine founded in the mid-1980s by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, who developed the Transcendental Meditation technique (TM).
The Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle", Pali Mahāvaṃsa) (5th century CE) is an epic poem written in the Pali language.
Malas in Ayurveda, the waste products of the body, which include urine, stool, and sweat.
A "mantra" ((Sanskrit: मन्त्र)) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and spiritual powers.
Massage is to work and act on the body with pressure.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
Medieval medicine in Western Europe was composed of a mixture of existing ideas from antiquity, spiritual influences and what Claude Lévi-Strauss identifies as the "shamanistic complex" and "social consensus." In the Early Middle Ages, following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, standard medical knowledge was based chiefly upon surviving Greek and Roman texts, preserved in monasteries and elsewhere.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Midwifery is the health science and health profession that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (including care of the newborn), in addition to the sexual and reproductive health of women throughout their lives.
Mihintale is a mountain peak near Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka.
The Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy, abbreviated as AYUSH, is a governmental body in India purposed with developing, education and research in ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine), yoga, naturopathy, unani, siddha, homoeopathy, Sowa Rigpa (Traditional Tibetan medicine) and other Indigenous medicine systems.
The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is an Indian government ministry charged with health policy in India.
Tihe Ministry of Health, Nutrition and Indigenous Medicine (සෞඛ්ය, පෝෂණ හා දේශීය වෛද්ය අමාත්යාංශය Saukhya, Pōṣaṇa Hā Dēshīya Vaidya Amāthyānshaya; translit) is the central government ministry of Sri Lanka responsible for health.
Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.
Mount Madonna Institute is a non-profit college specializing in the field of Yoga, Ayurvedic medicine, massage and community studies.
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
(lit; lit) is a term for the channels through which, in traditional Indian medicine and spiritual science, the energies of the physical body, the subtle body and the causal body are said to flow. Within this philosophical framework, the nadis are said to connect at special points of intensity called nadichakras."Light on Pranayama" (Ch. 5: Nadis and Chakras).
Nāgārjuna (c. 150 – c. 250 CE) is widely considered one of the most important Mahayana philosophers.
Nasya is a kind of Panchakarma treatment for body cleansing a used in Ayurvedic medicine.
The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) is a United States government agency which explores complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).
The National Informatics Centre (NIC) (Rashtriya Suchna Vigyan Kendra) is the premier science & technology organisation of Government of India in informatics services and information and communication technology (ICT) applications.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Oil pulling is an alternative medical practice in which oil is "swished" around the mouth.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Orient Blackswan Pvt.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pancha Bhoota or Pancha Maha-Bhoota (Sanskrit: पञ्चभूत, पञ्चमहाभूत), five great elements, also five physical elements, is a group of five basic elements, which, according to Hinduism, is the basis of all cosmic creation.
Panchakarma ("Pancha" means five and "karma" means treatment) is done to detoxify the body according to Ayurveda.
Pandukabhaya (474 BC – 367 BC) was King of Upatissa Nuwara and the first monarch of the Anuradhapura Kingdom and 6th over all of the island of Sri Lanka since the arrival of the Vijaya, he reigned from 437 BC to 367 BC.
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
Prithvi or Prithvi Mata (Sanskrit: पृथ्वी,, also) "the Vast One" is the Sanskrit name for the earth as well as the name of a devi (goddess) in Hinduism and some branches of Buddhism.
Processing in Chinese materia medica (Chinese herbology) is the technique of altering the properties, sterilizing and removing poisons of crude medicines by processing using heat and combination with various materials in a kind of alchemical approach to preparation.
In the philosophy of science, there are several definitions of protoscience.
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
In Malaysia, ramuan is a blend of plants or plant parts which are selected and mixed to create pleasing or healthful effects in the preparation of food or the creation of herbal medicines.
In Ayurvedic medicine, the traditional medical lore of Hinduism, rasa shastra is a process by which various metals, Minerals and other substances, including mercury, are purified and combined with herbs in an attempt to treat illnesses.
Rejuvenation is a medical discipline focused on the practical reversal of the aging process.
Rhinoplasty (ῥίς rhis, nose + πλάσσειν plassein, to shape), commonly known as a nose job, is a plastic surgery procedure for correcting and reconstructing the form, restoring the functions, and aesthetically enhancing the nose by resolving nasal trauma (blunt, penetrating, blast), congenital defect, respiratory impediment, or a failed primary rhinoplasty.
Samkhya or Sankhya (सांख्य, IAST) is one of the six āstika schools of Hindu philosophy.
A samskara is a process in ayurvedic medicine said to detoxify heavy metals and toxic herbs.
Sattvic diet is a diet based on foods in Ayurveda and Yoga literature that contain sattva quality (guna).
Shirodhara is a form of Ayurveda therapy that involves gently pouring liquids over the forehead and can be one of the steps involved in Panchakarma.
In Rasa Shastra (the branch that deals with pharmaceutical processing of Ayurveda formulations), Shodhana is a process that is employed during the pharmaceutical processing either to detoxify, purify, or to potentiate the efficacy of the raw materials (of herbal, mineral, metal or animal origin).
Siddha medicine is a system of traditional medicine originating in ancient Tamilakam (Tamil Nadu) in South India.
(Sanskrit and Pali: सिद्धि; Kannada: ಸಿದ್ಧಿ; Telugu: సిద్ధి; Sinhala: සිද්දි; Tamil: சித்தி;, (accessed: Thursday April 15, 2010)) are spiritual, paranormal, supernatural, or otherwise magical powers, abilities, and attainments that are the products of spiritual advancement through sādhanās such as meditation and yoga.
The Sinhalese (Sinhala: සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya, also known as Hela) are an Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
Superstition in India is considered a widespread social problem.
Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician during 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: ''Suśruta-saṃhitā'').
The Sushruta Samhita (सुश्रुतसंहिता, IAST: Suśrutasaṃhitā, literally "Suśruta's Compendium") is an ancient Sanskrit text on medicine and surgery, and one of the most important such treatises on this subject to survive from the ancient world.
Svedana or Swedana, means to "perspire".
The Gentleman's Magazine was founded in London, England, by Edward Cave in January 1731.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which both palatine tonsils (hereafter called "tonsils") are removed from a recess in the side of the pharynx called the tonsillar fossa.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
The Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) is an Indian digital knowledge repository of the traditional knowledge, especially about medicinal plants and formulations used in Indian systems of medicine.
Traditional Tibetan medicine, also known as Sowa-Rigpa medicine, is a centuries-old traditional medical system that employs a complex approach to diagnosis, incorporating techniques such as pulse analysis and urinalysis, and utilizes behavior and dietary modification, medicines composed of natural materials (e.g., herbs and minerals) and physical therapies (e.g. Tibetan acupuncture, moxabustion, etc.) to treat illness.
The Tripiṭaka (Sanskrit) or Tipiṭaka (Pali), is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The University of Colombo (කොළඹ විශ්වවිද්යාලය Kolomba Vishvavidyalaya, கொழும்புப் பல்கலைக்கழகம்) (informally Colombo University or UoC) is a public research university located primarily in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
The University of Delhi, informally known as Delhi University (DU), is a collegiate public central university, located in New Delhi, India.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Vaisheshika or (वैशेषिक) is one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy (Vedic systems) from ancient India.
Vamana (Sanskrit: वामन, IAST: Vāmana, lit. dwarf), is the fifth avatar of Hindu god Vishnu.
Vasant Dattatray Lad is an American author, Ayurvedic physician, professor and director of the Ayurvedic Institute in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vāyu (Sanskrit) is a primary Hindu deity, the lord of the winds, the father of Bhima and the spiritual father of Hanuman.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN).
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
"Yunani" or "Unani medicine" (Urdu: طب یونانی tibb yūnānī) is the term for Perso-Arabic traditional medicine as practiced in Mughal India and in Muslim culture in South Asia and modern day Central Asia.
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