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Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (شاه عباس بزرگ; 27 January 157119 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Absheron Rayon, also spelled as Apsheron, is a rayon of Azerbaijan demarcated in 1963.
The Absheron Peninsula (Abşeron yarımadası) is a peninsula in Azerbaijan.
Abulfaz Elchibey, (Əbülfəz Elçibəy; 24 June 1938 in Nakhchivan – 22 August 2000 in Ankara) was an Azerbaijani political figure and a former Soviet dissident.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
Agdam (Ağdam) is a rayon in southwestern Azerbaijan.
Agdash (Ağdaş) is a rayon in central Azerbaijan.
Aghasi Mammadov (born June 1, 1980) is an Azerbaijani boxer who competed in the bantamweight division (54 kg) at the 2004 Summer Olympics and won the bronze medal.
Aghjabadi (Ağcabədi) is a rayon in central Azerbaijan with an administrative center in the town of Aghjabadi.
Aghstafa (Ağstafa; Акстафа) is a rayon in the northwestern Azerbaijan.It has two farmland exclaves inside Armenia, Jaradollo both of which came under Armenian control during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
Agsu (Ağsu) is a raion in central Azerbaijan.
In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.
Aysel Mammadova (Aysel Məmmədova; born 3 July 1989), known professionally as AISEL is an Azerbaijani singer.
Akinchi (Əkinçi / اکينچی), also transliterated as Ekinchi ("The Cultivator"), was the first Azerbaijani-language newspaper, published in Baku (then part of the Russian Empire, now the capital of the Republic of Azerbaijan) between 1875 and 1877.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Alakbar Rezaguliyev (31 January 1903 in Baku, Baku Governorate – 31 January 1974 in Baku) (alternative spelling: Alekper Rzaguliyev) (Ələkbər Rzaquliyev; Алекпер Рзакулиев) was an Azerbaijani artist.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alim Hamza oglu Qasimov (Alim Həmzə oğlu Qasımov; born August 14, 1957) is an Azerbaijani musician and one of the foremost mugham singers in Azerbaijan.
Alla Hasanova (born August 6, 1970) is an Azerbaijani volleyball player, who competed for the Women's National Team at the 1994 FIVB Volleyball Women's World Championship in Brazil.
The Alma-Ata Protocols are the founding declarations and principles of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
Amateur wrestling is the most widespread form of sport wrestling.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Amoco Corporation, originally Standard Oil Company (Indiana), is a global chemical and oil company that was founded in 1889 around a refinery located in Whiting, Indiana, United States.
ANS TV (also known as ANS Independent Broadcasting Media Company) was a news television channel in Azerbaijan, which was owned by ANS Group of Companies from its foundation on 26 November 1991 until its closure on 18 July 2016.
An anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon defined by the United States National Weather Service's glossary as "a large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere".
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
APOEL FC (ΑΠΟΕΛ; short for Αθλητικός Ποδοσφαιρικός Όμιλος Ελλήνων Λευκωσίας, Athletikos Podosferikos Omilos Ellinon Lefkosias, "Athletic Football Club of Greeks of Nicosia") is a professional football club based in Nicosia, Cyprus.
The applied arts are the application of design and decoration to everyday objects to make them aesthetically pleasing.
The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans (Āq Quyūnlū), was a Persianate Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, Eastern Turkey, most part of Iran, and Iraq from 1378 to 1501.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.
Araz Naxçıvan is a futsal club based in Nakhchivan City, Azerbaijan.
ARB (formerly Region TV) is a private television station in Azerbaijan.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
The Armenian-controlled territories surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh are areas formally part of Azerbaijan and situated outside the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, which are since the end of the Karabakh War controlled by the military forces of the de facto Republic of Artsakh supported by Armenia.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Armenians in Azerbaijan are the Armenians who lived in great numbers in the modern state of Azerbaijan and its precursor, Soviet Azerbaijan.
Armudu or Armudu stəkan (Armudu glass), sometimes called Boğmalı is a kind of drinking glass used for black tea in Azerbaijan.
Arran (Middle Persian form), also known as Aran, Ardhan (in Parthian), Al-Ran (in Arabic), Aghvank and Alvank (in Armenian), (რანი-Ran-i) or Caucasian Albania (in Latin), was a geographical name used in ancient and medieval times to signify the territory which lies within the triangle of land, lowland in the east and mountainous in the west, formed by the junction of Kura and Aras rivers, including the highland and lowland Karabakh, Mil plain and parts of the Mughan plain, and in the pre-Islamic times, corresponded roughly to the territory of modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan.
An Ashik was traditionally a singer who accompanied his song— be it a dastan (traditional epic story, also known as hikaye) or a shorter original composition—with a long necked lute (bağlama) in Azerbaijani culture and related Turkic cultures.
The art of Azerbaijani Ashiqs combines poetry, storytelling, dance and vocal and instrumental music into a traditional performance art.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Association of European Journalists (founded 1961, San Remo) is an organisation promoting interests of journalists involved in European affairs.
The Association of Football Federations of Azerbaijan, also known simply as the AFFA, (Azərbaycan Futbol Federasiyaları Assosiasiyası, AFFA) is the governing body of football in Azerbaijan.
Astara is the southernmost rayon in southeastern Azerbaijan.
The Baku Ateshgah (from آتشگاه, Atashgāh, Atəşgah), often called the "Fire Temple of Baku" is a castle-like religious temple in Surakhani town (in Suraxanı raion), a suburb in Baku, Azerbaijan.
Club Atlético de Madrid, SAD, commonly known as Atlético Madrid, or simply as Atlético or Atleti, is a Spanish professional football club based in Madrid, that plays in La Liga.
Atropatene (in Ἀτροπατηνή; in Middle Iranian: Atropatkan and Atorpatkan) was an ancient kingdom established and ruled under local ethnic Iranian dynasties, first with Darius III of Persia and later Alexander the Great of Macedonia starting in the 4th century BC and includes the territory of modern-day Iranian Azerbaijan, Iranian Kurdistan, and a small part of the contemporary Azerbaijan Republic.
Atropates (Greek Aτρoπάτης, from Old Persian Athurpat "protected by fire"; c. 370 BC – after 321 BC) was a Persian trader and nobleman who served Darius III, then Alexander the Great, and eventually founded an independent kingdom and dynasty that was named after him.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
Avar (self-designation Магӏарул мацӏ Maⱨarul maⱬ "language of the mountains" or Авар мацӏ Avar maⱬ "Avar language"), also known as Avaric, is a language that belongs to the Avar–Andic group of the Northeast Caucasian family.
The Avars (аварал / магIарулал, awaral / maⱨarulal; "mountaineers" constitute a Caucasus native ethnic group, the most predominant of several ethnic groups living in the Russian republic of Dagestan. The Avars reside in a region known as the North Caucasus between the Black and Caspian Seas. Alongside other ethnic groups in the North Caucasus region, the Caucasian Avars live in ancient villages located approximately 2,000 m above sea level. The Avar language spoken by the Caucasian Avars belongs to the family of Northeast Caucasian languages and is also known as Nakh–Dagestanian. Sunni Islam has been the prevailing religion of the Avars since the 13th century.
The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
The away goals rule is a method of breaking ties in association football and other sports when teams play each other twice, once at each team's home ground.
Azad Asgarov (Azad Əsgərov), Азад Аскеров (born August 20, 1971) is an Azerbaijani mixed martial artist and pankration world champion.
Azad Azerbaijan TV (ATV) is a private television station in Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (آذربایجان Āzarbāijān; آذربایجان Azərbaycan), also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, Turkey, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijan first participated at the Olympic Games as an independent nation in 1996, and has sent athletes to compete in every Games since then.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR; Azərbaycan Demokratik Respublikası), also known as Azerbaijan People's Republic (Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti) or Caucasus Azerbaijan in diplomatic documents, was the third democratic republic in the Turkic world and Muslim world, after the Crimean People's Republic and Idel-Ural Republic.
Azerbaijan participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 2009, making their second appearance at the contest.
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS) (Azərbaycan Milli Elmlər Akademiyası (AMEA)), located in Baku, is the main state research organization and the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijan National Aerospace Agency (MAKA; Azərbaycan Milli Aerokosmik Agentliyi) is a governmental body that coordinates all Azerbaijani space research programs with scientific and commercial goals.
The Azerbaijan national football team (Azərbaycan milli futbol komandası) is the national football team of Azerbaijan and is controlled by Association of Football Federations of Azerbaijan.
The Azerbaijan national futsal team is the national futsal team of Azerbaijan and is controlled by the Association of Football Federations of Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijan (Азәрбајҹан; Azərbaycan), officially the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (Azerbaijan SSR; Азәрбајҹан Совет Сосиалист Республикасы, Azərbaycan Sovet Sosialist Respublikası, Азербайджанская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Azerbajdžanskaja Sovetskaja Socialističeskaja Respublika) and the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası, Азәрбајҹан Республикасы), also referred to as Soviet Azerbaijan, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union between 1922 and 1991.
The Azerbaijan Women's Volleyball Super League (Azərbaycan Volleybol Superliqası), is the highest professional women's volleyball league in Azerbaijan.
The Azerbaijani Air and Air Defence Force often referred to as the Azerbaijani Air Force (Azərbaycan hərbi hava qüvvələri) is the air force and air defence force of the Azerbaijani Armed Forces.
The Azerbaijani alphabet (Azərbaycan əlifbası) of the Republic of Azerbaijan is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Azerbaijani language.
The Azerbaijani diaspora are the communities of Azerbaijanis living outside the places of their ethnic origin: Azerbaijan and the Iranian region of Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijani folk music (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Xalq Musiqisi) combines the distinct cultural values of all civilisations that have lived in Azerbaijan and Iranian Azerbaijan region.
Azerbaijani hip hop (Azərbaycan hip-hopu) is the musical genre which became popular in Azerbaijan and Iranian Azerbaijan in mid-1990s.
The Azerbaijani Land Forces (Azərbaycan Silahlı Qüvvələri Quru Qoşunları) are the land force component of the Azerbaijani Armed Forces.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
The manat (code: AZN) is the currency of Azerbaijan. It is subdivided into 100 qəpik. The word manat is borrowed from the Russian word Монета "moneta" (coin) which is pronounced as "manta" and is a loanword from Latin. Manat was also the designation of the Soviet ruble in both the Azerbaijani and Turkmen languages. The Azerbaijani manat symbol, ₼, was assigned to Unicode U+20BC in 2013. A lowercase m can be used as a substitute for the manat symbol.
A significant aspect of Azerbaijani tourism industry is medical tourism.
The Azerbaijani National Guard (Azərbaycan Milli Qvardiyası) is an armed force of the Government of Azerbaijan, and operates as a semi-independent entity.
The Azerbaijan Navy (Azərbaycan Hərbi Dəniz Qüvvələri) is the naval component of the Azerbaijani Armed Forces operating in the Caspian Sea.
Parliamentary elections were held in Azerbaijan on 7 November 2010.
Azerbaijani pop music (Azərbaycan pop musiqisi) had its humble beginnings in the late 1950s with Azerbaijani cover versions of a wide range of imported popular styles, including rock and roll, tango, and jazz.
The Azerbaijani Popular Front Party (APFP) (Azərbaycan Xalq Cəbhəsi Partiyası) is an opposition political party in Azerbaijan, founded in 1992 by Abulfaz Elchibey.
Presidential elections were held in Azerbaijan on 9 October 2013.
Azerbaijani rock (Azərbaycan roku) is a wide variety of forms of rock music made in Azerbaijan or by artists of Azerbaijani descent.
Azerbaijani rugs (Azərbaycan xalçaları) are a product of Azerbaijan and Iranian Azerbaijan, an ancient center of carpet weaving.
Tea in Azerbaijan is served freshly brewed, hot and strong.
Azerbaijani wine is produced in several regions throughout Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
Azercell is a mobile telecommunications company, located in Baku, Azerbaijan.
Azeri–Chirag–Gunashli (ACG, Azəri-Çıraq-Günəşli) or Azeri–Chirag–Deepwater Gunashli is a complex of oil fields in the Caspian Sea, about off the coast of Azerbaijan.
Azerrail Baku (Azərreyl Bakı) is an Azerbaijani women's volleyball club based in Baku.
Azerspace-1/Africasat-1a',, is Azerbaijan's first satellite in space.
Azərbaycan Marşı, or the March of Azerbaijan, is the national anthem of Azerbaijan.
Azim Aslan oglu Azimzade (Əzim Aslan oğlu Əzimzadə; 7 May 1880 – 15 June 1943) – was an Azerbaijani artist and cartoonist.
The Azokh Cave (Ազոխի քարանձավ, Azıx mağarası) is a six-cave complex known as a habitation site of prehistoric humans.
AzTV or Azerbaijan Television (Azərbaycan Televiziyası) is a state-controlled national television channel in Azerbaijan.
İctimai Television ("Public Television") or İTV is a public television channel in Azerbaijan.
Şirvan (transliterated, Shirvan) is a city in Azerbaijan, located on the Kura River.
The bağlama (bağlama, from bağlamak, "to tie") is a stringed musical instrument.
Babek or Babak is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
Backgammon is one of the oldest known board games.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Bahruz Shirali bey oglu Kangarli (Bəhruz Şirəlibəy oğlu Kəngərli; 22 January 1892, Nakhchivan – 7 February 1922, Nakhchivan) was an Azerbaijani painter and graphic artist.
Bakcell LLC (Bakcell LLC) — was established in March 1994 as a Joint Venture between GTIB and the Ministry of Communication of the Azerbaijan Republic.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The Baku City Circuit (Bakı Şəhər Halqası) is a motor racing circuit in Baku, Azerbaijan constructed near Baku Boulevard.
Baku Crystal Hall (Azerbaijani: Bakı Kristal Zalı) is an indoor arena in Baku, Azerbaijan.
The Baku Cup was a professional women's tennis tournament held in Baku, Azerbaijan.
Baku Governorate (Бакинская губерния, Pre-Reform Russian: Бакинская губернія) was one of the guberniyas of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire, with its centre in Baku.
Baku Metro (Bakı Metropoliteni) is a rapid transit system serving Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan.
Baku State University (BSU; Bakı Dövlət Universiteti) is a public university located in Baku, Azerbaijan.
The master plan of Baku White City refers to the re-development of a portion of Black City, 621-hectare land area, conceptualized to be part of the 2021 strategic plan for Baku.
The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline is a long crude oil pipeline from the Azeri–Chirag–Gunashli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
The Baku–Tbilisi–Kars (BTK), or Baku-Tbilisi-Akhalkalaki-Kars railway (BTAK), became operational on October 30, 2017.
Balakan is a rayon of northwestern Azerbaijan, located between Georgia and Russia.
Balakən (also, Balakan, Belokan, and Belokany; Balakən; Билкан; ბელაქანი) is a city and municipality in, and the capital of, the Balakan Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Barda (Bərdə) is a rayon of Azerbaijan, with capital city being Barda.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The siege of Ganja and storming its citadel (Gəncə qalasının işğalı,گنجه قلعهسینین ایشغالی اشغال قلعه گنجه) was the result of a Russian offensive in the South Caucasus intended to conquer the Ganja Khanate, which contributed to the escalation of the Russo-Persian War (1804–1813).
The Battle of the Caucasus is a name given to a series of Axis and Soviet operations in the Caucasus area on the Eastern Front of World War II.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
The beluga or European sturgeon (Huso huso) is a species of anadromous fish in the sturgeon family (Acipenseridae) of order Acipenseriformes.
Beylagan (Beyləqan) is a rayon of Azerbaijan, with capital city being Beylagan.
Bilasuvar (Biləsuvar) - is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Black January (Qara Yanvar), also known as Black Saturday or the January Massacre, was a violent crackdown in Baku on 19–20 January 1990, pursuant to a state of emergency during the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Black tea is a type of tea that is more oxidized than oolong, green, and white teas.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Book of Dede Korkut or Book of Korkut Ata (Dede Korkut or Korkut Ata; Dədə Qorqud, دده قورقود; Gorkut Ata) is the most famous among the epic stories of the Oghuz Turks.
The boundaries between the continents of Earth are generally a matter of geographical convention.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Boyukagha Meshadi oglu Mirzazade (Böyükağa Məşədi oğlu Mirzəzadə, February 21, 1921, Baku – November 3, 2007, Baku) was a prominent Azerbaijani artist, named People's Artist of the Azerbaijan SSR in 1967.
BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Budukh or Budugh is a Samur language of the Northeast Caucasian language family spoken in parts of the Quba Rayon of Azerbaijan.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Generally speaking, a calendar year begins on the New Year's Day of the given calendar system and ends on the day before the following New Year's Day, and thus consists of a whole number of days.
Capture of Gushchular and Malibeyli (Malıbəyli və Quşçular qətliamı) were incidents in which eight civilians were killed, according to Helsinki Watch, and according to Azerbaijani sources, 15–50 (exact number unknown) ethnic Azerbaijani civilians, by Armenian irregular armed units in simultaneous attacks on the villages of Malibeyli, Ashaghi Gushchular, and Yukhari Gushchular of Shusha district of Azerbaijan, on February 10–12, 1992 during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Caviar diplomacy is the lobbying strategy of Azerbaijan, consisting of costly invitations of foreign politicians and employees of international organizations to Azerbaijan at the expense of the host country.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Bank of Azerbaijan (CBA, Azərbaycan Mərkəzi Bankı) is the central bank of Azerbaijan Republic.
Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation.
A chokha (ჩოხა or ტალავარი; akʷymzhʷy; tsiya; czugha; choukha; çuxa; ҫoqib; tsei; chukha; cuqqa; cherkeska; cherkeska) is a woolen coat with a high neck that is part of the traditional male dress of the peoples of the Caucasus.
Chromaticism is a compositional technique interspersing the primary diatonic pitches and chords with other pitches of the chromatic scale.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Cinematography (also called Direction of Photography) is the science or art of motion-picture photography by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock.
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Code-division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
A commercial bank is an institution that provides services such as accepting deposits, providing business loans, and offering basic investment products.
The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) is an American independent non-profit, non-governmental organization, based in New York City, New York with correspondents around the world.
The common people, also known as the common man, commoners, or the masses, are the ordinary people in a community or nation who lack any significant social status, especially those who are members of neither royalty, nobility, the clergy, nor any member of the aristocracy.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Constitution of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan konstitusiyası) was adopted on 12 November 1995 by popular referendum.
The Constitutional Court of Azerbaijan Republic (Azərbaycan Respublikasının Konstitusiya Məhkəməsi) is an independent state body of the Republic of Azerbaijan which jurisdiction is prescribed by the Constitution of Azerbaijan.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
Ottoman culture evolved over several centuries as the ruling administration of the Turks absorbed, adapted and modified the cultures of conquered lands and their peoples.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Damcılı (also, Damdzhaly, Damdzhyly, and Damzhaly) is a village in the Goygol Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Dashkasan (Daşkəsən) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
In Muslim cultures of the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and South Asia, a Diwan (دیوان, divân, ديوان, dīwān) is a collection of poems by one author, usually excluding his or her long poems (mathnawī).
A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system, is a system where there is "a category of parties/political organisations that have successively won election victories and whose future defeat cannot be envisaged or is unlikely for the foreseeable future."Suttner, R. (2006), "Party dominance 'theory': Of what value?", Politikon 33 (3), pp.
In economics, the Dutch disease is the apparent causal relationship between the increase in the economic development of a specific sector (for example natural resources) and a decline in other sectors (like the manufacturing sector or agriculture).
The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems, depending on the context, most often including at least part of Asia or geographically the countries and cultures east of Europe, specifically in historical (pre-modern) contexts, and in modern times in the context of Orientalism.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Azerbaijan has an economy that has completed its post-Soviet transition into a major oil based economy (with the completion of the Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline), from one where the state played the major role.
Eduard Mammadov (born January 2, 1978, in Baku) is an Azerbaijani kickboxer, nicknamed the "White Wolf".
The Ildegizids, EldiguzidsC.E. Bosworth, "Ildenizids or Eldiguzids", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Edited by P.J. Bearman, Th.
Elkhan Mammadov (born February 26, 1982, Baku, Azerbaijani SSR, USSR) is an Azerbaijani judoka.
Ell & Nikki, also known as Eldar & Nigar, are an Azerbaijani pop duo consisting of singers Eldar Gasimov and Nigar Jamal.
Elnur Mammadli (Elnur Məmmədli, born 29 June 1988, Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, Soviet Union) is an Azerbaijani judoka.
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Epic of Koroghlu is a heroic legend prominent in the oral traditions of the Turkic peoples.
Equinor ASA (formerly Statoil and StatoilHydro) is a Norwegian multinational energy company headquartered in Stavanger, Norway.
The Erivan Khanate (خانات ایروان – Xānāt-e Iravān; Երևանի խանություն – Yerevani khanut’yun; İrəvan xanlığı – ایروان خانلیغی), also known as Chokhur-e Sa'd, was a khanate (i.e. province) that was established in Afsharid Iran in the eighteenth century.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
Euronews is a multilingual news media service, headquartered in Lyon, France.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is an international financial institution founded in 1991.
The European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ) is a judicial body, composed of experts from all the 47 member States of the Council of Europe and prepares tools to improve the efficiency and functioning of justice in Europe (including granting observer status to and consultations with non-governmental organisations outside of Europe).
The European Strategic Intelligence and Security Center (ESISC) is an think tank dealing with issues related to terrorism and security.
The European Taekwondo Championships are the European senior championships in Taekwondo, first held in Barcelona 1976.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2008 was the 53rd edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2011 was the 56th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2012 was the 57th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2018 was the 63rd edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.
Football Club Copenhagen (Football Club København), commonly known as FC København, FC Copenhagen, Copenhagen or simply FCK, is a professional Danish football club in Copenhagen, Denmark.
Farid Mansurov (Fərid Mansurov) (born May 10, 1982 in Dmanisi, Georgia) is an Azerbaijani wrestler who won a gold medal at the 2004 Summer Olympic Games in Greco-Roman wrestling.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products.
The flag of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan bayrağı) is a horizontal tricolour featuring three equally sized fesses of blue, red, and green, with a white crescent and an eight-pointed star in the center.
Flame Towers (Alov qüllələri) is a trio of skyscrapers in Baku, Azerbaijan, including the tallest in the country, with a height of.
A folk dance is developed by people that reflect the life of the people of a certain country or region.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
Fravashi (fravaši) is the Avestan language term for the Zoroastrian concept of a personal spirit of an individual, whether dead, living, and yet-unborn.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Freedom of the Press is a yearly report by US-based non-governmental organization Freedom House, measuring the level of freedom and editorial independence enjoyed by the press in nations and significant disputed territories around the world.
Futsal is a variant of association football played on a hard court, smaller than a football pitch, and mainly indoors.
Fużūlī (Füzuli فضولی, c. 1494 – 1556) was the pen name of the Azerbaijani of the Bayat tribes of Oghuz poet, writer and thinker Muhammad bin Suleyman (Məhəmməd Ben Süleyman محمد بن سليمان).
Fuzuli or Fizuli is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Gabala FK (Qəbələ Futbol Klubu, also spelled Qabala) is an Azerbaijani association football club based in Qabala.
Gadabay (Gədəbəy; Гедабек, Гедабекский район, Gedabek; more common traditional Russian spelling Кедабек, Кедабекский район) is a rayon of Azerbaijan and its administrative center is Gadabay city.
Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
Gamigaya rock carvings (Gəmiqaya petroqlifləri) - are dated to the 4th-1st millennia BC including the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in the territory of Ordubad Rayon, not far from Nəsirvaz village’s border and Azerbaijan’s border with Armenia.
Ganja (Gəncə) is Azerbaijan's second largest city, with a population of around 331,400.
Geodynamics is a subfield of geophysics dealing with dynamics of the Earth.
Georgetown University Press is a university press affiliated with Georgetown University that publishes about forty new books a year.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church (საქართველოს სამოციქულო ავტოკეფალური მართლმადიდებელი ეკლესია, sakartvelos samotsikulo avt’ok’epaluri martlmadidebeli ek’lesia) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with the other churches of Eastern Orthodoxy.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
The ghazal (غزَل, غزل, غزل), a type of amatory poem or ode, originating in Arabic poetry.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Gobustan is an administrative district, or rayon, of Azerbaijan.
Gobustan State Reserve located west of the settlement of Gobustan, about 40 miles southwest of the centre of Baku was established in 1966 when the region was declared as a national historical landmark of Azerbaijan in an attempt to preserve the ancient carvings, mud volcanoes and gas-stones in the region.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
Goranboy is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Goychay (Göyçay) is a region of Azerbaijan located in the central part of the country.
Goygol (Göygöl, Ҝөјҝөл, گويگول) is a rayon (district) in northwestern Azerbaijan.
Greater Caucasus (Böyük Qafqaz, Бөјүк Гафгаз, بيوک قافقاز; დიდი კავკასიონი, Didi K’avk’asioni; Большой Кавказ, Bolshoy Kavkaz, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Major", "Big Caucasus" or "Large Caucasus") is the major mountain range of the Caucasus Mountains.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets, first deployed in Finland in December 1991.
The GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (Организация за демократию и экономическое развитие — ГУАМ) is a regional organization of four post-Soviet states: '''G'''eorgia, '''U'''kraine, '''A'''zerbaijan, and '''M'''oldova.
The Guiana Space Centre or, more commonly, Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG) is a French and European spaceport to the northwest of Kourou in French Guiana.
Gyumri (Գյումրի), is an urban municipal community and the second largest city in Armenia, serving as the administrative centre of Shirak Province in the northwestern part of the country.
Hajigabul (Hacıqabul) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Hazi Aslanov (Hazi Ahad oglu Aslanov, Həzi Aslanov, Ази Асланов; commonly described as Azi Aslanov and A. A. Aslanov,;Aleksander A. Maslov, David M. Glantz, Fallen Soviet Generals: Soviet General Officers Killed in Battle, 1941-1945, Routledge, 1998,, January 22, 1910 – January 24, 1945) was an Azerbaijani major-general of the Soviet armoured troops during World War II.
A Heliport is by definition an area of land, water, or structure used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of helicopters, and includes its buildings and facilities (if any).
The title Hero of the Soviet Union (translit) was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded personally or collectively for heroic feats in service to the Soviet state and society.
Heydar Alirza oghlu Aliyev, also spelled Gaydar Aliev (Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev; Гейда́р Али́евич Али́ев Geydar Aliyevich Aliyev; 10 May 1923 – 12 December 2003), was the third President of Azerbaijan who served from October 1993 to October 2003.
The Heydar Aliyev Center is a building complex in Baku, Azerbaijan designed by Iraqi-British architect Zaha Hadid and noted for its distinctive architecture and flowing, curved style that eschews sharp angles.
Hirkan National Park (Hirkan Milli Parkı) — is a national park of Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijan is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The history of Azerbaijani animation is so far a nearly unexplored field for Western film theory and history.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Azerbaijan has ratified 15 International Human Rights Treaties out of 18.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Hurufism (حروفية hurufiyya, adjective form hurufi literal meaning "letters") was a Sufi doctrine, which was born in Astrabad and spread in areas of western Persia and Anatolia in later 14th – early 15th century.
Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.
Idman Azerbaijan TV (İdman Azərbaycan TV, "Sport Azerbaijan TV") is a state-controlled television channel in Azerbaijan.
Ilham Aliyev (İlham Heydər oğlu Əliyev; born 24 December 1961) is the fourth and current President of Azerbaijan, in office since 2003.
‘Alī ‘Imādu d-Dīn Nasīmī (Seyid Əli İmadəddin Nəsimi عمادالدین نسیمی, عمادالدین نسیمی), often known as Nesimi, (1369 – 1417 skinned alive in Aleppo) was a 14th-century Azerbaijani or Turkmen Ḥurūfī poet.
Imishli (İmişli) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to the Azerbaijan Republic include.
Individual Partnership Action Plans (IPAP) are plans developed between NATO and different countries which outline the objectives and the communication framework for dialogue and cooperation between both parties.
Inessa Korkmaz (born 17 January 1972 in Saratov) is a retired female volleyball player from Russia, who is also known as Inessa Emelyanova.
INPEX Corporation is a Japanese oil company established in February 1966 as North Sumatra Offshore Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd.
An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill, as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts, and cultural spaces that are considered by UNESCO to be part of a place's cultural heritage.
The Internal Troops of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası Daxili Qoşunları) also known as Interior Troops or Interior Guard is the uniformed gendarmerie-like force in Azerbaijan.
The International Bank of Azerbaijan is a global financial institution serving consumers, pensioners, small businesses, multi-national corporations and investors.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Organization of Turkic Culture (Turkish: Uluslararası Türk Kültürü Teşkilatı, Türksoy) is an international cultural organization of countries with Turkic populations, speaking languages belonging to the Turkic language family.
The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu religious organisation.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranian Azerbaijanis (ایران آذربایجانلیلاری – İran azərbaycanlıları), also known as Iranian Azeris, Iranian Turks, Persian Turks, Azeri Turks, Azerbaijani Turks or Persian Azerbaijanis, are Iranians of Azerbaijani ethnicity who speak the Azerbaijani language as their first language.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
The Islamic Development Bank (IDB) (Arabic: البنك الإسلامي للتنمية) is a multilateral development financing institution located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
The Islamic Solidarity Games (ألعاب التضامن الإسلامي) is a multinational, multi-sport event.
Ismail I (Esmāʿīl,; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I (شاه اسماعیل), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia).
Ismailli (İsmayıllı rayonu; КIелет район) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Izzeddin Hasanoğlu (İzzəddin Həsənoğlu) (13th-14th centuries) was the founder of literature in Azerbaijani language.
Jabrayil (Cəbrayıl) is a rayon of Azerbaijan, occupied by Armenian forces in the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah ibn Yusuf (1397 in Khoy – 1467 in Tabriz) (جهان شاه; Cahan Şah/جهان شاه) was the leader of the Kara Koyunlu oghuz Turks dynasty in Azerbaijan and Arran who reigned c. 1438 – 1467.
Jahangir Hajiyev (born October 26, 1961) is an Azerbaijani banking executive who used to serve as Chairman of the Board of the International Bank of Azerbaijan and resigned from his post in 18 March, 2015 reporting health concerns.
Jalilabad (Cəlilabad) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Javanshir (Ջիվանշիր, Jivanshir; Jūvānšīr; meaning "young lion"), was the prince of Caucasian Albania from 637 to 680, hailing from the region of Gardman.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joshpara are dumplings popular in Central Asian and Middle Eastern cuisines.
Judeo-Tat or Juhuri (çuhuri / жугьури / ז'אוּהאוּראִ) is the traditional language of the Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Azerbaijan and Dagestan, now mainly spoken in Israel.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Julfa (Culfa, Ҹулфа, جولفا) is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
K-1 began in 1993 and is a kickboxing platform and martial arts brand well-known worldwide mainly for its heavyweight division fights.
Kadi Ahmad Burhan al-Din (died 1398) was an Oghuz.
Kalbajar District (Kəlbəcər, Kelbecer, Քարվաճառի) is a district of Azerbaijan.
Kangarli (Kəngərli; also known as Kengerli) is the newest rayon of Azerbaijan, in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (قره قویونلو), were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia (1406), northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468.
Karabakh (Ղարաբաղ Gharabagh; Qarabağ) is a geographic region in present-day eastern Armenia and southwestern Azerbaijan, extending from the highlands of the Lesser Caucasus down to the lowlands between the rivers Kura and Aras.
The Karabakh horse (Qarabağ atı), also known as the Karabai or Karabakhskaya in Russian, is a mountain-steppe racing and riding horse.
(Okinawan pronunciation) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
A kelaghayi (Kəlağayı) is a traditional Azerbaijani women's headgear.
Khachmaz (Xaçmaz) is a town in the Khachmaz Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Khachmaz (Xaçmaz rayonu, Хъачмаз район) is a city in Northeastern Azerbaijan's Khachmaz region.
The Khamseh (ایلات خمسه) is a tribal confederation in the province of Fars in southwestern Iran.
The Khanates of the Caucasus, or Azerbaijani khanates or Persian khanates, or Iranian khanates, were various provinces and principalities established by Persia (Iran) on their territories in the Caucasus (modern-day Azerbaijan Republic, Armenia, Georgia and Dagestan) from the late Safavid to the Qajar dynasty.
Khāqāni or Khāghāni (خاقانی) (1121/1122, Shamakhi, Shirwan – 1190, Tabriz), was a Persian poet.
Khinalug (also spelled Khinalig, Khinalugi, Xinalug(h), Xinaliq or Khinalugh) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 1,500 people in the villages of Khinalug and Gülüstan, Quba in the mountains of Quba Rayon, northern Azerbaijan.
Khizi (Xızı) is the least-populous district of Azerbaijan.
Khojali (Xocalı), also called Khojaly, Khodjaly and Hojaly, is a rayon in the Nagorno-Karabakh break away region of Azerbaijan, now under de facto control of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.
The Khojaly Massacre, also known as the Khojaly tragedy, was the killing of at least 161 ethnic Azerbaijani civilians from the town of Khojaly on 26 February 1992.
Khojavend (Xocavənd, Хоҹавәнд, خوجاوند) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Kryts (Kryc) is a Samur language of the Northeast Caucasian language family spoken in parts of the Quba Rayon of Azerbaijan by 6,000 people in 1975.
The Kura-Aras Lowland, Kura-Aras Depression or Kura-Aras Basin (Kür-Araz ovalığı) is a vast depression in central-southern Azerbaijan defined by the valleys of the Kura River and Aras River.
The Kura (Kura; Kür; მტკვარი, Mt’k’vari; Կուր, Kur; Κῦρος, Cyrus; کوروش, Kuruš) is an east-flowing river south of the Greater Caucasus Mountains which drains the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus east into the Caspian Sea.
Kurdamir (Azerbaijani Kürdəmir) is an administrative district (a 'rayon') in Azerbaijan.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Lachin is a district in the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Sarysu (Sarısu meaning "Yellow Lake") is the largest lake of Azerbaijan located in Imishli and Sabirabad raions of the Kur-Araz Lowland.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
Lankaran (Lənkəran) is a city in Azerbaijan, on the coast of the Caspian Sea, near the southern border with Iran.
Lankaran (Lenkoran, Lənkəran) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Lökbatan Mud Volcano (Lökbatan palçıq vulkanı), also known as Lok-Batan Mud Cone, is a mud volcano located in Absheron Peninsula near the settlement of Lökbatan in Qaradağ raion of Baku, Azerbaijan.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Lerik Rayon is a rayon located near the Iranian border in southern Azerbaijan, between the tall mountains of the Talysh Mountains and the agricultural plain of the Lankaran Lowland.
Lesser Caucasus (Փոքր Կովկաս Pʿokʿr Kovkas, Azerbaijani: Kiçik Qafqaz Dağları, მცირე კავკასიონი, Малый Кавказ, Persian: Arankuh, Küçük Kafkasya, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Minor") is second of the two main mountain ranges of Caucasus mountains, of length about.
Lezgian, also called Lezgi or Lezgin, (Azerbaijani: Ləzgi dili), is a language that belongs to the Lezgic languages.
Lezgins (лезгияр, lezgiyar, Russian: лезгины, lezginy; Azerbaijani: "Ləzgilər"; also called Lezgins, Lezgi, Lezgis, Lezgs, Lezgin) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group native predominantly to southern Dagestan and northeastern Azerbaijan and who speak the Lezgian language.
Lider TV, is a private television channel in Azerbaijan.
Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.
Azerbaijani inventions and discoveries are inventions and discoveries by Azerbaijani scientists and researchers, both locally and while working at overseas research institutes.
This is a list of countries and territories by land borders.
This is a list of countries by unemployment rate.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
The PJSC Lukoil Oil Company (stylized as LUKOIL) is a Russian multinational energy corporation headquartered in Moscow, specializing in the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Mahommedrasul Majidov (Məhəmmədrəsul Məcidov) (born 27 September 1986) is an Azerbaijani amateur boxer who became World Champion 2011 at Super Heavyweight in Baku, World Champion 2013 at Super Heavyweight in Almaty and World Champion 2017 at Super Heavyweight in Hamburg.
The Maiden Tower (Qız Qalası) is a 12th-century monument in the Old City, Baku, Azerbaijan.
In Western music, the adjectives major and minor can describe a musical composition, movement, section, scale, key, chord, or interval.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The March Days, or March Events, refers to inter-ethnic strife and massacres of about 12,000 Azerbaijanis and other Muslims that took place between 30 March – 2 April 1918 in the city of Baku and adjacent areas of the Baku Governorate of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic.
Mariya Stadnik (Марія Василівна Стадник; Mariya Vasylivna Stadnyk; born 3 June 1988) is a Ukrainian (until 2007) and Azerbaijani (since 2007) female wrestler.
Marmaray is a partially operational rail transportation project in the Turkish city of Istanbul.
Marzbān, or Marzpān (Middle Persian transliteration: mrzwpn, derived from marz "border, boundary" and the suffix -pān "guardian"; Modern Persian: مرزبان Marzbān) were a class of margraves, warden of the marches, and by extension military commanders, in charge of border provinces of the Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD) and mostly Sasanian Empire (224–651 AD) of Iran.
Masally (Masallı) is the administrative area in the south of Azerbaijan.
A massacre is a killing, typically of multiple victims, considered morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims.
The Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity was made by the Director-General of UNESCO starting in 2001 to raise awareness of intangible cultural heritage and encourage local communities to protect them and the local people who sustain these forms of cultural expressions.
Medeniyyet TV (Mədəniyyət TV — "Culture TV") is an Azerbaijani Government-owned TV channel showcasing culture in Azerbaijan.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
The Median language (also Medean or Medic) was the language of the Medes.
Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times.
Mehriban Aliyeva (Mehriban Arif qızı Əliyeva; born 26 August 1964) is the First Vice President and First Lady of Azerbaijan, the head of Heydar Aliyev Foundation, the chairperson of Azerbaijani Culture Friends Foundation, the President of Azerbaijani Gymnastics Federation, the goodwill ambassador of UNESCO and ISESCO.
A merchant navy or merchant marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country.
Meykhana (Meyxana) is a distinctive Azerbaijani literary and folk rap tradition, consisting of an unaccompanied song performed by one or more people improvising on a particular subject.
Mərdəkan (Mardakan) is a settlement and municipality in Khazar raion of Baku, Azerbaijan with a population of 15,603.
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
Mikayil Huseyn oglu Abdullayev (19 December 1921, Baku - 22 August 2002, Baku) was an Azerbaijani painter, a People's Painter of the former USSR since 1963, and creator of a series of paintings entitled Through India.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Mingachevir (Mingəçevir, Мингечаур), is the fourth-largest city in Azerbaijan with a population of about 120,000.
The Ministry of Culture of Azerbaijan Republic (Azərbaycan Respublikasının Mədəniyyət Nazirliyi) is a governmental agency within the Cabinet of Azerbaijan in charge of regulation of the activities and promotion of Azerbaijani culture.
The Ministry of Defence Industry of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikasının Müdafiə Sənayesi Nazirliyi) is a governmental agency within the Cabinet of Azerbaijan in charge of design, manufacturing, regulation and maintenance of products in the fields of defense, radio electronics, instrument engineering.
Mirza Kadym Irevani, (978-9952-34-116-4., 1825, Erivan — 1875, Erivan) was an Azerbaijani ornamentalist artist and portraitist, founder of Azerbaijani panel painting, whose works greatly influenced Azerbaijani visual art of the modern period.
In the theory of Western music, a mode is a type of musical scale coupled with a set of characteristic melodic behaviors.
Molla Panah Vagif (Molla Pənah Vaqif., 1717-1797) was an 18th-century Azerbaijani poet, the founder of the realism genre in the Azerbaijani poetry and also a prominent statesman and diplomat, vizier – the minister of foreign affairs in the Karabakh khanate.
Molla Vali Vidadi (Molla Vəli Vidadi.) (17 March 1709, Shamkir – 13 May 1809, near Gazakh) was an Azerbaijani poet.
A Molokan (p or молоканин, "dairy-eater") is a member of various Spiritual Christian sects that evolved from Eastern Christianity in the East Slavic lands.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
The Mausoleum of Momine Khatun (or Mu'mine Khatun) is located in Nakhchivan City, the capital of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic in Azerbaijan.
In poetry, the term monody has become specialized to refer to a poem in which one person laments another's death.
Mount Bazardüzü (КичIен сув., Базардюзю) is a mountain peak in the Greater Caucasus range on the border between Russia and Azerbaijan.
A mud volcano or mud dome is a landform created by the eruption of mud or slurries, water and gases.
Over a thousand mud volcanoes are known to exist in the world, and some 400 of those are in the coastal area of Azerbaijan.
Mugham or mugam (Muğam) is one of the many folk musical compositions from Azerbaijan, contrasting with tasnif and ashugs.
The Müsavat Party (Müsavat Partiyası, from Arabic مساواة musāwāt, meaning "equality, parity", Equality Party) is the oldest existing political party in Azerbaijan.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
Muslim Magometovich Magomayev (Azerbaijani: Müslüm Məhəmməd oğlu Maqomayev, 17 August 1942 – 25 October 2008), dubbed the "King of Songs" and the "Soviet Sinatra" was a Soviet Azerbajiani baritone operatic pop singer.
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
Naftalan is a city in Azerbaijan, surrounded by the rayon of Goranboy.
Nagorno-Karabakh, meaning "Mountainous Karabakh," also known as Artsakh, is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, within the mountainous range of Karabakh, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur, and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains.
The Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast was an autonomous oblast within the borders of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, mostly inhabited by ethnic Armenians.
The Nagorno-Karabakh War was an ethnic and territorial conflict that took place in the late 1980s to May 1994, in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Nakhchivan (Naxçıvan, Նախիջևան) is the capital of the eponymous Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan, located west of Baku.
The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası) is a landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Azerbaijani: italics; Нахичеванская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика), abbreviated as Nakhichevan ASSR (Azerbaijani: Нахчыван МССР; Нахичеванская АССР), was an autonomous republic within the Azerbaijan SSR, itself a republic within the Soviet Union.
The Nakhchivan Khanate (خانات نخجوان — Khānāt-e Nakhchevān) was a khanate that was established in Afsharid Persia in 1747.
Nakhtel (Naxtel) is wireless CDMA operator of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Azerbaijan.
Namig Abdullayev (Namiq Abdullayev, born 4 January 1971) is a retired Azerbaijani freestyle wrestler, who won a gold medal at the 2000 Summer Olympics, as well as three gold medals at European championships and three silver medals at world championships.
Nar is a brand for commercial activities of Azerfon, a mobile telecommunications company, located in Baku, Azerbaijan.
Nastaʿlīq (نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.
Natalya Aleksandrovna Mammadova-Skazka (born 2 December 1984) is a Ukrainian-born Azerbaijani volleyball player who currently plays for Voléro Zürich.
The National Assembly (Milli Məclis), also transliterated as Milli Majlis, is the legislative branch of government in Azerbaijan.
The state emblem of Azerbaijan mixes traditional and modern symbols.
A National Olympic Committee (NOC) is a national constituent of the worldwide Olympic movement.
A national sport is considered to be an intrinsic part of the culture of a nation.
A national symbol is a symbol of any entity considering itself and manifesting itself to the world as a national community: the sovereign states but also nations and countries in a state of colonial or other dependence, (con)federal integration, or even an ethnocultural community considered a 'nationality' despite having no political autonomy.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazim Huseynov (born 2 August 1969 in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, Soviet Union), is an Azerbaijani judoka who won the Men's - 60 kg in the 1992 Summer Olympics, competing for the Unified Team.
A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.
Neftçi PFC Bakı (Neftçi Peşəkar Futbol Klubu), commonly known as Neftchi or Neftçi, is an Azerbaijani football club based in the capital, Baku, that currently plays in the Azerbaijan Premier League.
Neftchala (Neftçala) is a rayon on the shores of the Caspian Sea.
The New Azerbaijan Party (Yeni Azərbaycan Partiyası, YAP) is the ruling political party in Azerbaijan.
New7Wonders of Nature (2007–2011) was an initiative started in 2007 to create a list of seven natural wonders chosen by people through a global poll.
A night vision device (NVD), also known as night optical/observation device (NOD) and night vision goggles (NVG), is an optoelectronic device that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness.
Nizami Ganjavi (translit) (1141–1209), Nizami Ganje'i, Nizami, or Nezāmi, whose formal name was Jamal ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn-Zakkī,Mo'in, Muhammad(2006), "Tahlil-i Haft Paykar-i Nezami", Tehran.: p. 2: Some commentators have mentioned his name as “Ilyas the son of Yusuf the son of Zakki the son of Mua’yyad” while others have mentioned that Mu’ayyad is a title for Zakki. Mohammad Moin, rejects the first interpretation claiming that if it were to mean 'Zakki son of Muayyad' it should have been read as 'Zakki i Muayyad' where izafe (-i-) shows the son-parent relationship but here it is 'Zakki Muayyad' and Zakki ends in silence/stop and there is no izafe (-i-). Some may argue that izafe is dropped due to meter constraints but dropping parenthood izafe is very strange and rare. So it is possible that Muayyad was a sobriquet for Zaki or part of his name (like Muayyad al-Din Zaki). This is supported by the fact that later biographers also state Yusuf was the son of Mu’ayyad was a 12th-century Persian Sunni Muslim poet. Nezāmi is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic. excerpt: Greatest romantic epic poet in Persian Literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic..... Nezami is admired in Persian-speaking lands for his originality and clarity of style, though his love of language for its own sake and of philosophical and scientific learning makes his work difficult for the average reader. His heritage is widely appreciated and shared by Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, the Kurdistan region and Tajikistan.
Nizami Pashayev (born February 2, 1981 in Gadabay) is a retired Azerbaijani athlete in weightlifting.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Novruz in Azerbaijan (Novruz Bayramı) is a traditional holiday, which celebrates the New Year, and the coming of Spring.
Novruz Ismayil oglu Mammadov (Novruz İsmayıl oğlu Məmmədov; born 15 March 1947) is an Azerbaijani politician and translator who is currently serving as the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan since 21 April 2018.
Oghuz (Oğuz) is a rayon (administrative division, equivalent of English county) of Azerbaijan.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) is an Indian multinational oil and gas company earlier headquartered in Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
Oksana Kurt, also known as Oksana Parkhomenko, (born 28 July 1984 in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR); is an Azerbaijani indoor volleyball player of Azeryol Baku, also member and captain of the Azerbaijan women's national volleyball team.
Old Azeri, also known as Azeri or Azari (آذری Āḏarī), is the extinct Iranian language that was once spoken in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), and in what constitutes the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan (historically known as Arran and Shirvan).
Old City or Inner City (İçərişəhər) is the historical core of Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan.
Weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or Olympic weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.
OMON (ОМОН — Отряд Мобильный Особого Назначения, previously Отряд Милиции Особого Назначения, Otryad Militsii Osobogo Naznacheniya, Special Purpose Police Unit) is a system of special police units of Federal Police within the National Guard of Russia, and previously Soviet and Russian Ministries of Internal Affairs.
Ordubad is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an intergovernmental organisation and the implementing body for the Chemical Weapons Convention, which entered into force on 29 April 1997.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Orontid dynasty, also known by their native name Eruandid or Yervanduni (Երվանդունի), was a hereditary Armenian dynasty and the rulers of the successor state to the Iron Age kingdom of Urartu (Ararat).
The Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–1590) was one of the many wars between the neighboring arch rivals of Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Azerbaijan: Azerbaijan – largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia, and one of the most progressive and secular Islamic societies.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Palace of Shaki Khans (Şəki xanlarının sarayı) in Shaki, Azerbaijan was a summer residence for the Shaki Khans.
The Palace of the Shirvanshahs (Şirvanşahlar Sarayı, کاخ شروانشاهان) is a 15th-century palace built by the Shirvanshahs and described by UNESCO as "one of the pearls of Azerbaijan's architecture".
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Pankration (παγκράτιον) was a sporting event introduced into the Greek Olympic Games in 648 BC and was an empty-hand submission sport with scarcely any rules.
Papakha (холхазан куй, xolxazan kuy), also known as astrakhan hat in English, is a wool hat worn by men throughout the Caucasus.
Parigala, also known as the Fairy Castle, is considered one of Azerbaijan's lesser-known archeological treasures and historical mysteries.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
The petroleum industry in Azerbaijan produces about of oil per day and 29 billion cubic meters of gas per year as of 2013.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Pilaf or pilau is a dish in which rice is cooked in a seasoned broth.
The Politics of Azerbaijan takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential republic, with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The President of the Republic of Azerbaijan is the head of state of Azerbaijan.
The Prime Minister of Azerbaijan is the head of government of Azerbaijan.
Production sharing agreements (PSAs) are a common type of contract signed between a government and a resource extraction company (or group of companies) concerning how much of the resource (usually oil) extracted from the country each will receive.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Qabala (Qəbələ rayonu, Кьвепеле райун) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Qakh District (Qax rayonu; კახის რაიონი – K′axis raioni), also Kakhi or sometimes Gakh, is a raion (district) in the north of Azerbaijan, on the border with Georgia.
Qarabağ Futbol Klubu, commonly known as Qarabağ is an Azerbaijani football club playing in the Azerbaijan Premier League.
Gazakh (Qazax; also known as Kazakh or Qazakh) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Qobustan is a village in the municipality of Pirəkəşkül-Qobustan in the Absheron Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Qovsi Tabrizi (also spelled Coves Tabrizi, birth name Alican Coves Ismailoglu) was an Iranian Azerbaijani poet of the 17th century.
Quadrangular castle (Dördkünc Mərdəkan qalası) is a history castle located in Mardakan, Baku.
Quba (Quba rayonu, Къуба район) is a rayon in northeastern Azerbaijan.
Qubadli (Qubadlı rayonu) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
The District of Qusar (Qusar rayonu, КцIар район) is an administrative unit in the northern part of Azerbaijan.
Qutab is an Azerbaijani dish made from thinly rolled dough that is cooked briefly on a convex griddle known as saj.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Rafael Mahir oghlu Aghayev (Rafael Ağayev; born March 4, 1985 in Sumqayit, Azerbaijan SSR) is a leading Azerbaijani Karate competitor.
A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).
Rashid Behbudov (Rəşid Məcid oğlu Behbudov, رشید بهبوداوف, Рәшид Мәҹид оғлу Беһбудов; December 14, 1915 – June 9, 1989) was an Azerbaijani singer and actor.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of Aras (Araz Respublikası; also known as the Republic of Araks or the Araxi Republic) was a short-lived and unrecognized state in the South Caucasus, roughly corresponding with the territory that is now the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Republic of Artsakh (Արցախի Հանրապետություն Arts'akhi Hanrapetut'yun), or simply Artsakh, commonly known by its former name of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic between 1991 and 2017, is a state with limited recognition in the South Caucasus internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
Romanesque art is the art of Europe from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 12th century, or later, depending on region.
Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.
Rovshan Bayramov (Rövşən Bayramov; born 7 May 1987, Baku, Azerbaijani SSR) is an Azerbaijani wrestler.
Rovshan Javadov (Rövşən Cavadov, 19 October 1951, Lachin – March 17, 1995, Baku) was an officer in the Azerbaijani Armed Forces and the chief of the Special Purpose Police Detachment of Azerbaijan (OPON).
Rubaba Khalil qizi Muradova (Rübabə Muradova), born Rubaba Ishragi (21 March 1930, Ardabil – 28 August 1983, Baku), was an Azerbaijani opera (mezzo-soprano) and folk singer.
"Running Scared" is a song performed by Azerbaijani duo Ell & Nikki.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian diaspora is the global community of ethnic Russians.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russians (Azərbaycanda ruslar / Азәрбајҹанда руслар, русские в Азербайджане; russkie v Azerbajdžane) are the second largest ethnic minority in Azerbaijan and is also the largest Russian community in the South Caucasus and one of the largest outside of Russia.
The Russo-Persian War of 1722–1723, known in Russian historiography as the Persian campaign of Peter the Great, was a war between the Russian Empire and Safavid Iran, triggered by the tsar's attempt to expand Russian influence in the Caspian and Caucasus regions and to prevent its rival, the Ottoman Empire, from territorial gains in the region at the expense of declining Safavid Iran.
The 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War, was one of the many wars between the Persian Empire and Imperial Russia, and began like many of their wars as a territorial dispute.
The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran.
Rustam Orujov (born 4 October 1991) is an Azerbaijani judoka.
Rutul is a language spoken by the Rutuls, an ethnic group living in Dagestan (Russia) and some parts of Azerbaijan.
Saatly is an administrative district (rayon) in Azerbaijan.
Sabirabad is a rayon of Azerbaijan whose capital which lies at the junction of the Araz and Kura rivers.
Sadarak (Sədərək) is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
The Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunni Islam to Shia Islam took place roughly over the 16th through 18th centuries and made Iran the spiritual bastion of Shia Islam.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
The Shirvan province (Velāyat-e Shirvān) was an velayat (province) founded by the Safavid Empire on the territory of modern Azerbaijan and Russia (Dagestan) between 1501 and 1736 with its capital in the town of Shamakhi.
Saint Petersburg State University (SPbU, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, СПбГУ) is a Russian federal state-owned higher education institution based in Saint Petersburg.
The Sajid dynasty (ساجیان), was an Iranian Muslim dynasty that ruled from 889-890 until 929.
The Sallarid dynasty (سالاریان), (also known as the Musafirids or Langarids) was an Iranian Muslim dynasty ruled in Tarom, Samiran, Daylam, Gilan and subsequently Azerbaijan, Arran, some districts in Eastern Armenia in the 2nd half of the 10th century.
Salyan is a raion of Azerbaijan.
Samukh (Samux, Самух, ساموخ) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
Sattar Bahlulzade (Səttar Bəhlulzadə;, – 14 October 1974) was the founder of contemporary Azerbaijani landscape painting.
In music theory, a scale is any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
Shabran (Şabran) is a district of Azerbaijan.
The Shaddadids were a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin who ruled in various parts of Armenia and Arran from 951 to 1174 AD.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
Shah Deniz gas field is the largest natural gas field in Azerbaijan.
Shahbuz (Şahbuz; also known as Dereshahbuz and Shakhbuz) is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
Shahdag Mountain Resort is Azerbaijan's first and largest winter resort.
Shaki or Şeki (Şəki rayonu) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Shaki (Şəki; until 1968 Nukha, Azerbaijani: Nuxa) is a city in northwestern Azerbaijan, in the rayon of the same name.
Shamakhi or Shamakhy (Şamaxı) is a rayon of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Shamkir (Şəmkir) is a rayon in Azerbaijan.
Sharif Naidhajavovich Sharifov (Şərif Şərifov; born November 11, 1988 in Gunukh, Charodinsky District, Dagestan) is a Russian-Azerbaijani male wrestler of Avar descent.
Şərur (also, Sharur and Sherur; formerly Norashen (1930–1964), Iliich (Ильич) and Il'ichëvsk (Ильичёвск) (1964–1991) after Vladimir ''Ilyich'' Lenin) is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shirvan (from translit; Şirvan; Tat: Şirvan), also spelled as Sharvān, Shirwan, Shervan, Sherwan and Šervān, is a historical region in the eastern Caucasus, known by this name in both Islamic and modern times.
Shirvanshah (شروانشاه, Şirvanşah), also spelled as Shīrwān Shāh or Sharwān Shāh, was the title of the rulers of Shirvan, located in modern Azerbaijan, from the mid-9th century to the early 16th century.
Shovkat Feyzulla qizi Alakbarova (Şövkət Ələkbərova.) (10 October 1922 in Baku – 7 February 1993 in Baku) was an Azerbaijani singer.
Shusha (Şuşa; Шуша), or Shushi (Շուշի), is a city in the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh in the South Caucasus.
Shusha (Azeri: Şuşa) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Siyazan or Siazan (Siyəzən) is an rayon in Azerbaijan, capital Siyəzən.The word Siyazan means "black female" in Tati.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
The State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR) (Azərbaycan Respublikası Dövlət Neft Şirkəti) is a wholly state-owned national oil and gas company headquartered in Baku, Azerbaijan.
SOCAR Tower in Baku is the tallest building in Azerbaijan and the Caucasus region.
Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II.
The South Caucasus Pipeline (also known as Baku–Tbilisi–Erzurum Pipeline, BTE pipeline, or Shah Deniz Pipeline) is a natural gas pipeline from the Shah Deniz gas field in the Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea to Turkey.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Space TV is a private television channel in Azerbaijan.
A special relationship is a diplomatic relationship that is especially strong.
The State Border Service of Azerbaijan Republic (Azərbaycan Respublikası Dövlət Sərhəd Xidməti) also known as Border Guard of Azerbaijan is a governmental law enforcement agency in charge of protecting the borders of Azerbaijan.
The State Oil Fund of the Republic of Azerbaijan (SOFAZ) is Azerbaijan’s sovereign wealth fund, whereby energy-related earnings are accumulated and efficiently managed for future generations.
Stepanakert (Ստեփանակերտ Step'anakert; Eastern), Khankendi (Xankəndi) and originally called Vararakn (Վարարակն), is the capital and the largest city of the de facto Republic of Artsakh.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner.
Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
Sumqayit (Sumqayıt sumgɑˈjɯt, also transliterated as Sumgait or Sumgayit) is the third-largest city in Azerbaijan, located near the Caspian Sea, about away from the capital, Baku.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Supreme Court of Azerbaijan is the highest court instance and final court of appeal of three-staged judicial system in Azerbaijan.
The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments.
Surat Davud oglu Huseynov (Surət Davud oğlu Hüseynov; born 12 February 1959 in Ganja) is an Azerbaijani colonel and ex-Prime Minister of Azerbaijan, who rose to prominence during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
Syunik (Սյունիք), is the southernmost province of Armenia.
Tağılar (also, Tagilar and Tagylar) is a village and municipality in the Barda Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
Tahir Salahov (Azerbaijani, in full: Tahir Teymur oğlu Salahov, Russian: Таир Теймур оглы Салахов; born 29 November 1928, Baku) is a Soviet, Azerbaijani and Russian painter and draughtsman.
Tahmasp I (شاه تهماسب یکم) (22 February 1514 – 14 May 1576) was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty.
The Talysh Khanate (خانات تالش — Khānāt-e Tālesh, Talış xanlığı, Talysh: Tolshi hanəti, also known as the Lenkaran Khanate):ru:Талышское ханство was a khanate of Iranian origin that was established in Persia and existed from the middle of the 18th century till the beginning of the 19th century, located in the south-west coast of the Caspian Sea.
The Talysh language (Talışi / Толыши / تالشه زَوُن) is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken in the northern regions of the Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardabil and the southern regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Talysh Mountains (Talış dağları, Талыш дағлары, تالش داغلارى; کوههای تالش, Kuhhâye Tâleš) is a mountain range in far southeastern Azerbaijan and far northwestern Iran within Ardabil Province and Gilian Province.
Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an IranianGarnik Asatrian & Habib Borjian (2005.). Talish and the Talashis (State of Research).
Tartar (Tərtər) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
The Tat language or Tat/Tati PersianGernot Windfuhr, "Persian Grammar: history and state of its study", Walter de Gruyter, 1979.
The Tat people (also: Tati, Parsi, Daghli, Lohijon, Caucasian Persians, Transcaucasian Persians) are an Iranian people, presently living within Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia (mainly Southern Dagestan).
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Republic of Tatarstan (p; Татарстан Республикасы), or simply Tatarstan, is a federal subject (a republic) of the Russian Federation, located in the Volga Federal District.
Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı (TPAO) (Turkish Petroleum Corporation) was founded in 1954 by Law No.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
Telekom Baku (formerly named Rabita Baku) was an Azerbaijani women's volleyball club.
Telephone numbers in Azerbaijan follow the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector E.164 recommended format its telephone numbering plan.
The Congress of World Azerbaijanis reconvenes every five years and represents Azerbaijanis living in foreign countries.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Jakarta Post is a daily English language newspaper in Indonesia.
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Thomas Patrick Lowndes de Waal (born 1966) is a British journalist and writer on the Caucasus.
Thomas Goltz (born October 11, 1954) is an American author and journalist best known for his accounts of conflict in the Caucasus region during the 1990s.
Thor Heyerdahl (October 6, 1914 – April 18, 2002) was a Norwegian adventurer and ethnographer with a background in zoology, botany, and geography.
Azerbaijan Time, or AZT, is a time zone used in Azerbaijan.
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Toghrul Shahriyar oghlu Asgarov (born on September 17, 1992, Ganja, Azerbaijan) is an Azerbaijani wrestler.
Togrul Farman oglu Narimanbekov (Toğrul Fərman oğlu Nərimanbəyov, Тогрул Нариманбеков; 7 August 1930 – 2 June 2013) was one of the prominent modern Azerbaijani artists.
Tokhtamysh (tat. Tuqtamış) The spelling of Tokhtamysh varies, but the most common spelling is Tokhtamysh.
Tour d’Azerbaïdjan – is a 2.1 multi-stage bicycle race of the UCI Europe Tour, which takes place in Azerbaijan around May.
Tovuz is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR; Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР); Zakavkazskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika (ZKDFR); 22 April28 May 1918), also known as the Transcaucasian Federation, was a short-lived South Caucasian state extending across what are now the modern-day countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, plus parts of Eastern Turkey as well as Russian border areas.
The Treaty of Gulistan (Гюлистанский договор; عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia (modern day Iran) on 24 October 1813 in the village of Gulistan (in modern-day Goranboy Rayon of Azerbaijan) as a result of the first full-scale Russo-Persian War, lasting from 1804 to 1813.
The Treaty of Kars (Kars Antlaşması, Карсский договор / Karskii dogovor, ყარსის ხელშეკრულება, Կարսի պայմանագիր, Qars müqaviləsi) was a peace treaty that established the common borders between Turkey and the three Transcaucasian republics of the Soviet Union (today the independent republics of Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan).
The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Туркманчайский договор, عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was an agreement between Persia (Iran) and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). It was signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran. By the treaty, Persia ceded to Russia control of several areas in the South Caucasus: the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. The boundary between Russian and Persia was set at the Aras River. These territories comprise modern-day Armenia, the southern parts of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, Nakhchivan, as well as Iğdır Province (now part of Turkey). The treaty was signed for Persia by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza and Allah-Yar Khan Asaf al-Daula, chancellor to Shah Fath Ali (of the Qajar Dynasty), and for Russia by General Ivan Paskievich. Like the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan, this treaty was imposed by Russia, following military victory over Persia. Paskievich threatened to occupy Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed. By this final treaty of 1828 and the 1813 Gulistan treaty, Russia had finalised conquering all the Caucasus territories from Iran, comprising modern-day Dagestan, eastern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, all which had formed part of its very concept for centuries. The area to the North of the river Aras, amongst which the territory of the contemporary nations of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the North Caucasian Republic of Dagestan were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century. As a further direct result and consequence of the two treaties, the formerly Iranian territories became now part of Russia for around the next 180 years, except Dagestan, which has remained a Russian possession ever since. Out of the greater part of the territory, three separate nations would be formed through the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, namely Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.
The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry.
Tsakhur (also spelled Tsaxur or Caxur; Saxur dili; Цахурский, Tsakhurskiy) is a language spoken by the Tsakhurs in northern Azerbaijan and southwestern Dagestan (Russia).
The Tsakhur or Caxur (saxurlar, цахурский) people are an ethnic group of northern Azerbaijan and southern Dagestan (Russia).
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic Council (Türk Şurası; Түрік кеңесі; Түрк кеңеш; Türk Keneşi; Turkiy Kengash, Туркий Кенгаш; or, in full, the Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States (CCTS; Turkish: Türk Dili Konuşan Ülkeler İşbirliği Konseyi), is an international organization comprising some of the Turkic countries. It was founded on 3 October 2009 in Nakhchivan. The General Secretariat is in İstanbul, Turkey. The member countries are Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkey. The remaining two Turkic states, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are not currently official members of the council due to their neutral stance; however, they are possible future members of the council. Uzbekistan announced its intention to join the council on 30 April 2018. The idea of setting up this cooperative council was first put forward by Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev back in 2006.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.
The Udi language, spoken by the Udi people, is a member of the Lezgic branch of the Northeast Caucasian language family.
The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.
The UEFA Europa League is an annual football club competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs.
Ujar Rayon (Ucar Rayonu) is a rayon (administrative district) of Azerbaijan, situated to the south of Goycay, 240 km out of Baku, in the centre of the country.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The 2011 United Nations Security Council election was held on 21 and 24 October 2011 during the Sixty-sixth session of the United Nations General Assembly, held at United Nations Headquarters in New York City.
United Nations Security Council resolution 742, adopted without a vote on 14 February 1992, after examining the application of the Azerbaijani Republic for membership in the United Nations, the Council recommended to the General Assembly that Azerbaijan be admitted.
United Nations Security Council resolution 822, adopted unanimously on 30 April 1993, after expressing concern at the deterioration of relations between the Armenia and Azerbaijan, and the subsequent escalation of armed hostilities and humanitarian situation in the region, the Council demanded the immediate cessation of hostilities and the immediate withdrawal of Armenian occupying forces in the Kalbajar district near Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan.
In United Nations Security Council resolution 853, adopted unanimously on 29 July 1993, after reaffirming Resolution 822 (1993), the Council expressed its concern at the deteriorating relations between Armenia and Azerbaijan and condemned the seizure of the district of Agdam and other areas of Azerbaijan, demanding a complete withdrawal from the areas by Armenians.
United Nations Security Council resolution 874, adopted unanimously on 14 October 1993, after reaffirming resolutions 822 (1993) and 853 (1993), the Council expressed its concern at the continuing conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in Nagorno-Karabakh, in addition to the inviolability of international borders and the inadmissibility of the use of force for the acquisition of territory, and called upon the parties to observe the ceasefire agreed with by the Government of Russia and OSCE Minsk Group.
United Nations Security Council resolution 884, adopted unanimously on 12 November 1993, after reaffirming resolutions 822 (1993), 853 (1993) and 874 (1993), the Council expressed its concern at the continuing conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in Nagorno-Karabakh and condemned violations of the ceasefire between the parties, particularly the occupation of the Zəngilan district and city of Goradiz.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The University of Colorado Boulder (commonly referred to as CU or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urnayr was the king of Caucasian Albania from the Arsacid Dynasty.
UTC+04:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +04.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
Vagif Mustafazadeh (Vaqif Mustafazadə; March 16, 1940 – December 16, 1979), also known as Vaqif Mustafa-Zadeh, was an Azerbaijani jazz pianist and composer, acclaimed for fusing jazz and the traditional Azerbaijani folk music known as mugham.
Valeriya Mammadova (née Korotenko, Valeriya Məmmədova; Валерия Мамедова; born 29 January 1984) is an Azerbaijani professional volleyball player.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.
The Vice-President of Azerbaijan is the second-highest constitutional office in Azerbaijan, after the President.
The Convention on Road Traffic, commonly known as the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic, is an international treaty designed to facilitate international road traffic and to increase road safety by establishing standard traffic rules among the contracting parties.
Visitors to Azerbaijan must obtain a visa from one of the Azerbaijani diplomatic missions, unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries, countries eligible for visa on arrival or countries eligible for electronic visa.
Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production, and study of grapes.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
A vocational school, sometimes also called a trade school, career center, or vocational college, is a type of educational institution, which, depending on country, may refer to secondary or post-secondary education designed to provide vocational education, or technical skills required to perform the tasks of a particular and specific job.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
"X My Heart" (pronounced "cross my heart") is a song performed by Azeri singer Aisel.
Yanar Dag (Yanar Dağ, meaning "burning mountain") is a natural gas fire which blazes continuously on a hillside on the Absheron Peninsula on the Caspian Sea near Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan (a country which itself is known as "the Land of Fire").
Yardymli (Yardımlı) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
The Yashts (Yašts) are a collection of twenty-one hymns in the Younger Avestan language.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Yevlakh (Yevlax) is a city in Azerbaijan, 265 km west of capital Baku.
Yevlakh (Yevlax, Јевлах, يولاخ) is a rayon of Azerbaijan, and it surrounds the cities of Yevlakh and Mingachevir.
Yuxarı Çardaqlar (also, Yuxarı Çardaxlar, Chardakhlo, Yukhari Chardakhly, Yukhary Chardakhlar, and Yukhary-Chardakhly; Эхеди Чардахъ) is a village and municipality in the Zaqatala Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Zabit "Maugli" Samedov (Zabit Səmədov, Забит Самедов, born June 21, 1984) is an Azerbaijani kickboxer fighting out of Chinuk Gym in Minsk, Belarus.
The Zand dynasty (سلسله زندیه) was an Iranian dynasty of Lak a branch of Lurs origin founded by Karim Khan Zand that initially ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century.
Zangilan Rayon (Zəngilan; Zengilan) is de jure an administrative territorial entity in the south-western part of the Republic of Azerbaijan, but de facto this territory was occupied by Armenian forces in autumn of 1993, during the Nagorno-Karabakh War and is controlled by the unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic till today.
Zaqatala (italic, translit) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Zar (Ծար, Tsar, also spelled Tzar or Car) is a village in the Kalbajar Rayon of Azerbaijan, currently under the control of the unrecognized Republic of Artsakh.
Zardab (Zərdab) is a rayon in Azerbaijan; its capital is Zardab.
Zeyno Baran (born January 31, 1972) is a Turkish American scholar on issues ranging from US-Turkey relations to Islamist ideology to energy security in Europe and Asia.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
.az is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Azerbaijan.
The 11th Army was a field army of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, which fought on the Caspian-Caucasian Front.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The 1995 Azerbaijani coup d'état attempt, also known as the Turkish coup in Baku, was a coup d'état attempt by members of the Azerbaijani military, led by Colonel Rovshan Javadov at the head of a unit of Special Purpose Police Unit ("OPON").
The 2005 Women's European Volleyball Championship was the 24th edition of the event, organised by Europe's governing volleyball body, the Confédération Européenne de Volleyball.
The 25th Rhythmic Gymnastics European Championships was opened on May 15, 2009 in Baku, Azerbaijan in the Heydar Aliyev Sports-Concert Complex and ended on May 17.
The 2009–10 UEFA Futsal Cup was the 24th edition of Europe's premier club futsal tournament and the 9th edition under the current UEFA Futsal Cup format.
The 2010 FILA European Wrestling Championships was held in Baku, Azerbaijan, from 13 April to 18 April 2010.
The 2010 UEFA Futsal Championship was the seventh official edition of the UEFA-governed European Championship for national futsal teams.
The 2011 AIBA World Boxing Championships was held at the Heydar Aliyev Sports and Exhibition Complex in Baku, Azerbaijan from September 22, 2011 to October 10, 2011.
The 2012 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup was the third edition of the women's football tournament, and was held in Azerbaijan from 22 September to 13 October, following a decision by the Executive Committee on 19 March 2010.
The 2012–13 UEFA Europa League was the 42nd season of Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 4th season since it was renamed from the UEFA Cup to the UEFA Europa League.
The 2013 UIM F1 H2O World Championship was the 30th season of Formula 1 Powerboat racing.
The 2013–14 UEFA Futsal Cup was the 28th edition of Europe's premier club futsal tournament and the 13th edition under the current UEFA Futsal Cup format.
The 30th Rhythmic Gymnastics European Championships took place from June 10 to June 15, 2014 at the newly opened National Gymnastics Arena in Baku, Azerbaijan.
The 2014–15 UEFA Europa League was the 44th season of Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the sixth season since it was renamed from the UEFA Cup to the UEFA Europa League.
The 2015 European Games, also known as Baku 2015 or Baku 2015 European Games (Bakı 2015 Avropa Oyunları), were the inaugural edition of the European Games, an international multi-sport event for athletes representing the National Olympic Committees (NOCs) of the European Olympic Committees.
The 2016 European Grand Prix (formally known as the 2016 Formula 1 Grand Prix of Europe) was a Formula One motor race that was held on 19 June 2016 at the Baku City Circuit in Baku, Azerbaijan.
The 2017–18 UEFA Champions League was the 63rd season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 26th season since it was renamed from the European Champion Clubs' Cup to the UEFA Champions League.
The 38th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 42nd Chess Olympiad, organised by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) and comprising an Open and Women's tournament, as well as several events designed to promote the game of chess, was held in Baku, Azerbaijan, from 1–14 September 2016.
The 42nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 42 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 44° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Railways with a railway track gauge of were first constructed in the United Kingdom and the United States.
The meridian 51° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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