318 relations: Abbas I of Persia, Abbasid Caliphate, Abortion, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, Academy Awards, Achaemenid Empire, Afshar people, Ajam, Al-Maqdisi, Al-Masudi, Alborz Province, Alexander the Great, Ali Daei, Allegory, Allies of World War II, Anatolia, Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, Animism, Aq Qoyunlu, Aras (river), Ardabil, Ardabil Province, Armenia, Armenians, Arran (Caucasus), Ashik, Association football, Assyria, Atropatene, Atropates, Avraham Sela, Ayrums, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan (Iran), Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Azerbaijan People's Government, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, Azerbaijan–Iran relations, Azerbaijani language, Azeri protests in Iran (2015), Aziza Mustafa Zadeh, Bağlama, Babak Khorramdin, Bahá'í Faith, Baku, Baku Governorate, Baku State University, Balaban (instrument), Balkans, Ballad, ..., Bard, Basra, Bayat (tribe), Beylagan District, Bijar County, Bolsheviks, Book of Dede Korkut, Boxing, Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic 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Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (شاه عباس بزرگ; 27 January 157119 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film is one of the Academy Awards handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Afshar, also spelled Awshar or Afşar, are one of the Oghuz Turkic peoples.
Ajam (عجم) is an Arabic word meaning one who is not understandable in speech.
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).
Al-Mas‘udi (أبو الحسن علي بن الحسين بن علي المسعودي,; –956) was an Arab historian and geographer.
Alborz Province (استان البرز, Ostan-e Alborz) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, centered in Karaj.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Ali Daei (علی دایی; born 21 March 1969) is an Iranian former footballer and current coach and businessman.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, also known as Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia, was the invasion of the Imperial State of Iran during the Second World War by Soviet, British and other Commonwealth armed forces.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans (Āq Quyūnlū), was a Persianate Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, Eastern Turkey, most part of Iran, and Iraq from 1378 to 1501.
The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.
Ardabil (اردبیل., اردبیل, also Romanized as Ardabīl and Ardebīl) is an ancient city in Iranian Azerbaijan.
Ardabil Province (استان اردبیل; اردبیل اوستانی) is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Arran (Middle Persian form), also known as Aran, Ardhan (in Parthian), Al-Ran (in Arabic), Aghvank and Alvank (in Armenian), (რანი-Ran-i) or Caucasian Albania (in Latin), was a geographical name used in ancient and medieval times to signify the territory which lies within the triangle of land, lowland in the east and mountainous in the west, formed by the junction of Kura and Aras rivers, including the highland and lowland Karabakh, Mil plain and parts of the Mughan plain, and in the pre-Islamic times, corresponded roughly to the territory of modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan.
An Ashik was traditionally a singer who accompanied his song— be it a dastan (traditional epic story, also known as hikaye) or a shorter original composition—with a long necked lute (bağlama) in Azerbaijani culture and related Turkic cultures.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Atropatene (in Ἀτροπατηνή; in Middle Iranian: Atropatkan and Atorpatkan) was an ancient kingdom established and ruled under local ethnic Iranian dynasties, first with Darius III of Persia and later Alexander the Great of Macedonia starting in the 4th century BC and includes the territory of modern-day Iranian Azerbaijan, Iranian Kurdistan, and a small part of the contemporary Azerbaijan Republic.
Atropates (Greek Aτρoπάτης, from Old Persian Athurpat "protected by fire"; c. 370 BC – after 321 BC) was a Persian trader and nobleman who served Darius III, then Alexander the Great, and eventually founded an independent kingdom and dynasty that was named after him.
Avraham Sela is an Israeli historian and scholar on the Middle East and international relations.
Ayrums (Azerbaijani: Ayrımlar, in Persian often as Āyromlū) are a Turkic tribe, historically associated with the area nearby the city of Gyumri (in present-day Armenia).
Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (آذربایجان Āzarbāijān; آذربایجان Azərbaycan), also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, Turkey, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR; Azərbaycan Demokratik Respublikası), also known as Azerbaijan People's Republic (Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti) or Caucasus Azerbaijan in diplomatic documents, was the third democratic republic in the Turkic world and Muslim world, after the Crimean People's Republic and Idel-Ural Republic.
The Azerbaijan People's Government (APG; Azərbaycan Milli Hökuməti, حکومت خودمختار آذربایجان, Азербайджанское народное правительство, Azerbajdzhanskoe narodnoe pravitel'stvo) was a short-lived unrecognized secessionist state in northern Iran from November 1945 to December 1946.
Azerbaijan (Азәрбајҹан; Azərbaycan), officially the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (Azerbaijan SSR; Азәрбајҹан Совет Сосиалист Республикасы, Azərbaycan Sovet Sosialist Respublikası, Азербайджанская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Azerbajdžanskaja Sovetskaja Socialističeskaja Respublika) and the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası, Азәрбајҹан Республикасы), also referred to as Soviet Azerbaijan, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union between 1922 and 1991.
Azerbaijan–Iran relations are foreign relations between Azerbaijan and Iran.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
Azerbaijani protests in Iran (Persian: جنجال برنامه فیتیله lit. Controversy of Fitilieh programme) started on 9 November 2015 after children's television programme Fitileh aired on 6 November on local state TV that protesters believed it ridiculed the Azerbaijanis.
Aziza Mustafa Zadeh (Əzizə Mustafazadə; born December 19, 1969), also known as "The Princess of Jazz", "Die Prinzessin des Jazz", or as "Jazziza", is an Azerbaijani singer, pianist, and composer who plays a fusion of jazz and mugam (a traditional improvisational style of Azerbaijan) with classical and avant-garde influences.
The bağlama (bağlama, from bağlamak, "to tie") is a stringed musical instrument.
Bābak Khorramdin (Formally known as "Pāpak" meaning "Young Father") (بابک خرمدین, alternative spelling: Pāpak Khorramdin; 795, according to some other sources 798— January 838) was one of the main PersianArthur Goldschmidt, Lawrence Davidson, "A concise history of the Middle East", Westview Press; Eighth Edition (July 21, 2005).
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
Baku Governorate (Бакинская губерния, Pre-Reform Russian: Бакинская губернія) was one of the guberniyas of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire, with its centre in Baku.
Baku State University (BSU; Bakı Dövlət Universiteti) is a public university located in Baku, Azerbaijan.
Balaban, or balaman (Balaban) is cylindrical-bore, double-reed wind instrument about long with eight finger holes and one thumb hole.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music.
In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker and music composer, employed by a patron (such as a monarch or noble), to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
The Bayat tribe (Bayat tayfası, Bayat boyu, Baýat taýpasy, بیات) is one of the Oghuz tribes in Turkmenistan, Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Iraq, and Syria.
Beylagan (Beyləqan) is a rayon of Azerbaijan, with capital city being Beylagan.
Bijar County (شاری بیجار شهرستان بیجار) is a county in Kordestan Province in Iran.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Book of Dede Korkut or Book of Korkut Ata (Dede Korkut or Korkut Ata; Dədə Qorqud, دده قورقود; Gorkut Ata) is the most famous among the epic stories of the Oghuz Turks.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (Russian: Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона, abbr. ЭСБЕ; 35 volumes, small; 86 volumes, large) is a comprehensive multi-volume encyclopedia in Russian.
Burnt by the Sun (Утомлённые солнцем, translit. Utomlyonnye solntsem, literally "wearied by the sun") is a 1994 film by Russian director and screenwriter Nikita Mikhalkov and Azerbaijani screenwriter Rustam Ibragimbekov.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.
Caucasian Albanian, Aghwan or Old Udi, is an extinct member of the Northeast Caucasian languages.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Cinema of Iran (Persian: سینمای ایران), also known as the Cinema of Persia, refers to the cinema and film industries in Iran which produce a variety of commercial films annually.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Cultural Muslims are religiously unobservant, secular or irreligious individuals who still identify with the Muslim culture or the religion due to family background, personal experiences, or the social and cultural environment in which they grew up.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
Dargaz (درگز, also Romanized as Dar Gaz; also known as Darreh Gaz; formerly, Moḩammadābād, Moḩammadābād Arbāb, and Muhammadābād) is a city and capital of Dargaz County, in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran.
Derbent (Дербе́нт; دربند; Dərbənd; Кьвевар; Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border.
Dhol (ढोल, ਢੋਲ, ڈھول, ঢোল, ઢોલ, ढोल, ঢোল) can refer to any one of a number of similar types of double-headed drum widely used, with regional variations, throughout the Indian subcontinent.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
East Azerbaijan Province (استان آذربایجان شرقی Āzarbāijān-e Sharqi; شرقی آذربایجان اوستانی) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
In sociology, an ethnic enclave is a geographic area with high ethnic concentration, characteristic cultural identity, and economic activity.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.
Fencing is a group of three related combat sports.
Fereydun (فریدون - Feraydūn or Farīdūn; Middle Persian: Frēdōn; Avestan: Θraētaona), also pronounced and spelled Freydun, Faridon and Afridun, is the name of an Iranian mythical king and hero from the kingdom of Varena.
Fikret Mashadi Jamil oghlu Amirov (Fikrət Məşədi Cəmil oğlu Əmirov; November 22, 1922, Ganja - February 20, 1984, Baku) was a prominent Azerbaijani composer of the Soviet period.
Fużūlī (Füzuli فضولی, c. 1494 – 1556) was the pen name of the Azerbaijani of the Bayat tribes of Oghuz poet, writer and thinker Muhammad bin Suleyman (Məhəmməd Ben Süleyman محمد بن سليمان).
Galugah (گلوگاه, also Romanized as Galūgāh) is a city and capital of Galugah County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.
Gara Abulfaz oghlu Garayev (Qara Əbülfəz oğlu Qarayev, Кара́ Абульфа́зович Кара́ев (Kara Abulfazovich Karayev), February 5, 1918 in Baku – May 13, 1982 in Moscow), also spelled as Qara Qarayev or Kara Karayev, was a prominent Soviet Azerbaijani composer.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Golestān Province (استان گلستان, Ostān-e Golestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, located in the north-east of the country south of the Caspian Sea.
Gonbad-e Kāvus (also referred to as Gonbad-e Kāvus, Gonbad-i Kāvoos, Gonbadekavoos, Gonbad-e Kāvūs, Gonbad Qābūs, Gonbad Qavoos, Gunbad-i-Kāwās, Gunbad-i-Kāwūs, and Gunbad-i-Kāvūs) (گنبد کاووس, Kümmet Gowuz) is the Iranian city known historically as Gorgan/Hyrcania.
Faegheh Atashin (born 5 May 1950), better known by her stage name Googoosh (meaning 'Swan Bird'), is an Iranian singer known for her contributions to Iranian pop music, but also starred in a variety of Persian movies from the 1950s to the 1970s.
Gorgan (گرگان; formerly Astrabad or Astarabad (استرآباد)) is the capital city of Golestan Province, Iran.
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی, Shūra-ye negahbān-e qānūn-e āsāsī) is an appointed and constitutionally mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Gymnastics is a sport that requires balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and endurance.
Hadi Saei (هادی ساعی, born June 10, 1976) is an Iranian councilor and former taekwondo athlete who became the most successful Iranian athlete in Olympic history and the most titled champion in this sport by winning 9 world class titles (two olympic titles in 2004 and 2008, two world championships titles, four world cup titles and one world olympic qualification tournament).
The Hadjemi people are found in that part of Iran between Isfahan and Teheran.
Hamadan Province (استان همدان), is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Haplogroup H (Y-DNA), also known as H-L901/M2939 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
A haplotype (haploid genotype) is a group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent.
Hassan Rouhani (حسن روحانی,, Standard Persian:; born Hassan Fereydoun (حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948) is an Iranian politician serving as the current and seventh President of Iran since 3 August 2013.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
Hossein Alizâdeh (حسین علیزاده) is an Iranian composer, radif-preserver, researcher, teacher, and tar and setar instrumentalist and improviser, described by Allmusic as a leading Iranian classical composer and musician.
Hossein Rezazadeh (حسین رضازاده, born May 12, 1978 in Ardabil, Iran) is an Iranian politician and retired Olympic weightlifter.
The Hotak (هوتک),or Hotaki (هوتکي), is a tribe of the Ghilji confederacy of the Pashtun people.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
‘Alī ‘Imādu d-Dīn Nasīmī (Seyid Əli İmadəddin Nəsimi عمادالدین نسیمی, عمادالدین نسیمی), often known as Nesimi, (1369 – 1417 skinned alive in Aleppo) was a 14th-century Azerbaijani or Turkmen Ḥurūfī poet.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran crisis of 1946, also known as the Azerbaijan Crisis (translit.: Qaʾilih Âzarbâyjân), followed the end of World War II and stemmed from the Soviet Union's refusal to relinquish occupied Iranian territory, despite repeated assurances.
The Iran national football team (Tīm-e Melli-e Fūtbāl-e Īrān), also known as Team Melli (lit), represents Iran in international football competitions and is governed by the Iran Football Federation.
The Iran newspaper cockroach cartoon controversy occurred in response to a cartoon drawn by the cartoonist Mana Neyestani and published in the Iranian holiday-magazine Iran-e-jomee on 12 May 2006.
Iranian Azerbaijanis (ایران آذربایجانلیلاری – İran azərbaycanlıları), also known as Iranian Azeris, Iranian Turks, Persian Turks, Azeri Turks, Azerbaijani Turks or Persian Azerbaijanis, are Iranians of Azerbaijani ethnicity who speak the Azerbaijani language as their first language.
The Persian Constitutional Revolution (مشروطیت Mashrūtiyyat, or انقلاب مشروطه Enghelāb-e Mashrūteh), also known as the Constitutional Revolution of Iran, took place between 1905 and 1911.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The Iraqi Turkmens (also spelled Turcomans, Turkomens, and Turkmans; Irak Türkmenleri), also referred to as Iraqi Turks, or Turks of Iraq (تركمان العراق, Irak Türkleri), are Iraqi citizens of Turkic origin who mostly adhere to a Turkish heritage and identity.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
There are two official holidays in Islam: Eid Al-Fitr and Eid Al-Adha.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) (صدا و سيمای جمهوری اسلامی ايران, Sedā va Sīmā-ye Jomhūri-ye Eslāmi-ye Īrān, lit. Voice and Vision of the Islamic Republic of Iran), formerly called National Iranian Radio and Television until the Iranian revolution of 1979, is an Iranian media corporation which hold the monopoly of domestic radio and television services in Iran, is also among the largest media organizations in Asian and Pacific region, and a regular member of Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union.
Ismail I (Esmāʿīl,; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I (شاه اسماعیل), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia).
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Sayyed Ja'far Pishevari (1893 – 11 June 1947) (Seyid Cəfər Pişəvəri, سید جعفر پیشه وری, سید جعفر پیشهوری) was the founder and chairman of separatist and communist Azerbaijan People's Government (November 1945 – November 1946), created and supported by Soviet occupational forces in north-western Iran.
Jamshid (جمشید, Jamshīd) (Middle- and New Persian: جم, Jam) (Avestan: Yima) is a mythological figure of Greater Iranian culture and tradition.
Javanshir (Ջիվանշիր, Jivanshir; Jūvānšīr; meaning "young lion"), was the prince of Caucasian Albania from 637 to 680, hailing from the region of Gardman.
The javelin throw is a track and field event where the javelin, a spear about in length, is thrown.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joseph Deniker (6 March 1852 in Astrakhan – 18 March 1918 in Paris) was a French naturalist and anthropologist, known primarily for his attempts to develop highly detailed maps of race in Europe.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The kamancheh (also kamānche or kamāncha) (کمانچه) is an Iranian bowed string instrument, used also in Armenian, Azerbaijani, Turkish and Kurdish music and related to the rebab, the historical ancestor of the kamancheh and also to the bowed Byzantine lyra, ancestor of the European violin family.
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (قره قویونلو), were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia (1406), northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468.
Karabakh (Ղարաբաղ Gharabagh; Qarabağ) is a geographic region in present-day eastern Armenia and southwestern Azerbaijan, extending from the highlands of the Lesser Caucasus down to the lowlands between the rivers Kura and Aras.
Qaradaghis or Karadaghis, (Qaradağlılar) are a Turkic sub-ethnic group of Azerbaijanis, mainly living in Southern Aras river called Qaradagh in Eastern Azerbaijan, Iran.
Karaj (کرج) is the capital of Alborz Province, Iran, and effectively a suburb of Tehran.
(Okinawan pronunciation) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom.
Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (Mohammad Karīm Khān-e Zand), better known as Karim Khan Zand (کریم خان زند), was the founder of the Zand Dynasty and the Shah of Iran, ruling from 1751 to 1779.
Kay Khosrow (کیخسرو) is a legendary king of Iran of Kayanian dynasty and a character in the Persian epic book, Shahnameh.
Kerman Province (استان کرمان, Ostān-e Kermān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Christopher Kevin Boyle (23 May 1943 – 25 December 2010) was a Northern Ireland-born human rights activist, barrister and educator.
Khāqāni or Khāghāni (خاقانی) (1121/1122, Shamakhi, Shirwan – 1190, Tabriz), was a Persian poet.
Khorasan (استان خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, also called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times) was a province in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire.
Khorasani Turks (ترکهای خراسان, Khorasani Turkish:خوراسان تؤرکلری; often described as Qizilbash) are a Turkic ethnic group inhabiting part of North Khorasan, Razavi Khorasan and Golestan provinces of Iran, as well as in the neighboring regions of Turkmenistan up to beyond the Amu Darya River, and speak Khorasani Turkic.
Khuzestan Province (استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, محافظة خوزستان Muḥāfaẓa Khūzistān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
Kufa (الْكُوفَة) is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf.
The Kura (Kura; Kür; მტკვარი, Mt’k’vari; Կուր, Kur; Κῦρος, Cyrus; کوروش, Kuruš) is an east-flowing river south of the Greater Caucasus Mountains which drains the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus east into the Caspian Sea.
Kurdistan Province (استان کردستان, Ostān-e Kordestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
The Lezginka is the collective name originally given by Russians to all Caucasian dances united by fast 6/8 rhythm.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذری لر) are a Turkic-Slavic people.
The Mayor of Tehran is an elected politician who, along with the Tehran’s City Council of 21 members, is accountable for the strategic government of Tehran.
This is a list of encyclopedias accessible on the Internet.
This page lists the top all-time male goal scorer for each national football team where the top scorer has a minimum 20 goals in official international matches for his country.
The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both.
Lotfabad (لطف آباد, also Romanized as Loţfābād and Lutfābād; formerly, Bāba Jām) is a city and capital of Lotfabad District, in Dargaz County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran.
A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.
(or Mejlis; مجلس, pl. مجالس) is an Arabic term meaning "a place of sitting", used in the context of "council", to describe various types of special gatherings among common interest groups be it administrative, social or religious in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries.
Mana Neyestani (مانا نیستانی) (born 1973 in Tehran) is an Iranian cartoonist, illustrator, and comic book creator.
The Mannaeans (country name usually Mannea; Akkadian: Mannai, possibly Biblical Minni, מנּי) were an ancient people who lived in the territory of present-day northwestern Iran south of lake Urmia, around the 10th to 7th centuries BC.
Maragheh (مراغه, date), also Romanized as Marāgheh; also known as Marāgha), is an ancient city and capital of Maragheh County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Maragheh is on the bank of the river Sufi Chay. The population consists mostly of Iranian Azerbaijanis who speak the Azerbaijani language. It is from Tabriz, the largest city in Iranian Azerbaijan.
The March Days, or March Events, refers to inter-ethnic strife and massacres of about 12,000 Azerbaijanis and other Muslims that took place between 30 March – 2 April 1918 in the city of Baku and adjacent areas of the Baku Governorate of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic.
Markazi Province (fa, Ostān-e Markazi) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.
Mazandaran Province, (استان مازندران Ostān-e Māzandarān/Ostân-e Mâzandarân), is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and in the adjacent Central Alborz mountain range, in central-northern Iran.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
The Mehr News Agency (MNA; Xabâr-gozâri Mehr; "Affection News Agency") is an Iranian news agency headquartered in Tehran, owned by the Islamic Ideology Dissemination Organization (IIDO).
Merv (Merw, Мерв, مرو; مرو, Marv), formerly Achaemenid Persian Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria (Margiana) (Ἀλεξάνδρεια) and Antiochia in Margiana (Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Μαργιανῆς), was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan.
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Sayyid Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari (Məhəmməd Kazım Şəriətmədari, محمد کاظم شریعتمداری), also spelled Shariat-Madari (5 January 1905 – 3 April 1986), was an Iranian Grand Ayatollah.
Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (سید محمد خاتمی,; born 14 October 1943) is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician.
Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Behjat Tabrizi (سید محمدحسین بهجت تبریزی) (1906 – September 18, 1988), mainly known by his pen name, Shahriar, was a notable Iranian poet of Azerbaijani ethnicity, who wrote in Azerbaijani and Persian.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Mugham or mugam (Muğam) is one of the many folk musical compositions from Azerbaijan, contrasting with tasnif and ashugs.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a means of visualizing the level of similarity of individual cases of a dataset.
The Müsavat Party (Müsavat Partiyası, from Arabic مساواة musāwāt, meaning "equality, parity", Equality Party) is the oldest existing political party in Azerbaijan.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
Muslim Magometovich Magomayev (Azerbaijani: Müslüm Məhəmməd oğlu Maqomayev, 17 August 1942 – 25 October 2008), dubbed the "King of Songs" and the "Soviet Sinatra" was a Soviet Azerbajiani baritone operatic pop singer.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is a territorial and ethnic conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh and seven surrounding districts, which are de facto controlled by the self-declared Republic of Artsakh, but are internationally recognized as de jure part of Azerbaijan.
The Naqshbandi (نقشبندی) or Naqshbandiyah is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism.
The National Assembly (Milli Məclis), also transliterated as Milli Majlis, is the legislative branch of government in Azerbaijan.
New America, formerly the New America Foundation, is a non-partisan think tank in the United States.
Nishapur or Nishabur (نیشابور, also Romanized as Nīshāpūr, Nišâpur, Nişapur, Nīshābūr, Neyshābūr, and Neeshapoor, from Middle Persian: New-Shabuhr, meaning "New City of Shapur", "Fair Shapur", or "Perfect built of Shapur") is a city in Razavi Khorasan Province, capital of the Nishapur County and former capital of Province Khorasan, in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains.
Nizami Ganjavi (translit) (1141–1209), Nizami Ganje'i, Nizami, or Nezāmi, whose formal name was Jamal ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn-Zakkī,Mo'in, Muhammad(2006), "Tahlil-i Haft Paykar-i Nezami", Tehran.: p. 2: Some commentators have mentioned his name as “Ilyas the son of Yusuf the son of Zakki the son of Mua’yyad” while others have mentioned that Mu’ayyad is a title for Zakki. Mohammad Moin, rejects the first interpretation claiming that if it were to mean 'Zakki son of Muayyad' it should have been read as 'Zakki i Muayyad' where izafe (-i-) shows the son-parent relationship but here it is 'Zakki Muayyad' and Zakki ends in silence/stop and there is no izafe (-i-). Some may argue that izafe is dropped due to meter constraints but dropping parenthood izafe is very strange and rare. So it is possible that Muayyad was a sobriquet for Zaki or part of his name (like Muayyad al-Din Zaki). This is supported by the fact that later biographers also state Yusuf was the son of Mu’ayyad was a 12th-century Persian Sunni Muslim poet. Nezāmi is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic. excerpt: Greatest romantic epic poet in Persian Literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic..... Nezami is admired in Persian-speaking lands for his originality and clarity of style, though his love of language for its own sake and of philosophical and scientific learning makes his work difficult for the average reader. His heritage is widely appreciated and shared by Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, the Kurdistan region and Tajikistan.
Nizami Pashayev (born February 2, 1981 in Gadabay) is a retired Azerbaijani athlete in weightlifting.
Nowruz (نوروز,; literally "new day") is the name of the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups as the beginning of the New Year.
Noz'hat al-Majāles (نزهة المجالس "Joy of the Gatherings/Assemblies") is an anthology which contains around 4,100 Persian quatrains by some 300 poets of the 5th to 7th centuries AH (11th to 13th centuries AD) of the present day country of Iran and Iranian Azerbaijan.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
The Oghuz languages are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family, spoken by approximately 110 million people.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
Old Azeri, also known as Azeri or Azari (آذری Āḏarī), is the extinct Iranian language that was once spoken in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), and in what constitutes the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan (historically known as Arran and Shirvan).
The Ossetians or Ossetes (ир, ирæттæ,; дигорæ, дигорæнттæ) are an Iranian ethnic group of the Caucasus Mountains, indigenous to the region known as Ossetia.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
The Padar tribe - is an Azerbaijani nomadic tribe which came to Azerbaijan during the Mongol invasions.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.
The terms People of the Caucasus and Caucasian people indicate two main groups of people in Iran.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
A Persianate society, or Persified society, is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language, culture, literature, art and/or identity.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Powerlifting is a strength sport that consists of three attempts at maximal weight on three lifts: squat, bench press, and deadlift.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
The Qajars (also spelled Kadjars, Kajars, Kadzhars, Cadzhars, Cadjars and so on) are a Turkic Oghuz tribe who lived variously, with other tribes, in the area that is now Armenia, Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran.
The Qarapapaqs or Karapapaks (Qarapapaqlar, Tərəkəmələr; Karapapaklar) are a Turkic sub-ethnic group of Azerbaijanis who mainly live in Azerbaijan, Iran, Georgia, and in the northeast of Turkey near the border with Georgia and Armenia, primarily in the provinces of Ardahan (around Lake Çıldır), Kars and Ağri.
Qashqai (pronounced; also spelled Qashqa'i, Qashqay, Kashkai, Kashkay, Qashqayı, Gashgai, Gashgay, in Persian: قشقایی) is a conglomeration of clans in Iran consisting of mostly Turkic peoples but also Lurs, Kurds, and Arabs.
Abū-Mansūr Qatrān-i Tabrīzī (قطران تبريزى, 1009–1072) was a Persian poet.
The Qazvin Province (استان قزوین, Ostān-e Qazvīn) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Qizilbash or Kizilbash, (Kızılbaş - Red Head, sometimes also Qezelbash or Qazilbash, قزلباش) is the label given to a wide variety of Shi'i militant groups that flourished in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), Anatolia and Kurdistan from the late 15th century onwards, some of which contributed to the foundation of the Safavid dynasty of Iran.
Qorveh County (شهرستان قروه) is a county in Kordestan Province in Iran.
Rashid Behbudov (Rəşid Məcid oğlu Behbudov, رشید بهبوداوف, Рәшид Мәҹид оғлу Беһбудов; December 14, 1915 – June 9, 1989) was an Azerbaijani singer and actor.
Rawwadid or Ravvadid (also Revend or Revendi) or Banū rawwād (955–1071), was a Muslim ruling family of Arab descent during the Medieval era, centered on Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan).
Razavi Khorasan Province (استان خراسان رضوی, Ostâne Xorâsâne Razavi) is a province located in northeastern Iran.
Rey or Ray (شهر ری, Šahr-e Rey, “City of Ray”), also known as Rhages (Ῥάγαι, or Europos (Ευρωπός) Rhagai; Rhagae or Rhaganae) and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County in Tehran Province of Iran, and the oldest existing city in the province.
Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
Rostam or Rustam (رُستَم, pronounced) is the most celebrated legendary hero in Shahnameh and Iranian mythology.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
The 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War, was one of the many wars between the Persian Empire and Imperial Russia, and began like many of their wars as a territorial dispute.
The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran.
The Russo-Persian Wars or Russo-Iranian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries.
Rustam Mammad Ibrahim oglu Ibragimbekov (Rüstəm İbrahimbəyov; Рустам Ибрагимбеков; born 5 February 1939) is a Soviet, Azerbaijani screenwriter, dramatist and producer, well known beyond his home Azerbaijan and the former Soviet Union.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
The Safaviyya Səfəviyyə(صفویه)was a tariqa (Sufi order) founded by the | Encyclopædia IranicaV.
Samad Vurgun (Səməd Vurğun, born Samad Vakilov, March 21, 1906 – May 27, 1956) was an Azerbaijani and Soviet poet, dramatist, public figure, first People’s Artist of the Azerbaijan SSR (1943), academician of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (1945), laureate of two USSR State Prizes of second degree (1941, 1942), and member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union since 1940.
Sami Yusuf is a British singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, composer, record producer, and humanitarian who grew up in London.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
Sattar Khan (ستارخان,; Azerbaijani: Səttar xan) October 20, 1866 – November 17, 1914), honorarily titled Sardār-e Melli (سردار ملی meaning National Commander) was a pivotal figure in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution and is considered a national hero.
Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
The Shaddadids were a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin who ruled in various parts of Armenia and Arran from 951 to 1174 AD.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
The Shahsevan (Şahsevənlər), are a branch of the Turkic Oghuz groups, sub-ethnic group of Azerbaijani people, located primarily in Iran and on the territory of the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan.
Shakhriyar Hamid oglu Mamedyarov (Şəhriyar Həmid oğlu Məmmədyarov; born 12 April 1985) is an Azerbaijani chess grandmaster.
Shams-i-Tabrīzī (شمس تبریزی) or Shams al-Din Mohammad (1185–1248) was a Persian Muslim, who is credited as the spiritual instructor of Mewlānā Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhi, also known as Rumi and is referenced with great reverence in Rumi’s poetic collection, in particular Diwan-i Shams-i Tabrīzī (The Works of Shams of Tabriz).
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shirvan (from translit; Şirvan; Tat: Şirvan), also spelled as Sharvān, Shirwan, Shervan, Sherwan and Šervān, is a historical region in the eastern Caucasus, known by this name in both Islamic and modern times.
Shooting is the act or process of discharging a projectile from a ranged weapon (such as a gun, slingshot, crossbow, or bow. Even the acts of launching/discharging artillery, darts, grenades, rockets and guided missiles can be considered acts of shooting. When using a firearm, the act of shooting is often called firing as it involves initiating a combustion process (deflagration). Shooting can take place in a shooting range or in the field, in shooting sports, hunting or in combat. A person involved in the shooting activity is a shooter. A proficient shooter is a marksman or sharpshooter. A person's level of shooting proficiency is referred to as marksmanship.
Sīstān (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: سیستان), known in ancient times as Sakastan (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: ساكاستان; "the land of the Saka"), is a historical and geographical region in present-day eastern Iran (Sistan and Baluchestan Province), southern Afghanistan (Nimruz, Kandahar) and the Nok Kundi region of Balochistan (western Pakistan).
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sulayman is a variant of Suleiman (in Arabic name سليمان).
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Tabaristan (from Middle Persian:, Tapurstān), also known as Tapuria (land of Tapurs), was the name applied to Mazandaran, a province in northern Iran.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
Tadeusz Swietochowski (Tadeusz Świętochowski; 1932 – 15 February 2017) was a Polish historian and Caucasologist.
Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an IranianGarnik Asatrian & Habib Borjian (2005.). Talish and the Talashis (State of Research).
Tar (تار; tar) is an Iranian.
The Tat people (also: Tati, Parsi, Daghli, Lohijon, Caucasian Persians, Transcaucasian Persians) are an Iranian people, presently living within Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia (mainly Southern Dagestan).
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Tehran Province (استان تهران Ostān-e Tehrān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Teimour Radjabov (also spelled Teymur Rajabov; Teymur Rəcəbov; born 12 March 1987) is an Azerbaijani chess grandmaster.
The Terekeme people (Tərəkəmə) are an ethnic group of Azerbaijanis who live in Dagestan and in some southern regions of Azerbaijan as well as Turkey.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR; Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР); Zakavkazskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika (ZKDFR); 22 April28 May 1918), also known as the Transcaucasian Federation, was a short-lived South Caucasian state extending across what are now the modern-day countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, plus parts of Eastern Turkey as well as Russian border areas.
The Treaty of Gulistan (Гюлистанский договор; عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia (modern day Iran) on 24 October 1813 in the village of Gulistan (in modern-day Goranboy Rayon of Azerbaijan) as a result of the first full-scale Russo-Persian War, lasting from 1804 to 1813.
The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Туркманчайский договор, عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was an agreement between Persia (Iran) and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). It was signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran. By the treaty, Persia ceded to Russia control of several areas in the South Caucasus: the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. The boundary between Russian and Persia was set at the Aras River. These territories comprise modern-day Armenia, the southern parts of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, Nakhchivan, as well as Iğdır Province (now part of Turkey). The treaty was signed for Persia by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza and Allah-Yar Khan Asaf al-Daula, chancellor to Shah Fath Ali (of the Qajar Dynasty), and for Russia by General Ivan Paskievich. Like the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan, this treaty was imposed by Russia, following military victory over Persia. Paskievich threatened to occupy Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed. By this final treaty of 1828 and the 1813 Gulistan treaty, Russia had finalised conquering all the Caucasus territories from Iran, comprising modern-day Dagestan, eastern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, all which had formed part of its very concept for centuries. The area to the North of the river Aras, amongst which the territory of the contemporary nations of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the North Caucasian Republic of Dagestan were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century. As a further direct result and consequence of the two treaties, the formerly Iranian territories became now part of Russia for around the next 180 years, except Dagestan, which has remained a Russian possession ever since. Out of the greater part of the territory, three separate nations would be formed through the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, namely Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.
Arasbaran, also known as Karadagh in Azerbaijani language (قرهداغ) is a vast mountainous area in the north of East Azarbaijan Province in Iran.
The composite Turco-Persian tradition, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991 refers to a distinctive culture that arose in the 9th and 10th centuries (AD) in Khorasan and Transoxiana (present-day Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, minor parts of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan).
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkification, or Turkicization (Türkleştirme), is a cultural shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic culture, such as in the Ottoman Empire.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
The Udi language, spoken by the Udi people, is a member of the Lezgic branch of the Northeast Caucasian language family.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
Urmia (Urmiya, اورمیه; ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; ارومیه (Variously transliterated as Oroumieh, Oroumiyeh, Orūmīyeh and Urūmiyeh); Ûrmiye, ورمێ) is the largest city in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran and the capital of Urmia County.
Urnayr was the king of Caucasian Albania from the Arsacid Dynasty.
Uzeyir bey Abdul Huseyn oglu Hajibeyov (Üzeyir bəy Əbdülhüseyn oğlu Hacıbəyov, / عزیر حاجیبیوو; Узеир Абдул-Гусейн оглы Гаджибеков; September 18, 1885, Shusha (Aghjabadi village), Russian Empire – November 23, 1948, Baku, Azerbaijani SSR, Soviet Union) was a Soviet composer conductor, publicist, playwright, teacher, translator, and social figure of Azerbaijani origin.
Vagif Mustafazadeh (Vaqif Mustafazadə; March 16, 1940 – December 16, 1979), also known as Vaqif Mustafa-Zadeh, was an Azerbaijani jazz pianist and composer, acclaimed for fusing jazz and the traditional Azerbaijani folk music known as mugham.
A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky (Владимир Фёдорович Минорский; – March 25, 1966) was a Russian Orientalist best known for his contributions to the study of Kurdish (as one of the foremost Kurdologists of his time) and Persian history, geography, literature, and culture.
Vugar Gashimov (Vüqar Həşimov; 24 July 1986 – 11 January 2014) was an Azerbaijani chess grandmaster.
West Azerbaijan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Women's eNews is a nonprofit online news service based in New York City.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
Zahhāk or Zahāk (ضحّاک) is an evil figure in Persian mythology, evident in ancient Persian folklore as Aži Dahāka (اژی دهاک), the name by which he also appears in the texts of the Avesta.
Zanjan Province (استان زنجان, Ostâne Zanjân; also Romanized as Ostān-e Zanjān; Zəngan ostanı, زنگان اوستانی, Зәнган останы) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Zanjan (Persian: زنجان,; Azerbaijani: زنگان) is the capital of Zanjan Province in Iranian Azerbaijan.
Zāl (زال) is a legendary Iranian king from Sistan, and is recognized as one of the greatest warriors of the Shahnameh epic.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Zoroastrianism in Azerbaijan goes back to the first millennium BC or earlier and was the predominant religion of Greater Iran before the conversion to Islam.
The 11th Army was a field army of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, which fought on the Caspian-Caucasian Front.
Aderbeijan Tatars, Aderbeijani Tatars, Azerbaijan people, Azerbaijani (people), Azerbaijani People, Azerbaijani Tatars, Azerbaijani Turk, Azerbaijani Turks, Azerbaijani people, Azerbaijanian, Azerbaijanian Turks, Azerbaijanians, Azerbaijaninas, Azeri, Azeri Turk, Azeri Turks, Azeri people, Azeribajani people, Azeris, Azərbaycanlılar, Ethnic Azeris, People of Azerbaijan.