166 relations: Abjad, Afsharid dynasty, Akhaltsikhe, Akinchi, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Ardabil Province, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan (Iran), Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Azerbaijan International, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, Azerbaijani alphabet, Azerbaijani literature, Azerbaijani pop music, Azerbaijanis, Back vowel, Baku, BBC, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Caucasus, Caucasus Mountains, Central Asia, Cəbrayil, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Common Turkic languages, Crimean Tatar language, Cyrillic script, Dagestan, Dental consonant, Derbent, Dotted and dotless I, East Azerbaijan Province, Eastern Anatolia Region, Eastern Europe, Encyclopædia Iranica, Epic poetry, Ethnologue, Federal subjects of Russia, First language, Flap consonant, Formant, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Fuzûlî, ..., Gagauz language, Ganja, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgian scripts, Gilan Province, Glottal consonant, Glottolog, Hamadan Province, Hasan bey Zardabi, Heydar Aliyev, Heydar Babaya Salam, Historical linguistics, History of Iran, Imadaddin Nasimi, Indiana University, International Organization for Standardization, Iran, Iranian languages, Iraq, Ismail I, ISO 639 macrolanguage, ISO 639-3, Joseph Stalin, Journalism, Journalist, Kadi Burhan al-Din, Kirkuk, Kurdistan Province, Kutaisi, Labial consonant, Language family, Languages of the Caucasus, Lankaran, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Library of Congress Country Studies, Lingua franca, Linguasphere Observatory, List of online encyclopedias, List of Turkic dynasties and countries, Loanword, Lyric poetry, Mammad agha Shahtakhtinski, Markazi Province, Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar, Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Mutual intelligibility, Nakhchivan (city), Nasal consonant, Nikolai Trubetzkoy, Official language, Oghuz languages, Old Azeri language, Open vowel, Open-source model, Palatal consonant, Palato-alveolar consonant, Persian alphabet, Persian language, Phoneme, Poetry, Qajar dynasty, Qashqai language, Qazvin Province, Quba, Research, Reza Shah, Roundedness, Russia, Russian Empire, Russo-Persian Wars, Safavid dynasty, Saint Petersburg State University, Salchuq language, Sayat-Nova, Science, Shaki, Azerbaijan, Shamakhi, Shirvan, Shusha, Soviet Union, Stop consonant, Syllabification, Syllable, Tabriz, T–V distinction, Tbilisi, Tehran, Tehran Province, Television in Turkey, Tiflis Governorate, Transcaucasia, Transliteration, Treaty of Gulistan, Treaty of Turkmenchay, Turkey, Turkic languages, Turkic migration, Turkish language, Turkish television drama, Turkmen language, Udi language, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Michigan, University of Texas at Austin, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Uzbek language, Velar consonant, Vladimir Minorsky, Voicelessness, West Azerbaijan Province, Western Asia, Yerevan, Zanjan Province. Expand index (116 more) » « Shrink index
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
Akhaltsikhe (ახალციხე, literally "new castle"; formerly known as Lomsia) is a small city in Georgia's southwestern region (mkhare) of Samtskhe-Javakheti.
Akinchi (Əkinçi / اکينچی), also transliterated as Ekinchi ("The Cultivator"), was the first Azerbaijani-language newspaper, published in Baku (then part of the Russian Empire, now the capital of the Republic of Azerbaijan) between 1875 and 1877.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Ardabil Province (استان اردبیل; اردبیل اوستانی) is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran.
Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (آذربایجان Āzarbāijān; آذربایجان Azərbaycan), also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, Turkey, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR; Azərbaycan Demokratik Respublikası), also known as Azerbaijan People's Republic (Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti) or Caucasus Azerbaijan in diplomatic documents, was the third democratic republic in the Turkic world and Muslim world, after the Crimean People's Republic and Idel-Ural Republic.
Azerbaijan International is a magazine that discusses issues related to Azerbaijanis around the world.
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS) (Azərbaycan Milli Elmlər Akademiyası (AMEA)), located in Baku, is the main state research organization and the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijan (Азәрбајҹан; Azərbaycan), officially the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (Azerbaijan SSR; Азәрбајҹан Совет Сосиалист Республикасы, Azərbaycan Sovet Sosialist Respublikası, Азербайджанская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Azerbajdžanskaja Sovetskaja Socialističeskaja Respublika) and the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası, Азәрбајҹан Республикасы), also referred to as Soviet Azerbaijan, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union between 1922 and 1991.
The Azerbaijani alphabet (Azərbaycan əlifbası) of the Republic of Azerbaijan is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Azerbaijani language.
Azerbaijani literature (Azərbaycan ədəbiyyatı) refers to the literature written in Azerbaijani, a Turkic language, which currently is the official state language of the Republic of Azerbaijan and is the first-language of most people in Iranian Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijani pop music (Azərbaycan pop musiqisi) had its humble beginnings in the late 1950s with Azerbaijani cover versions of a wide range of imported popular styles, including rock and roll, tango, and jazz.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Cəbrayil (also spelt Cäbrayil, Jabrayil, Jebrayil, Jebrail, Jabrail, Jäbrayyl, Jebraiele, Djebrail, Dzhebrail, Džebrail), Jrakan, is a city currently administrated by ethnic Armenian forces from Nagorno-Karabakh since 25 August 1993, and now is part of Hadrut province of the unrecognized Republic of Artsakh.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Common Turkic or Shaz Turkic is a taxon in some of the classifications of the Turkic languages which includes all languages except the Oghur languages.
Crimean Tatar (Къырымтатарджа, Qırımtatarca; Къырымтатар тили, Qırımtatar tili), also called Crimean Turkish or simply Crimean, is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
Derbent (Дербе́нт; دربند; Dərbənd; Кьвевар; Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border.
Dotted İi and dotless Iı are separate letters in Turkish and Azerbaijani.
East Azerbaijan Province (استان آذربایجان شرقی Āzarbāijān-e Sharqi; شرقی آذربایجان اوستانی) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
A formant, as defined by James Jeans, is a harmonic of a note that is augmented by a resonance.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Fużūlī (Füzuli فضولی, c. 1494 – 1556) was the pen name of the Azerbaijani of the Bayat tribes of Oghuz poet, writer and thinker Muhammad bin Suleyman (Məhəmməd Ben Süleyman محمد بن سليمان).
The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili, Gagauzça) is a Turkic language spoken by the Gagauz people of Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey, and it is the official language of the Autonomous Region of Gagauzia in Moldova.
Ganja (Gəncə) is Azerbaijan's second largest city, with a population of around 331,400.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Glottolog is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany.
Hamadan Province (استان همدان), is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Hasan bey Zardabi (Həsən bəy Zərdabi), born Hasan bey Salim bey oglu Malikov (Həsən bəy Səlim bəy oğlu Məlikov,; 28 June 1837 or 1842 — 15 November 1907), was an Azerbaijani journalist and intellectual, founder of the first Azeri-language newspaper Akinchi ("The Ploughman") in 1875.
Heydar Alirza oghlu Aliyev, also spelled Gaydar Aliev (Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev; Гейда́р Али́евич Али́ев Geydar Aliyevich Aliyev; 10 May 1923 – 12 December 2003), was the third President of Azerbaijan who served from October 1993 to October 2003.
Heydar Babaya Salam (style) is the best known Azeri poetical work by Mohammad Hossein Shahriar, a famous Iranian Azerbaijani poet.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
‘Alī ‘Imādu d-Dīn Nasīmī (Seyid Əli İmadəddin Nəsimi عمادالدین نسیمی, عمادالدین نسیمی), often known as Nesimi, (1369 – 1417 skinned alive in Aleppo) was a 14th-century Azerbaijani or Turkmen Ḥurūfī poet.
Indiana University (IU) is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Ismail I (Esmāʿīl,; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I (شاه اسماعیل), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia).
ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes.
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events.
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public.
Kadi Ahmad Burhan al-Din (died 1398) was an Oghuz.
Kirkuk (كركوك; کەرکووک; Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad.
Kurdistan Province (استان کردستان, Ostān-e Kordestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Kutaisi (ქუთაისი; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kotais, Kutatisi, Kutaïsi) is the legislative capital of Georgia, and its 3rd most populous city.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
Lankaran (Lənkəran) is a city in Azerbaijan, on the coast of the Caspian Sea, near the southern border with Iran.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The Linguasphere Observatory (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network.
This is a list of encyclopedias accessible on the Internet.
The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
Mammad agha Mammad Taghi Soltan oglu Shahtakhtinski (Məmməd ağa Şahtaxtinski) (1846, Erivan – 1931, Baku) was an Azerbaijani linguist and public figure.
Markazi Province (fa, Ostān-e Markazi) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Behjat Tabrizi (سید محمدحسین بهجت تبریزی) (1906 – September 18, 1988), mainly known by his pen name, Shahriar, was a notable Iranian poet of Azerbaijani ethnicity, who wrote in Azerbaijani and Persian.
The Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia from 1219 to 1221 marked the beginning of the Mongol conquest of the Islamic states.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Nakhchivan (Naxçıvan, Նախիջևան) is the capital of the eponymous Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan, located west of Baku.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Prince Nikolai Sergeyevich Trubetzkoy (p; Moscow, April 16, 1890 – Vienna, June 25, 1938) was a Russian linguist and historian whose teachings formed a nucleus of the Prague School of structural linguistics.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The Oghuz languages are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family, spoken by approximately 110 million people.
Old Azeri, also known as Azeri or Azari (آذری Āḏarī), is the extinct Iranian language that was once spoken in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), and in what constitutes the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan (historically known as Arran and Shirvan).
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In phonetics, palato-alveolar (or palatoalveolar) consonants are postalveolar consonants, nearly always sibilants, that are weakly palatalized with a domed (bunched-up) tongue.
The Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Qashqai (قاشقای ديلى, also spelled Qashqay, Kashkai, Kashkay, Qašqāʾī,, by Michael Knüppel, by Gerhard Doerfer and Qashqa'i) is an Oghuz Turkic language spoken by the Qashqai people, an ethnic group living mainly in the Fars Province of southern Iran.
The Qazvin Province (استان قزوین, Ostān-e Qazvīn) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Quba (also Kuba, Guba or Kuwa; Lezgin: Къуба́; Judæo-Tat: Qybə / Гъуьбэ / קאובּא) is a city in and the capital of the Quba Rayon (district) of Azerbaijan.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo-Persian Wars or Russo-Iranian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Saint Petersburg State University (SPbU, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, СПбГУ) is a Russian federal state-owned higher education institution based in Saint Petersburg.
Salchuq (also Seljuk) is an extinct Turkic variety spoken in Iran.
Sayat-Nova (Սայաթ-Նովա; Azerbaijani: Səyyad Nova; Persian: سایاتنوفا; საიათნოვა; born Harutyun Sayatyan; 1712/1722 – 22 September 1795) was an Armenian poet, musician and ashugh, who had compositions in a number of languages.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Shaki (Şəki; until 1968 Nukha, Azerbaijani: Nuxa) is a city in northwestern Azerbaijan, in the rayon of the same name.
Shamakhi (also spelled Şamaxı) is the capital of the Shamakhi Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Shirvan (from translit; Şirvan; Tat: Şirvan), also spelled as Sharvān, Shirwan, Shervan, Sherwan and Šervān, is a historical region in the eastern Caucasus, known by this name in both Islamic and modern times.
Shusha (Şuşa; Шуша), or Shushi (Շուշի), is a city in the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh in the South Caucasus.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Syllabification or syllabication is the separation of a word into syllables, whether spoken or written.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Tehran Province (استان تهران Ostān-e Tehrān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Television in Turkey was introduced in 1964 by the government media provider TRT.
Tiflis Governorate (Old Russian: Тифлисская губернія; ტფილისის გუბერნია) was one of the guberniyas of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire with its centre in Tiflis (present-day Tbilisi, capital of Georgia).
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
The Treaty of Gulistan (Гюлистанский договор; عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia (modern day Iran) on 24 October 1813 in the village of Gulistan (in modern-day Goranboy Rayon of Azerbaijan) as a result of the first full-scale Russo-Persian War, lasting from 1804 to 1813.
The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Туркманчайский договор, عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was an agreement between Persia (Iran) and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). It was signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran. By the treaty, Persia ceded to Russia control of several areas in the South Caucasus: the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. The boundary between Russian and Persia was set at the Aras River. These territories comprise modern-day Armenia, the southern parts of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, Nakhchivan, as well as Iğdır Province (now part of Turkey). The treaty was signed for Persia by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza and Allah-Yar Khan Asaf al-Daula, chancellor to Shah Fath Ali (of the Qajar Dynasty), and for Russia by General Ivan Paskievich. Like the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan, this treaty was imposed by Russia, following military victory over Persia. Paskievich threatened to occupy Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed. By this final treaty of 1828 and the 1813 Gulistan treaty, Russia had finalised conquering all the Caucasus territories from Iran, comprising modern-day Dagestan, eastern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, all which had formed part of its very concept for centuries. The area to the North of the river Aras, amongst which the territory of the contemporary nations of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the North Caucasian Republic of Dagestan were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century. As a further direct result and consequence of the two treaties, the formerly Iranian territories became now part of Russia for around the next 180 years, except Dagestan, which has remained a Russian possession ever since. Out of the greater part of the territory, three separate nations would be formed through the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, namely Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkic migration refers to the expansion and colonization of the Turkic tribes and Turkic languages into Central Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, mainly between the 6th and 11th centuries.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkish television series (televizyon dizileri) are wildly popular both in Turkey and internationally, and place among the country's most well known economic and cultural exports.
Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.
The Udi language, spoken by the Udi people, is a member of the Lezgic branch of the Northeast Caucasian language family.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky (Владимир Фёдорович Минорский; – March 25, 1966) was a Russian Orientalist best known for his contributions to the study of Kurdish (as one of the foremost Kurdologists of his time) and Persian history, geography, literature, and culture.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
West Azerbaijan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Zanjan Province (استان زنجان, Ostâne Zanjân; also Romanized as Ostān-e Zanjān; Zəngan ostanı, زنگان اوستانی, Зәнган останы) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Aynallu language, Azarbaijani language, Azerbagdzhan, Azerbaijan language, Azerbaijani (language), Azerbaijani Language, Azerbaijani Turkish, Azerbaijani Turkish language, Azerbaijani language dialects, Azerbaijani phonology, Azerbaijanian language, Azerbaycanca, Azeri Turkish, Azeri Turkish language, Azeri language, Azeri phonology, Azərbaycan dili, Azərbaycanca, Dialects of Azerbaijani language, ISO 639:az, ISO 639:azb, ISO 639:aze, ISO 639:azj, Iranian Turkic, Language of Azerbaijan, North Azerbaijani, North Azerbaijani language, North Azeri, North Azeri language, S-Azeri language, South Azerbaijani, South Azerbaijani language, South Azeri, South Azeri language, Southern Azerbaijani, Southern Azerbaijani language, Southern Azeri, Southern Azeri language, Tabrizi accent, Tabrizi dialect, تۆرکجه.