384 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi, Abu'l-Fida, Acre, Israel, Aden, Aga Khan Foundation, Ahlat, Ajloun, Al-Adid, Al-Adil I, Al-Adil II, Al-Afdal ibn Salah ad-Din, Al-Afdal Muhammad, Al-Aqsa Mosque, Al-Ashraf Musa, Emir of Damascus, Al-Ashraf Musa, Sultan of Egypt, Al-Awhad Ayyub, Al-Aziz Uthman, Al-Dakhwar, Al-Firdaws Madrasa, Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, Al-Kamil, Al-Karak, Al-Mansur Ali, Al-Mansur Ibrahim, Al-Mansur Nasir al-Din Muhammad, Al-Maqrizi, Al-Mu'azzam Isa, Al-Muazzam Turanshah, Al-Musta'sim, Al-Mustadi, Al-Mustarshid, Al-Muzaffar Umar, Al-Nasir, Al-Shafi‘i, Al-Shajara, Tiberias, Alamut, Alawites, Aleppo, Alexandria, Ali ibn al-Athir, Almohad Caliphate, Aloe, Alum, Amir al-hajj, An-Nasir Dawud, An-Nasir Muhammad, An-Nasir Yusuf, Antioch, Apricot, ..., Arab culture, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabic poetry, Aramaic language, Arish, Armenia, Armenians, Artuqids, As-Salih Ayyub, As-Salih Ismail al-Malik, As-Salih Ismail, Emir of Damascus, Ashkelon, Aswan, Asyut, Atabeg, Aybak, Az-Zahir Ghazi, Azaz, Baalbek, Bab al-Jinan, Bab al-Nasr (Aleppo), Bab Qinnasrin, Baghdad, Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad, Bahri dynasty, Baibars, Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, Balian of Ibelin, Balqa Governorate, Baniyas, Banu Kanz, Banu Kinanah, Barzeh, Syria, Battle of Ain Jalut, Battle of Al Mansurah, Battle of Al-Fule, Battle of Arsuf, Battle of Belvoir Castle, Battle of Fariskur, Battle of Hattin, Battle of La Forbie, Battle of Marj Ayyun, Battle of Montgisard, Bayt Jibrin, Bedouin, Beirut, Beylik of Dulkadir, Bilad al-Sham, Bilbeis, Black people, Bosra, Caesarea, Cairo, Cairo Citadel, Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, Catalans, Caucasus, Central Asia, Ceratonia siliqua, Circassians, Citadel of Aleppo, Citadel of Damascus, Conrad of Montferrat, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Creative Commons, Crusader states, Crusades, CyArk, Cyprus, Cyrenaica, Damanhur, Damascus, Damietta, Daughters of Jacob Bridge, Dayfa Khatun, Dead Sea, Deir al-Balah, Dervish, Dinar, Divan, Diyar Bakr, Diyarbakır, Dome of the Ascension, Dome of the Rock, Druze, Dvin (ancient city), Eastern Anatolia Region, Edessa, Egypt, Egypt in the Middle Ages, Emir, Erbil, Eunuch, Europe, Faiyum, Farrukh Shah, Fatimid Caliphate, Fifth Crusade, Fiqh, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, French people, Fustat, G. P. Putnam's Sons, Galilee, Galley, Gaza City, Gazi Gümüshtigin, Gökböri, Genoa, Ghazi II Saif ud-Din, Giza, Golan Heights, Great Mosque of Aleppo, Guy of Lusignan, Hadhabani, Hadhramaut, Haifa, Hajj, Hama, Hamdanids (Yemen), Hanafi, Hanbali, Harran, Hasankeyf, Hebron, Hejaz, Hiribya, Hittin, Holy Roman Empire, Homs, Horns of Hattin, Hulagu Khan, Ibn al-Baitar, Ibn Jubayr, Ilkhanate, Imad ad-Din Zengi, India, Indian Ocean, Iraq, Islam, Isma'ilism, Italians, Izz ad-Din Mas'ud, Jableh, Jaffa, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, Jenin, Jews, Jezreel Valley, Jihad, John of Brienne, Jordan River, Jordan Valley (Middle East), Jumu'ah, Kafartab, Kafr Kanna, Kafr Sabt, Kairouan, Karaite Judaism, Karakorum, Kawkab al-Hawa, Khabur (Euphrates), Khawarij, Khutbah, Khwarazmian dynasty, Kingdom of Georgia, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Kipchak language, Kipchaks, Kitbuqa, Knights Templar, Kurdish languages, Kurds, Lake Homs, Lake Van, Latrun, Levant, List of Ayyubid rulers, List of Kurdish dynasties and countries, List of minor Old Testament figures, A–K, List of Sunni Muslim dynasties, Louis IX of France, Lower Egypt, Lubya, Maarrat al-Nu'man, Machicolation, Madhhab, Madrasa, Maghreb, Maimonides, Maliki, Mamluk, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Manbij, Mansoura, Egypt, Marble, Mardin, Möngke Khan, Mecca, Medina, Mediterranean Sea, Melkite, Middle East, Migdal Afek, Mihrab, Mokattam, Mongol Empire, Montreal (Crusader castle), Mosul, Mount Lebanon, Mount Tabor, Muhammad, Muslim world, Nablus, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, Nawab, Nazareth, Nestorianism, Nile, Nile Delta, Normans, North Africa, Nubia, Nubians, Nur ad-Din (died 1174), Nusaybin, Oghuz Turks, Old Dongola, Ottoman Empire, Oultrejordain, Palestine (region), Palestine Exploration Fund, Palmyra, Patriarch of Antioch, Pelagio Galvani, Persian people, Philip II of France, Pope Gregory VIII, Qadi, Qasr Ibrim, Qatada ibn Idris, Qus, Qutuz, Ramla, Raqqa, Rashidun al-Suri, Rasulid dynasty, Rawadid dynasty, Red Sea, Religious persecution, Richard I of England, Safed, Saladin, Salamiyah, Salkhad, Samaria, Samosata, Sana'a, Sarepta, Sebastia, Nablus, Seljuk Empire, Seljuq dynasty, Sepphoris, Sesame, Seventh Crusade, Shafi‘i, Shajar al-Durr, Sharif, Shawar, Sheikh, Shia Islam, Shirkuh, Sidon, Siege of Aleppo (1260), Siege of Damietta (1218–1219), Siege of Jacob's Ford, Siege of Jerusalem (1187), Sinai Peninsula, Sinjar, Sixth Crusade, Sufism, Sugarcane, Sultan, Sunni Islam, Syria (region), Syriac Orthodox Church, Syrian Desert, Taiz, Tall al-Ajjul, Tanta, Tell Sultan, Temple Mount, Third Crusade, Tiberias, Tigris, Tikrit, Transjordan (region), Treaty of Ramla, Tripoli, Tughtakin ibn Ayyub, Tunisia, Turan-Shah, Turkish language, Turkish people, Turkmens, Twelver, Tyre, Lebanon, Ulama, Umayyad Mosque, Upper Egypt, Upper Mesopotamia, Vallum, Veneto, Vizier, Waqf, War hawk, West, West Bank, Western Asia, Whole Azerbaijan, William of Tyre, Yanbu, Yazidis, Yemen, Zabid, Zaidiyyah, Zakarids-Mkhargrzeli, Zakat, Zengid dynasty, Zir'in, Zoara. Expand index (334 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi or Abdallatif al-Baghdadi (عبداللطيف البغدادي, 1162 in Baghdad–1231), short for Muwaffaq al-Din Muhammad Abd al-Latif ibn Yusuf al-Baghdadi (موفق الدين محمد عبد اللطيف بن يوسف البغدادي), was a physician, historian, Egyptologist and traveler, and one of the most voluminous writers of the Near East in his time.
Abu al-Fida (أبو الفداء; November 1273October 27, 1331), fully Abu Al-fida' Isma'il Ibn 'ali ibn Mahmud Al-malik Al-mu'ayyad 'imad Ad-din and better known in English as Abulfeda, was a Kurdish historian, geographer and local governor of Hama.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
The Aga Khan Foundation (AKF) is a private, not-for-profit international development agency, which was founded in 1967 by Prince Shah Al Hussaini, Aga Khan IV.
Ahlat (Խլաթ, Khlat; اخلاط; ხლათი, Khlati; Xelat; Χαλάτα, Chalata), is a historic town and district in Turkey's Bitlis Province in Eastern Anatolia Region.
Ajloun (عجلون, ‘Ajlūn), also spelled Ajlun, is the capital town of the Ajloun Governorate, a hilly town in the north of Jordan, located 76 kilometers (around 47 miles) north west of Amman.
Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh ibn Yūsuf ibn al-Ḥāfiẓ (1149–1171), better known by his regnal name al-ʿĀḍid li-Dīn Allāh (العاضد لدين الله, "Support of God's Faith"), also known as al-Azid and al-Athid, was the fourteenth and last Caliph of the Fatimid dynasty, reigning from 1160 to 1171.
Al-Adil I (العادل, in full al-Malik al-Adil Sayf ad-Din Abu-Bakr Ahmed ibn Najm ad-Din Ayyub, الملك العادل سيف الدين أبو بكر بن أيوب,‎ "Ahmed, son of Najm ad-Din Ayyub, father of Bakr, the King, the Just, Sword of the Faith"; 1145–1218) was an Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt and Syria of Kurdish descent.
Al-Malik al-ʿĀdil Sayf ad-Dīn Abū Bakr ibn Nāṣir ad-Dīn Muḥammad (سيف الدين الملك العادل أبو بكر بن ناصر الدين محمد, better known as al-Adil II) (c. 1221 – 9 February 1248) was the Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt from 1238 to 1240.
Al-Afdal ibn Salah ad-Din (الأفضل بن صلاح الدين, "most superior"; c. 1169 – 1225) popularly known as Al-Afdal (الأفضل), was one of seventeen sons of Saladin.
Al-Afdal Muhammad (الأفضل محمد) was the last Ayyubid governor of Hama, in central Syria, reigning from 1332 to 1341.
Al-Aqsa Mosque (Al-Masjid al-Aqṣā,, "the Farthest Mosque"), located in the Old City of Jerusalem, is the third holiest site in Islam.
Al-Ashraf or al-Ashraf Musa (27 August 1237), fully Al-Ashraf Musa Abu'l-Fath al-Muzaffar ad-Din, was a ruler of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Al-Ashraf Musa (الأشرف موسى) was the last, albeit titular, Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt as the puppet of Izz ad-Din Aybak.
Al-Malik al-Awhad Najm ad-Din Ayyub ibn al-Adil Abu Bakr ibn Najm ad-Din Ayyub (died 1210) was the third Ayyubid emir (prince) of the Diyarbakir emirate, centered in Mayyafariqin, between 1200-1210 CE.
Al-Malik al-Aziz Uthman ibn Salah ad-Din Yusuf (1171 – 29 November 1198) was the second Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt of the Kurdish descent.
Muhadhdhabuddin Abd al-Rahim bin Ali bin Hamid al-Dimashqi (مهذب الدين عبد الرحيم بن علي بن حامد الدمشقي) known as al-Dakhwar (الدخوار) (1170–1230) was a leading Arab physician in the 13th century where he served various rulers of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Al-Firdaws Madrasa is a madrasah complex located southwest of Bab al-Maqam in Aleppo, Syria.
Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr (13 August 985 – 13 February 1021), better known by his regnal title al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh (الحاكم بأمر الله; literally "Ruler by God's Command"), was the sixth Fatimid caliph and 16th Ismaili imam (996–1021).
Al-Kamil (الكامل) (full name: al-Malik al-Kamil Naser ad-Din Abu al-Ma'ali Muhammad) (c. 1177 – 6 March 1238) was a Kurdish ruler, the fourth Ayyubid sultan of Egypt.
Al-Karak (الكرك), also known as just Karak or Kerak, is a city in Jordan known for its Crusader castle, the Kerak Castle.
Al-Mansur Ali (المنصور على, epithet: al-Malik al-Manṣūr Nūr ad-dīn ʾAlī ibn Aybak, Arabic: الملك المنصور نور الدين على بن أيبك) (b. c. 1244, Cairo) was the second of the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt in the Turkic, or Bahri, line.
Nasir ad-Din al-Malik al-Mansur Ibrahim bin Asad ad-Din Shirkuh better known as al-Mansur Ibrahim (المنصور إبراهيم d. June 28, 1246) was a Kurdish ruler, the emir ("governor") of the Homs principality from 1240 to 1246 under the Ayyubid dynasty.
Al-Mansur Nasir al-Din Muhammad (المنصور ناصر الدين محمد بن العزيز; 1189 – after 1216) was the third Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt, reigning in 1198–1200.
Taqi al-Din Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364–1442)Franz Rosenthal,.
Al-Mu'azzam 'Isa Sharaf ad-Din (Cairo 1176 - Damascus 1227) was a Kurdish ruler, an Ayyubid Sultan who ruled Damascus from 1218 to 1227.
Turanshah, also Turan Shah (توران شاه), (? – 2 May 1250), (epithet: al-Malik al-Muazzam Ghayath al-Din Turanshah (الملك المعظم غياث الدين توران شاه)) was a Kurdish ruler of Egypt, a son of Sultan As-Salih Ayyub.
Al-Musta'sim Billah (full name: al-Musta'sim-Billah Abu-Ahmad Abdullah bin al-Mustansir-Billah;; 1213 – February 20, 1258) was the last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad; he ruled from 1242 until his death.
Hassan al-Mustadi Ibn Yusuf al-Mustanjid (1142 – 30 March 1180) (المستضيء بأمر الله) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1170 to 1180.
Al-Mustarshid Billah (المسترشد بالله) (1092 – 29 August 1135) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1118 to 1135. He was son of his predecessor, Caliph Al-Mustazhir.
Al-Muzaffar Taqi al-Din Umar (المظفر تقي الدين عمر) (died 1191) was the Ayyubid prince of Hama from 1179 to 1191 and a general of Saladin.
Al-Nasir li-Din Allah (6 August 1158 – 5 October 1225) (الناصر لدين الله) was the 34th Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1180 until his death.
Abū ʿAbdullāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī (أبـو عـبـد الله مـحـمـد ابـن إدريـس الـشـافـعيّ) (767-820 CE, 150-204 AH) was an Arab Muslim theologian, writer, and scholar, who was the first contributor of the principles of Islamic jurisprudence (Uṣūl al-fiqh).
Al-Shajara (الشجرة) was a Palestinian Arab village depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
The Alamut geographic region (الموت; Alamūt) is a region in Iran including western and eastern parts in the western edge of the Alborz (Elburz) range, between the dry and barren plain of Qazvin in the south and the densely forested slopes of the Mazandaran province in the north.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ash-Shaybani, better known as Ali 'Izz al-Din Ibn al-Athir al-Jazari (Arabic: علي عز الدین بن الاثیر الجزري) (1233–1160) was an Arab or Kurdish historian and biographer who wrote in Arabic and was from the Ibn Athir family.
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
Aloe, also written Aloë, is a genus containing over 500 species of flowering succulent plants.
An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.
Amir al-hajj (أمير الحج; transliteration: amīr al-ḥajj, "commander of the pilgrimage", or amīr al-ḥājj, "commander of the pilgrim"; plural: umarāʾ al-ḥajjPhilipp, 1998, p.) was the position and title given to the commander of the annual Hajj pilgrim caravan by successive Muslim empires, from the 7th century until the 20th century.
An-Nasir Dawud (1206–1261) was a Kurdish ruler, briefly (1227–1229) Ayyubid sultan of Damascus and later (1229–1248) Emir of Kerak.
Al-Malik an-Nasir Nasir ad-Din Muhammad ibn Qalawun (الملك الناصر ناصر الدين محمد بن قلاوون), commonly known as an-Nasir Muhammad (الناصر محمد), or by his kunya: Abu al-Ma'ali (أبو المعالى) or as Ibn Qalawun (1285–1341) was the ninth Turkic Mamluk sultan of Egypt who ruled for three reigns: December 1293–December 1294, 1299–1309, and 1310 until his death in 1341.
An-Nasir Yusuf (الناصر يوسف; 1228–1260), fully al-Malik al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn al-Aziz ibn al-Zahir ibn Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub ibn Shazy (الملك الناصر صلاح الدين يوسف بن الظاهر بن العزيز بن صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب بن شاذى), was the Ayyubid Emir of Syria from his seat in Aleppo (1236–1260) and the Sultan of the Ayyubid Empire from 1250 until the sack of Aleppo by the Mongols in 1260.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
Arab culture is the culture of the Arabs, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic poetry (الشعر العربي ash-shi‘ru al-‘Arabīyyu) is the earliest form of Arabic literature.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Arish or el Arīsh (العريش, Hrinokorura) is the capital and largest city (with 164,830 inhabitants) of the Egyptian governorate of North Sinai, as well as the largest city on the entire Sinai Peninsula, lying on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula, northeast of Cairo.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The Artquids or Artuqid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Artuklu Beyliği or Artıklılar, sometimes also spelled as Artukid, Ortoqid or Ortokid; Turkish plural: Artukoğulları; Azeri Turkish: Artıqlı) was a Turkmen dynasty that ruled in Eastern Anatolia, Northern Syria and Northern Iraq in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.
Al-Malik as-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (الملك الصالح نجم الدين ايوب; Cairo, 5 November 1205 – 22 November 1249 in Al Mansurah), nickname: Abu al-Futuh (أبو الفتوح), also known as al-Malik al-Salih, was the Kurdish Ayyubid ruler of Egypt from 1240 to 1249.
As-Salih Ismaʿil al-Malik (1163–1181) was an emir of Damascus in 1174, the son of Nur ad-Din.
Al-Malik as-Salih Imad ad-Din Ismail bin Saif ad-Din Ahmad better known as as-Salih Ismail (الصالح إسماعيل) was the Ayyubid sultan based in Damascus.
Ashkelon (also spelled Ashqelon and Ascalon; help; عَسْقَلَان) is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, south of Tel Aviv, and north of the border with the Gaza Strip.
Aswan (أسوان; ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ) is a city in the south of Egypt, the capital of the Aswan Governorate.
AsyutMore often spelled Assiout or Assiut.
Atabeg, Atabek, or Atabey is a hereditary title of nobility of a Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a monarch and charged with raising the crown prince.
Izz al-Din AybakThe name Aybeg or Aibak or Aybak is a combination of two Turkic words, "Ay".
Al-Malik az-Zahir Ghazi ibn Yusuf ibn Ayyub (commonly known as az-Zahir Ghazi; 1172 – 8 October 1216) was the Ayyubid emir of Aleppo between 1186 and 1216.
Azaz (أعزاز A‘zāz, Hurrian: Azazuwa, Azázion, Neo-Assyrian: Ḫazazu, Old Aramaic: Ḥzz) is a city in northwestern Syria, roughly north-northwest of Aleppo.
Baalbek, properly Baʿalbek (بعلبك) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a city in the Anti-Lebanon foothills east of the Litani River in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley, about northeast of Beirut and about north of Damascus.
Bab al-Jinan (باب الجنان) (Gate of Gardens) was one of the gates of Aleppo that used to lead to gardens on the banks of the Quwēq river.
Bab al-Nasr (باب النصر) meaning the Gate of Victory, is one of the nine historical gates of the Ancient City of Aleppo, Syria.
Bab Qinnasrin (باب قنسرين, Gate of Qinnasrin) is one of the gates of the medieval Old City of Aleppo in northern Syria.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bahā' ad-Dīn Yusuf ibn Rafi ibn Shaddād (بهاء الدين ابن شداد; the honorific title "Bahā' ad-Dīn" means "splendor of the faith"; sometimes known as Bohadin or Boha-Eddyn) (5 March 1145 – 8 November 1234) was a 12th-century Muslim jurist and scholar, a Kurdish historian of great note, notable for writing a biography of Saladin whom he knew well.
The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks (translit) was a Mamluk dynasty of mostly Cuman-Kipchak Turkic origin that ruled the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate from 1250 to 1382.
Baibars or Baybars (الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk Bahri dynasty.
Baldwin IV (Baudouin; Balduinus; 1161 – 16 March 1185), called the Leper, or The Leper King reigned as King of Jerusalem from 1174 until his death.
Balian of Ibelin (Balian d'Ibelin; 1143 – 1193), also known as the "Shaear Wahid" or "Hairy One" due to his notably thick body hair (which was said to have grown like a pelt in his later years), was a crusader noble of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century.
Balqa' (البلقاء Al Balqā’) is one of the governorates of Jordan.
Baniyas (بانياس) is a city in Tartous Governorate, northwestern Syria, located 55 km south of Latakia (ancient Laodicea) and 35 km north of Tartous (ancient Tortosa).
Banu al-Kanz (also known as Awlad Kanz or Kunuz) was a semi-nomadic Muslim dynasty of mixed Arab-Beja ancestry that ruled the border region between Upper Egypt and Nubia between the 10th and 15th centuries.
Banu Kinanah (also Bani Kinanah) (بنو كنانة or بني كنانة) are the largest Mudhari Adnanite tribe of western Saudi Arabia in Hejaz and Tihama.
Barzeh (برزة, also transliterated Berzé) is a municipality and a neighborhood to the north of Damascus, Syria.
The Battle of Ain Jalut (Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the "Spring of Goliath", or Harod Spring, in Hebrew: מעין חרוד) took place in September 1260 between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, in the vicinity of Nazareth, not far from the site of Zir'in.
The Battle of Al Mansurah was fought from February 8 to February 11, 1250, between Crusaders led by Louis IX, King of France, and Ayyubid forces led by Emir Fakhr-ad-Din Yusuf, Faris ad-Din Aktai and Baibars al-Bunduqdari.
In the campaign and Battle of Al-Fule (in Crusader terms La Fève, Latin Castrum Fabe), a Crusader force led by Guy of Lusignan skirmished with Saladin's Ayyubid army for more than a week in September and October 1183.
The Battle of Arsuf was a battle of the Third Crusade in which Richard I of England defeated the forces of Ayyubid leader Saladin.
In the campaign and Battle of Belvoir Castle (Kaukab al-Hawa), a Crusader force led by King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem sparred inconclusively with an Ayyubid army from Egypt commanded by Saladin.
The Battle of Fariskur was the last major battle of the Seventh Crusade.
The Battle of Hattin took place on 4 July 1187, between the Crusader states of the Levant and the forces of the Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din, known in the West as Saladin.
The Battle of La Forbie, also known as the Battle of Harbiyah, was fought October 17, 1244 – October 18, 1244 between the allied armies (drawn from the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the crusading orders, the breakaway Ayyubids of Damascus, Homs and Kerak) and the Egyptian army of the Ayyubid Sultan as-Salih Ayyub, reinforced with Khwarezmian mercenaries.
In the Battle of Marj Ayyun, alternately Marj Ayyoun, an Ayyubid army commanded by Saladin defeated a Crusader army led by King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem on 10 June 1179.
The Battle of Montgisard was fought between the Ayyubids and the Kingdom of Jerusalem on 25 November 1177.
Bayt Jibrin (بيت جبرين, also transliterated Beit Jibrin; בית גוברין, Beit Gubrin), was a Palestinian Arab village located northwest of the city of Hebron.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
The Anatolian beylik of Dulkadir (Modern Turkish: Dulkadiroğulları Beyliği), was one of the frontier principalities established by the Oghuz, Turcoman clans Bayat, Afshar and Begdili after the decline of Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm.
Bilad al-Sham (بِـلَاد الـشَّـام Bilād a'š-Šām) was a Rashidun, Umayyad and later Abbasid Caliphate province in what is now the region of Syria.
Bilbeis (بلبيس; Bohairic Ⲫⲉⲗⲃⲉⲥ/Ⲫⲉⲗⲃⲏⲥ) is an ancient fortress city on the eastern edge of the southern Nile delta in Egypt, the site of the Ancient city and former bishopric of Phelbes and a Latin Catholic titular see.
Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations.
Bosra (Buṣrā), also spelled Bostra, Busrana, Bozrah, Bozra and officially known Busra al-Sham (Buṣrā al-Shām, Busra el-Şam)Günümüzde Suriye Türkmenleri.
Caesarea (קֵיסָרְיָה, Kaysariya or Qesarya; قيسارية, Qaysaria; Καισάρεια) is a town in north-central Israel.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The Saladin Citadel of Cairo (قلعة صلاح الدين) is a medieval Islamic fortification in Cairo, Egypt.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Catalans (Catalan, French and Occitan: catalans; catalanes, Italian: catalani) are a Pyrenean/Latin European ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia (Spain), in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Ceratonia siliqua, known as the carob tree or carob bush, St John's-bread, locust bean (not African locust bean), or simply locust-tree, is a flowering evergreen tree or shrub in the pea family, Fabaceae.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
The Citadel of Aleppo (قلعة حلب) is a large medieval fortified palace in the centre of the old city of Aleppo, northern Syria.
The Citadel of Damascus (Qalʿat Dimašq) is a large medieval fortified palace and citadel in Damascus, Syria.
Conrad of Montferrat (Italian: Corrado del Monferrato; Piedmontese: Conrà ëd Monfrà) (died 28 April 1192) was a north Italian nobleman, one of the major participants in the Third Crusade.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.
The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
CyArk is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization located in Oakland, California, United States.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
Damanhur (دمنهور,; Egyptian: Dmỉ-n-Ḥr.w ; Ⲡⲓϯⲙⲓⲛ̀ϩⲱⲣ; Ἑρμοῦ πόλις μικρά) is a city in Lower Egypt, and the capital of the Beheira Governorate.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Damietta (دمياط,; ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ) also known as Damiata, or Domyat, is a port and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt, a former bishopric and present multiple Catholic titular see.
The Daughters of Jacob Bridge (גשר בנות יעקב, Gesher Bnot Ya'akov, or Arabic: Jisr Benat Ya'kub) is a site on the upper Jordan River.
Dayfa Khatun (ضيفة خاتون; died 1242) was the regent of Aleppo from 26 November 1236 to 1242 during the minority of her grandson An-Nasir Yusuf's reign.
The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.
Deir al-Balah or Dayr al-Balah (دير البلح translated Monastery of the Date Palm) is a Palestinian city in the central Gaza Strip and the administrative capital of the Deir el-Balah Governorate.
A dervish or darvesh (from درویش, Darvīsh) is someone guiding a Sufi Muslim ascetic down a path or "tariqah", known for their extreme poverty and austerity.
The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries which were formerly territories of the Ottoman Empire, and was used historically in several more.
A divan or diwan (دیوان, dīvān) was a high governmental body in a number of Islamic states, or its chief official (see dewan).
Diyār Bakr ("abode of Bakr") is the medieval Arabic name of the northernmost of the three provinces of the Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia), the other two being Diyar Mudar and Diyar Rabi'a.
Diyarbakır (Amida, script) is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey.
The Dome of the Ascension (قبة المعراج Qubbat al-Miraj; כִּיפָּת הַעֲלִיָּיה Kippat Ha'Aliyah) is a small, free-standing domed structure built by Crusaders that stands just north the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
The Dome of the Rock (قبة الصخرة Qubbat al-Sakhrah, כיפת הסלע Kippat ha-Sela) is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Dvin (label, reformed; Δούβιος, or Τίβιον,;; also Duin or Dwin in ancient sources) was a large commercial city and the capital of early medieval Armenia.
The Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
Edessa (Ἔδεσσα; الرها ar-Ruhā; Şanlıurfa; Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Following the Islamic conquest in 639 AD, Lower Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Rashidun Caliphs and then the Ummayad Caliphs in Damascus, but in 747 the Ummayads were overthrown.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler by the Kurdish people (ھەولێر Hewlêr; أربيل, Arbīl; ܐܲܪܒܝܠ, Arbela), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and the largest city in northern Iraq.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Faiyum (الفيوم; ̀Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ or Ⲫⲓⲱⲙ) is a city in Middle Egypt.
This article is about Farrukhshah the 12th century amir of Baalbek.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
Frederick I (Friedrich I, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Federico Barbarossa), was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
Fustat (الفسطاط al-Fusţāţ), also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt under Muslim rule.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by rowing.
Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.
Emir Gümüshtigin Gazi (Melik Gazi; also known as Emir Ghazi II or Melik Gazi; died 1134) was the second ruler of the Danishmend state which his father Danishmend Gazi had founded in central-eastern Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert.
Gökböri (also rendered Gokbori, Kukburi and Kukuburi), or Muzaffar ad-Din Gökböri (full praise names: al-Malik al-Muazzam (the Exalted Prince) Muzaffar ad-Din (the Triumphant in the Faith)), was a leading emir and general of Sultan Saladin (Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb).
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Dirham of Ghazi II Saif ud-Din minted in 1171/1172 Saif ud-Din Ghazi II (سيف الدين غازي بن مودود); full name: Saif ad-Din Ghazi II Bin Mawdud Bin Imad ad-Din Atabeg Zengi; died 1180) was a Zangid emir of Mosul, the nephew of Nur ad-Din Zengi. He became emir of Mosul in 1170 after the death of his father Qutb ad-Din Mawdud. Saif had been chosen as successor under the advice of eunuch ’Abd al-Masish, who wanted to keep the effective rule in lieu of the young emir; the dishinerited son of Mawdud, Imad ad-Din Zengi II, fled to Aleppo at the court of Nur ad-Din. The latter, who was waiting for an excuse to annex Mosul, conquered Sinjar in September 1170 and besieged Mosul, which surrendered on 22 January 1171. After ousting al-Masish, he put Gümüshtekin, one of his officers, as governor, leaving Saif ud-Din nothing but the nominal title of emir. The latter also married the daughter of Nur ad-Din. At Nur ad-Din's death (May 1174), Gümüshtekin went to Damascus to take control of his son and entitled himself of atabeg of Aleppo. Saif ud-Din rejected his tutorage and restored his independence. The nobles of Damascus, worried by Gümüshtekin's increasing power, offered Saif ud-Din their city, but he could not intervene since he was busy in retaking Mosul. Thenceforth Damascus was given to Saladin. and Saladin took control of Biladu-Sham (Syria), Saif ud-Din wanted to take over Aleppo, so he sent his brother Izz ad-Din Mas'ud at the head of an army to fight Saladin: they met in an area near Hama called Kron Hama (Arabic: قرون حماه), where Saif ud-Din was defeated. Later he prepared for another battle at Tell al-Sultan (Arabic: تل سلطان) near Aleppo, where he was also defeated; he went back to Mosul and sent massengers to Saladin offering his alliance, which was accepted. Saif ud-Din died from tuberculosis, and his brother Izz ad-Din Mas'ud succeeded him in 1180.
Giza (sometimes spelled Gizah or Jizah; الجيزة; ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ, ⲅⲓⲍⲁ) is the third-largest city in Egypt and the capital of the Giza Governorate.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
The Great Mosque of Aleppo (جَـامِـع حَـلَـب الْـكَـبِـيْـر, Jāmi‘ Ḥalab al-Kabīr) or the Umayyad Mosque of Aleppo (جَـامِـع بَـنِي أُمَـيَّـة بِـحَـلَـب, Jāmi‘ Banī Umayyah Bi-Ḥalab) is the largest and one of the oldest mosques in the city of Aleppo, Syria.
Guy of Lusignan (c. 1150 – 18 July 1194) was a French Poitevin knight, son of Hugh VIII of the Lusignan dynasty.
Hadhabani (also: Hadhbani) (ھەزەبانی) was a large medieval Sunni Muslim Kurdish tribe divided into several groups, centered at Arbil, Ushnu and Urmia in central and north-eastern Kurdistan.
Hadramaut, Hadhramaut, Hadramout, Hadramawt or Ḥaḍramūt (حضرموت Ḥaḍramawt; Musnad: 𐩢𐩳𐩧𐩣𐩩) is a region on the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.
The Yemeni Hamdanids were a series of three families descended from the Arab Banū Hamdān tribe, who ruled in northern Yemen between 1099 and 1174.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
The Hanbali school (المذهب الحنبلي) is one of the four traditional Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Harran (حران,Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.
Hasankeyf (Heskîf, حصن كيفا,, Κιφας, Cepha, ܟܐܦܐ) is an ancient town and district located along the Tigris River in the Batman Province in southeastern Turkey.
Hebron (الْخَلِيل; חֶבְרוֹן) is a Palestinian.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Hirbiya هربيا was a Palestinian Arab village in the Gaza Subdistrict, located northeast of Gaza along the southern coastal plain of Palestine.
Hittin (حطّين, transliterated Ḥiṭṭīn (حِـطِّـيْـن) or Ḥaṭṭīn (حَـطِّـيْـن)) was a Palestinian village located west of Tiberias.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
The Horns of Hattin (קרני חטין قرون حطين, Qurûn Hattîn) is an extinct volcano with twin peaks overlooking the plains of Hattin in the Lower Galilee, Israel.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.
Ḍiyāʾ Al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdllāh Ibn Aḥmad al-Mālaqī, commonly known as Ibn al-Bayṭār (1197–1248 AD) was an Andalusian Arab pharmacist, botanist, physician and scientist.
Ibn Jubayr (1 September 1145 –29 November 1217; ابن جبير), also written Ibn Jubair, Ibn Jobair, and Ibn Djubayr, was an Arab geographer, traveller and poet from al-Andalus.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Imad ad-Din Zengi (عماد الدین زنكي; – 14 September 1146), also romanized as Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, and Zanki, was a Oghuz Turkish atabeg who ruled Mosul, Aleppo, Hama, and Edessa.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Izz ad-Din Mas'ud I bin Mawdud (Izz ad Din Bin Qutb ad-Din Mawdud Bin Imad ud-Din Zengi; Arabic: عز الدين مسعود بن مودود; died 1193) was a Zengid emir of Mosul.
Jableh (جبلة;, also spelt Jebleh, Jabala, Jablah, Gabala or Gibellum) is a coastal city on the Mediterranean in Syria, north of Baniyas and south of Latakia, with c. 80,000 inhabitants (2008).
Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo, or in Arabic Yaffa (יפו,; يَافَا, also called Japho or Joppa), the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an ancient port city in Israel.
Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu (Persian: جلال الدین خوارزمشاه; Turkmen: Jelaleddin Meňburun or Jelaleddin Horezmşa; full name: Jalal ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Manguberdi ibn Muhammad) or Manguberdi (Turkic for "Godgiven"), also known as Jalâl ad-Dîn Khwârazmshâh, was the last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire.
Jenin (جنين) is a Palestinian city in the northern West Bank.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The Jezreel Valley (עמק יזרעאל, translit. Emek Yizra'el), (Marj Ibn Āmir) is a large fertile plain and inland valley south of the Lower Galilee region in Israel.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
John of Brienne (1170 – 27 March 1237), also known as John I, was King of Jerusalem from 1210 to 1225 and Latin Emperor of Constantinople from 1229 to 1237.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
The Jordan Valley (עֵמֶק הַיַרְדֵּן, Emek HaYarden; الغور, Al-Ghor or Al-Ghawr) forms part of the larger Jordan Rift Valley.
Jumu'ah (صلاة الجمعة, ṣalāt al-jumu‘ah, "Friday prayer"), is a congregational prayer (ṣalāt) that Muslims hold every Friday, just after noon instead of the Zuhr prayer.
Kafartab (كفرطاب, also spelled Kafr Tab or Kafar Tab, known as Capharda by the Crusaders) was a town and fortress in northwestern Syria that existed during the medieval period between the fortress cities of Maarat al-Numan in the north and Shaizar to the south.
Kafr Kanna (كفر كنا, Kafr Kanā; כַּפְר כַּנָּא) is an Arab town, in Galilee, part of the Northern District of Israel.
Kafr Sabt (كفر سبت) was a Palestinian Arab village of nearly 500 situated on a sloping plain in the eastern Lower Galilee located southwest of Tiberias.
Kairouan (القيروان, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia.
Karaite Judaism or Karaism (also spelt Qaraite Judaism or Qaraism) is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology.
Karakorum (Khalkha Mongolian: Хархорум Kharkhorum) was the capital of the Mongol Empire between 1235 and 1260, and of the Northern Yuan in the 14–15th centuries.
Kawkab al-Hawa (كوكب الهوا), is a depopulated former Palestinian village located 11 km north of Baysan.
The Khabur River is the largest perennial tributary to the Euphrates in Syrian territory.
The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.
Khutbah (Arabic: خطبة khuṭbah, hutbe) serves as the primary formal occasion for public preaching in the Islamic tradition.
The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from ("Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty",.
The Kingdom of Georgia (საქართველოს სამეფო), also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval Eurasian monarchy which emerged circa 1008 AD.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
The Kipchak language (also spelled Qypchaq) is an extinct Turkic language of the Kipchak group.
The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.
Kitbuqa Noyan (Хитбуха; died 1260) was a Nestorian Christian of the Mongolian Naiman tribe, a group that was subservient to the Mongol Empire.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Lake Homs (بحيرة حمص) (also called Lake Qattinah, بحيرة قطينة) is a lake near Homs, Syria, fed by the Orontes River.
Lake Van (Van Gölü, Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣, Gola Wanê), the largest lake in Turkey, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis.
Latrun (לטרון, Latrun; اللطرون, al-Latrun) is located at a strategic hilltop in the Latrun salient in the Ayalon Valley.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Ayyubid dynasty ruled many parts of the Middle East and North Africa in the 12th and 13th centuries.
This is a list of Kurdish dynasties, countries and autonomous territories.
This list contains persons named in the Bible of minor notability, about whom either nothing or very little is known, aside from any family connections.
The following is a list of Sunni Muslim dynasties.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Lower Egypt (مصر السفلى.) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.
Lubya (لوبيا "bean"), sometimes transliterated Lubia, was a Palestinian Arab town located ten kilometers west of Tiberias that was captured and destroyed by Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
Maarat al-Numaan (مَعَرَّة النُّعْمَان, Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān), also known as al-Maʿarra, is a city in northwestern Syria, south of Idlib and north of Hama, with a population of about 58,008 before the Civil War (2004 census).
A machicolation (mâchicoulis) is a floor opening between the supporting corbels of a battlement, through which stones or other material, such as boiling water or boiling cooking oil, could be dropped on attackers at the base of a defensive wall.
A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
Manbij (منبج, Minbic) is a city in the northeast of Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria, 30 kilometers west of the Euphrates.
El-Mansoura (المنصورة,, rural) is a city in Egypt, with a population of 960,423.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
Mardin (Mêrdîn, ܡܶܪܕܺܝܢ, Arabic/Ottoman Turkish: rtl Mārdīn) is a city and multiple (former/titular) bishopric in southeastern Turkey.
Möngke (valign / Мөнх;; January 11, 1209 – August 11, 1259) was the fourth khagan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from July 1, 1251, to August 11, 1259.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The term "Melkite", also written "Melchite", refers to various Byzantine Rite Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Migdal Afek (מגדל אפק), also Migdal Tsedek (מגדל צדק), is a national park near Rosh HaAyin, Israel.
Mihrab (محراب, pl. محاريب) is a semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla; that is, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and hence the direction that Muslims should face when praying.
The Mokattam (المقطم, also spelled Muqattam), also known as the Mukattam Mountain or Hills, is the name of a range of hills and a suburb in them, located in southeastern Cairo, Egypt.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Montreal is a Crusader castle on the eastern side of the Arabah, perched on the side of a rocky, conical mountain, looking out over fruit trees below.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
Mount Lebanon (جَبَل لُبْنَان, jabal lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation; ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ) is a mountain range in Lebanon.
Mount Tabor (جبل الطور, Jabal aṭ-Ṭūr; Latin: Itabyrium, Koine Greek: Όρος Θαβώρ, "Oros Thabor") is located in Lower Galilee, Israel, at the eastern end of the Jezreel Valley, west of the Sea of Galilee.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Νεάπολις Νeapolis) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.
al-Malik al-Afdal Najm ad-Din Ayyub ibn Shadhi ibn Marwan (Arabic: الملك ألأفضل نجم الدين أيوب بن شاﺬي بن مروان) (died August 9, 1173) was a Kurdish soldier and politician from Dvin, and the father of Saladin.
Nawab (Eastern Nagari: নবাব/নওয়াব, Devanagari: नवाब/नबाब, Perso-Arab: نواب) also spelt Nawaab, Navaab, Navab, Nowab The title nawab was also awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similarly to a British peerage, to persons and families who never ruled a princely state.
Nazareth (נָצְרַת, Natzrat; النَّاصِرَة, an-Nāṣira; ܢܨܪܬ, Naṣrath) is the capital and the largest city in the Northern District of Israel.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
Nubians are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to present-day Sudan and southern Egypt who originate from the early inhabitants of the central Nile valley, believed to be one of the earliest cradles of civilization.
Nūr ad-Dīn Abū al-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿImād ad-Dīn Zengī (February 1118 – 15 May 1174), often shortened to his laqab Nur ad-Din (نور الدين, "Light of the Faith"), was a member of the Oghuz Turkish Zengid dynasty which ruled the Syrian province of the Seljuk Empire.
Nusaybin (Akkadian: Naṣibina; Classical Greek: Νίσιβις, Nisibis; نصيبين., Kurdish: Nisêbîn; ܢܨܝܒܝܢ, Nṣībīn; Armenian: Մծբին, Mtsbin) is a city and multiple titular see in Mardin Province, Turkey.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
Old Dongola (Old Nubian: Tungul; دنقلا العجوز, Dunqulā al-ʿAjūz) is a deserted town in Sudan located on the east bank of the Nile opposite the Wadi Howar.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Lordship of Oultrejordain or Oultrejourdain (Old French for "beyond the Jordan", also called Lordship of Montreal) was the name used during the Crusades for an extensive and partly undefined region to the east of the Jordan River, an area known in ancient times as Edom and Moab.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society based in London.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
Patriarch of Antioch is a traditional title held by the Bishop of Antioch.
Pelagio Galvani (b. ca. 1165, Gusendos, León — d. 30 January 1230, Montecassino) was a Leonese Cardinal, and canon lawyer.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
Pope Gregory VIII (Gregorius VIII; c. 1100/1105 – 17 December 1187), born Alberto di Morra, reigned from 21 October to his death in 1187.
A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.
Qasr Ibrim (قصر ابريم) is an archaeological site in Lower Nubia, located in the modern country of Egypt.
Qatada ibn Idris al-Hasani al-Alawi (قتادة بن إدريس العلوي الحسني, 1130–1220) was the Sharif of Mecca, reigning from 1201 to 1220.
Qus (قوص; ⲕⲱⲥ or ⲕⲟⲥ) is a city in the modern Qena Governorate, Egypt, located on the east bank of the Nile.
Saif ad-Din Qutuz (سيف الدين قطز; 24 October 1260), also romanized as Kutuz, Kotuz, and fully al-Malik al-Muzaffar Saif ad-Din Qutuz (الملك المظفر سيف الدين قطز), was the third or fourth of the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt in the Turkic line.
Ramla (רַמְלָה, Ramla; الرملة, ar-Ramlah) (also Ramlah, Ramle, Remle and sometimes Rama) is a city in central Israel.
Raqqa (الرقة; Kurdish: Reqa) also called Raqa, Rakka and Al-Raqqah is a city in Syria located on the northeast bank of the Euphrates River, about east of Aleppo.
Rashidun al-Suri (رشيد الدين الصوري, 1177–1241) was a leading physician and botanist in the Islamic world in the 13th century.
The Rasulids (بنو رسول, Banū Rasūl) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled Yemen from 1229 to 1454.
Rawwadid or Ravvadid (also Revend or Revendi) or Banū rawwād (955–1071), was a Muslim ruling family of Arab descent during the Medieval era, centered on Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan).
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Religious persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group of individuals as a response to their religious beliefs or affiliations or lack thereof.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
Safed (צְפַת Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas, Biblical: Ṣ'fath; صفد, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
A full view of Shmemis (spring 1995) Salamiyah (سلمية) is a city and district in western Syria, in the Hama Governorate.
Salkhad (صلخد) is a Syrian city in the As Suwayda governorate, southern Syria.
Samaria (שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard, Tiberian Šōmərôn; السامرة, – also known as, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of ancient Land of Israel, also known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south.
Samosata (Armenian: Շամուշատ, Shamushat, Σαμόσατα Samósata, ܫܡܝܫܛ šmīšaṭ) was an ancient city on the right (west) bank of the Euphrates, whose ruins exist at the previous location of the modern city of Samsat, Adıyaman Province, Turkey but are no longer accessible as the site was flooded by the newly constructed Atatürk Dam.
Sana'a (صنعاء, Yemeni Arabic), also spelled Sanaa or Sana, is the largest city in Yemen and the centre of Sana'a Governorate.
Sarepta (near modern, Lebanon) was a Phoenician city on the Mediterranean coast between Sidon and Tyre, also known biblically as Zarephath.
Sebastia (سبسطية, Sabastiyah;, Sevastee;, Sebasti; Sebaste) is a Palestinian village of over 4,500 inhabitants,.
The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Sepphoris or Zippori (צִפּוֹרִי Tzipori; Σέπφωρις Sépphōris; صفورية Saffuriya), also called Diocaesaraea (Διοκαισάρεια) and, during the Crusades, Sephory (La Sephorie), is a village and an archeological site located in the central Galilee region of Israel, north-northwest of Nazareth.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.
The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Shajar al-Durr (Arabic: شجر الدر, "Tree of Pearls") (Royal name: al-Malika `Aṣmat ad-Dīn Umm-Khalīl Shajar ad-Durr (Arabic: الملكة عصمة الدين أم خليل شجر الدر) (nicknamed: أم خليل, Umm Khalil; mother of Khalil)) (? – 28 April 1257, Cairo) was the second Muslim woman (after Razia Sultana of Delhi) to become a monarch in Islamic history.
Sharif (also transliterated Sharīf or Sherif) / Shareef, Alsharif, Alshareef (شريف), or Chérif (Darija: Chorfa) is a traditional Arab title.
Shawar ibn Mujir al-Sa'di (Shāwar ibn Mudjīr as-Saʿdī; died January 18, 1169) was the de facto ruler of Fatimid Egypt, as vizier, from December 1162 until his assassination in 1169 by the general Shirkuh, the uncle of the Kurdish leader Saladin, with whom he was engaged in a three-way power struggle against the Crusader Amalric I of Jerusalem.
Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Asad ad-Dīn Shīrkūh bin Shādhī (in أسد الدين شيركوه بن شاذي), also known as Shirkuh, Shêrkoh, or Shêrko (meaning "lion of the mountains" in Kurdish) (died 22 February 1169) was a Kurdish military commander, and uncle of Saladin.
Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.
The Siege of Aleppo lasted from 18 January to 24 January 1260.
The Siege of Damietta of 1218 was part of the Fifth Crusade.
The Siege of Jacob's Ford was a victory of the Muslim sultan Saladin over the Christian King of Jerusalem, Baldwin IV.
The Siege of Jerusalem was a siege on the city of Jerusalem that lasted from September 20 to October 2, 1187, when Balian of Ibelin surrendered the city to Saladin.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
Sinjar, also known as Shingal (Şengal/Şingal/Şingar/شنگار/ شنگال., Ancient: Singara) is a town in Shingal District, Nineveh Province, Iraq near Mount Shingal.
The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
The Syrian Desert (بادية الشام, Bâdiyat aş-Şâm), also known as the Hamad, is a combination of steppe and desert covering of the Middle East, including parts of south-eastern Syria, northeastern Jordan, northern Saudi Arabia, and western Iraq.
Taiz (تعز, Taʿizz) is a city in southwestern Yemen.
Tall al-Ajjul or Tell el-'Ajul is an archaeological mound or tell in the Gaza Strip.
Tanta (طنطا) is a large city in Egypt.
Tell Sultan (تل سلطان; also spelled Tall as-Sultan) is a town in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Idlib Governorate, located southeast of Idlib and 37 kilometers southwest of Aleppo.
The Temple Mount (הַר הַבַּיִת, Har HaBáyit, "Mount of the House "), known to Muslims as the Haram esh-Sharif (الحرم الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary", or الحرم القدسي الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Qudsī al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary of Jerusalem") and the Al Aqsa Compound is a hill located in the Old City of Jerusalem that for thousands of years has been venerated as a holy site, in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam alike.
The Third Crusade (1189–1192), was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187.
Tiberias (טְבֶרְיָה, Tverya,; طبرية, Ṭabariyyah) is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Tikrit (تكريت Tikrīt, ܬܓܪܝܬ) sometimes transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit, is a city in Iraq, located northwest of Baghdad and southeast of Mosul on the Tigris River.
Transjordan, the East Bank, or the Transjordanian Highlands (شرق الأردن), is the part of the Southern Levant east of the Jordan River, mostly contained in present-day Jordan.
The Treaty of Ramla was signed by Saladin and Richard the Lionheart in June 1192 after the Battle of Arsuf of September 1191.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Al-Malik al-Aziz Sayf al-Islam Tughtakin Ahmad ibn Ayyub (also known simply as Sayf al-Islam) was the second Ayyubid emir (prince) of Yemen and Arabia between 1182 and 1197.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Shams ad-Din Turanshah ibn Ayyub al-Malik al-Mu'azzam Shams ad-Dawla Fakhr ad-Din known simply as Turanshah (توران شاه بن أيوب) (died 27 June 1180) was the Ayyubid emir (prince) of Yemen (1174–1176), Damascus (1176–1179), Baalbek (1178–1179) and finally Alexandria where he died in 1180.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The Umayyad Mosque, also known as the Great Mosque of Damascus (جامع بني أمية الكبير, Romanization: Ğāmi' Banī 'Umayya al-Kabīr), located in the old city of Damascus, is one of the largest and oldest mosques in the world.
Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
Vallum is either the whole or a portion of the fortifications of a Roman camp.
Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.
A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
A War Hawk, or simply hawk, is a term used in politics for someone favouring war in a debate over whether to go to war, or whether to continue or escalate an existing war.
West is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Whole Azerbaijan (Bütöv Azərbaycan) is an irredentist concept of uniting Azerbaijani-inhabited territories into Azerbaijan.
William of Tyre (Willelmus Tyrensis; 1130 – 29 September 1186) was a medieval prelate and chronicler.
Yanbu' al Bahr (ينبع البحر,, "spring by the sea"), also known simply as Yanbu, Yambo or Yenbo, is a major Red Sea port in the Al Madinah Province of western Saudi Arabia.
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zabid (زَبِيد) (also spelled Zabīd, Zabeed and Zebid) is a town with an urban population of around 52,590 persons on Yemen's western coastal plain.
Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.
The Zakarids or Zakarians (Զաքարյաններ, Zak'aryanner), also known by their Georgian name as Mkhargrdzeli (მხარგრძელი), were a noble Armenian–Georgian dynasty of at least partial Kurdish or Kipchak origin.
Zakat (زكاة., "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal زكاة المال, "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (salat) in importance.
The Zengid or Zangid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turk origin, which ruled parts of the Levant and Upper Mesopotamia on behalf of the Seljuk Empire.
Zir'in (زرعين, also spelled Zerein) was a Palestinian Arab village of over 1,400 in the Jezreel Valley, located north of Jenin.
Zoara, the biblical Zoar, previously called Bela, was one of the five "cities of the plain" – a pentapolis apparently located along the lower Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea plain and mentioned in the Book of Genesis.
Ayoubite, Ayubbid dynasty, Ayubid, Ayubids, Ayubit, Ayubits, Ayyabid, Ayyoubid, Ayyoubite, Ayyubid, Ayyubid Dynasty, Ayyubid Emir of Aleppo, Ayyubid Emir of Hamah, Ayyubid Emir of Homs, Ayyubid Emir of Yemen, Ayyubid Empire, Ayyubid Sultan of Damascus, Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt, Ayyubid Sultanate, Ayyubid ruler of the Jezirah, Ayyubids, Ayyūbid, Dûgela Eyûbiyan, Kurdish Empire, Sultanate of Aleppo, The Ayyubid Sultanate.