282 relations: Acamapichtli, Acolhua, Agustín Fuentes, Ahuitzotl, Alexander von Humboldt, Alfred A. Knopf, Alfredo Chavero, Altepetl, Amate, American Anthropological Association, American Anthropologist, American Ethnological Society, Andesite, Andrés de Tapia Motelchiuh, Anthony Pagden, Antiquities of Mexico, Antonio de León y Gama, Antonio López de Santa Anna, Archaeology, Arthur J. O. Anderson, Atotoztli II, Azcapotzalco, Azcapotzalco (altepetl), Aztec (novel), Aztec calendar, Aztec calendar stone, Aztec codices, Aztec cuisine, Aztec Empire, Aztec mythology, Aztec mythology in popular culture, Aztec religion, Aztec warfare, Aztlán, Ángel María Garibay K., B movies (The exploitation boom), BBC Radio 4, Beacon Press, Benito Juárez, Benjamin Keen, Bernal Díaz del Castillo, Bernardino de Sahagún, Bronze, Cabildo (council), Cambridge University Press, Cannibalism in pre-Columbian America, Cannibals and Kings, Cantares Mexicanos, Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora, Casta, ..., Chalco (altépetl), Chapultepec, Chapultepec aqueduct, Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, Charles E. Dibble, Charles Gibson (historian), Chiapas, Chimalpahin, Chimalpopoca, Chinampa, Cholula (Mesoamerican site), Chthonic, Coat of arms of Mexico, Coatlicue, Coatlicue statue, Codex, Codex Borbonicus, Codex Magliabechiano, Codex Mendoza, Codex Ríos, Colhuacan (altepetl), Coyoacán, Coyolxauhqui, Coyolxauhqui Stone, Cuacuauhtzin, Cuauhtémoc, Cuauhxicalli, Cuernavaca, Cuitláhuac, D. H. Lawrence, David Brading, Diego Durán, Diego Muñoz Camargo, Diego Rivera, Doris Heyden, Duke, Duke of Moctezuma de Tultengo, Dumbarton Oaks, Eagle, Eduardo Matos Moctezuma, Edward King, Viscount Kingsborough, Eloise Quiñones Keber, Empire, Encomienda, Ethnic group, Ethnohistory (journal), Exonym and endonym, Fall of Tenochtitlan, Fernando Alvarado Tezozómoc, Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl, Ficus aurea, First Mexican Empire, Flag of Mexico, Florentine Codex, Franciscans, Francisco del Paso y Troncoso, Francisco Javier Clavijero, Fray Juan de Torquemada, Friar, Gary Jennings, Genus, Grandee, Greenstone (archaeology), Guatemala, H. B. Nicholson, Handbook of Middle American Indians, Hegemony, Hernán Cortés, Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España, History of Mexico, Holt McDougal, Hubert Howe Bancroft, Huehueteotl, Huitzilihuitl, Huitzilopochtli, Ignacio Manuel Altamirano, Ignacio Ramírez, In Our Time (radio series), Indigenismo in Mexico, Indigenous peoples of Mexico, International Congress of Americanists, Isabel Moctezuma, Islet, Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Itzcoatl, Ixtlilxochitl I, J. M. Cohen, Jean-Frédéric Waldeck, Joaquín García Icazbalceta, John Lloyd Stephens, José Fernando Ramírez, José Sarmiento de Valladares, 1st Duke of Atrisco, Juan Bautista Pomar, Juan Carlos I of Spain, Juan Diego, Karl Anton Nowotny, Kibibyte, Lake Texcoco, Lingua franca, List of Tenochtitlan rulers, List of viceroys of New Spain, Lucas Alamán, Macehualtin, Maize, Manuel Orozco y Berra, Marvin Harris, Massacre in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan, Maximilian I of Mexico, Maxtla, Maya civilization, Mesoamerica, Mesoamerican chronology, Mestizo, Metro Moctezuma, Mexica, Mexican cuisine, Mexican featherwork, Mexican muralism, Mexican Revolution, Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico City Metro, Michael E. Smith, Michoacán, Mictecacihuatl, Mictlantecuhtli, Miguel León-Portilla, Mixcoatl, Mixtec, Moctezuma I, Moctezuma II, Monument to Cuauhtémoc, Morelos, Nahuas, Nahuatl, National Museum of Anthropology (Mexico), New Fire ceremony, New Philology, New Spain, Nezahualcoyotl (tlatoani), Norman, Oklahoma, Obsidian use in Mesoamerica, Octavio Paz, Ometeotl, Opuntia, Oto-Manguean languages, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Oxford University Press, Pantheon (religion), Paseo de la Reforma, PDF, Pedro Moctezuma, Penguin Books, Pipil language, Pipiltin, Plural, Pochteca, Pochutec language, Porfirio Díaz, Primeros Memoriales, Pterosaur, Purépecha, Quetzal, Quetzalcoatl, Quetzalcoatlus, R. H. Barlow, Romances de los señores de Nueva España, Ross Hassig, Rutgers University Press, Salvador Carrasco, School for Advanced Research, Second Mexican Empire, Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest, Smallpox, Soconusco, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish Empire, Stanford University Press, Stone of Motecuhzoma I, Stone of Tizoc, Tarascan state, Temalacatl, Templo Mayor, Tenayuca, Tenochtitlan, Teotihuacan, Tepanec, Texcoco (altepetl), Tezcatlipoca, Tezozomoc (Azcapotzalco), Thames & Hudson, The Plumed Serpent, The University of Utah Press, Thelma D. Sullivan, Tlacopan, Tlaloc, Tlaltecuhtli, Tlatelolco (altepetl), Tlatoani, Tlaxcala (Nahua state), Tlazolteotl, Toltec, Tonacacihuatl, Tonacatecuhtli, Tonalpohualli, Toribio de Benavente Motolinia, Trema micrantha, Tributary state, Tula (Mesoamerican site), Twelve Apostles of Mexico, Tzitzimitl, University of Arizona Press, University of California Press, University of Minnesota, University of Minnesota Duluth, University of Oklahoma Press, University of Texas Press, University Press of Colorado, Uto-Aztecan languages, Valley of Mexico, Wiley-Blackwell, William H. Prescott, William Robertson (historian), World view, Xipe Totec, Xiuhpohualli, Xiuhtecuhtli, Xochimilco, Xochipilli, Xochiquetzal, Zapotec civilization, Zócalo. Expand index (232 more) » « Shrink index
Acamapichtli (aːkamaːˈpit͡ʃt͡ɬi, meaning "Handful of reeds") was the first tlatoani, or ruler, of the Aztecs (or Mexica) of Tenochtitlan, and founder of the Aztec imperial dynasty.
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The Acolhua are a Mesoamerican people who arrived in the Valley of Mexico in or around the year 1200 CE.
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Agustín Fuentes is an American primatologist and biological anthropologist whose work focuses largely on human and non-human primate interaction, pathogen transfer, communication, cooperation, and human social evolution.
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Ahuitzotl (āhuitzotl) was the eighth Aztec ruler, the Hueyi Tlatoani of the city of Tenochtitlan, son of princess Atotoztli II.
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Alexander von Humboldt
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.
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Alfred A. Knopf
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.
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Alfredo Chavero (1841–1906) was a Mexican archaeologist, politician, poet, and dramatist.
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The altepetl or, in pre-Columbian and Spanish conquest-era Aztec society, was the local, ethnically-based political entity, usually translated into English as "city-state".
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Amate (amate from āmatl) is a type of bark paper that has been manufactured in Mexico since the precontact times.
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American Anthropological Association
The American Anthropological Association (AAA) is an organization of scholars and practitioners in the field of anthropology.
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American Anthropologist is the flagship journal of the American Anthropological Association (AAA), published quarterly by Wiley.
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American Ethnological Society
The American Ethnological Society (AES) is the oldest professional anthropological association in the United States.
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Andesite is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture.
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Andrés de Tapia Motelchiuh
Don Andrés de Tapia Motelchiuhtzin Huitznahuatlailótlac was the ruler of Tenochtitlan (1525–1530).
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Anthony Robin Dermer Pagden (born May 27, 1945) is an author and professor of political science and history at the University of California, Los Angeles.
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Antiquities of Mexico
Antiquities of Mexico is a compilation of facsimile reproductions of Mesoamerican literature such as Maya codices, Mixtec codices, and Aztec codices as well as historical accounts and explorers' descriptions of archaeological ruins.
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Antonio de León y Gama
Antonio de León y Gama (1735–1802) was a Mexican astronomer, anthropologist and writer.
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Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (21 February 1794 – 21 June 1876),Callcott, Wilfred H., "Santa Anna, Antonio Lopez De,", accessed April 18, 2017 often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and then for Mexican independence.
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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
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Arthur J. O. Anderson
Arthur James Outram Anderson (November 26, 1907 – June 3, 1996) was an American anthropologist specializing in Aztec culture and translator of the Nahuatl language.
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Atotoztli (atoˈtostɬi) or Huitzilxochtzin (witsiɬˈʃoːtʃtsin) was a daughter of the Aztec emperor Moctezuma I and Chichimecacihuatzin I, the daughter of Cuauhtototzin, the ruler of Cuauhnahuac.
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Azcapotzalco (Āzcapōtzalco,, from āzcapōtzalli “anthill” + -co “place”; literally, “In the place of the anthills”) is one of the 16 municipalities (municipios) into which Mexico's Mexico City is divided.
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Azcapotzalco was a pre-Columbian Nahua altepetl (state), capital of the Tepanec empire, in the Valley of Mexico, on the western shore of Lake Texcoco.
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Aztec is a 1980 historical fiction novel by Gary Jennings.
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The Aztec or Mexica calendar is the calendar system that was used by the Aztecs as well as other Pre-Columbian peoples of central Mexico.
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Aztec calendar stone
The Aztec calendar stone is a late post-classic Mexica sculpture housed in the National Anthropology Museum in Mexico City, and is perhaps the most famous work of Aztec sculpture.
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Aztec codices (Mēxihcatl āmoxtli) are books written by pre-Columbian and colonial-era Nahuas in pictorial and/or alphabetic form.
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Aztec cuisine was the cuisine of the Aztec Empire and the Nahua peoples of the Valley of Mexico prior to European contact in 1519.
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The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance (Ēxcān Tlahtōlōyān, ˈjéːʃkaːn̥ t͡ɬaʔtoːˈlóːjaːn̥), began as an alliance of three Nahua altepetl city-states: italic, italic, and italic.
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Aztec mythology is the body or collection of myths of Aztec civilization of Central Mexico.
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Aztec mythology in popular culture
Figures from Aztec mythology have appeared many times in works of modern culture.
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The Aztec religion is the Mesoamerican religion of the Aztecs.
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Aztec warfare concerns the aspects associated with the militaristic conventions, forces, weaponry and strategic expansions conducted by the Late Postclassic Aztec civilizations of Mesoamerica, including particularly the military history of the Aztec Triple Alliance involving the city-states of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, Tlacopan and other allied polities of the central Mexican region.
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Aztlán (from Aztlān) is the ancestral home of the Aztec peoples.
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Ángel María Garibay K.
Fray Ángel María Garibay Kintana (June 18, 1892– October 19, 1967) was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest, philologist, linguist, historian, and scholar of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, specifically of the Nahua peoples of the central Mexican highlands.
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B movies (The exploitation boom)
The 1960s and 1970s mark the golden age of the independent B movie, made outside of Hollywood's major film studios.
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BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.
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Beacon Press is an American non-profit book publisher.
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Benito Pablo Juárez García (21 March 1806 – 18 July 1872) was a Mexican lawyer and liberal politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.
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Benjamin Keen (1913–2002) was an American historian specialising in the history of colonial Latin America.
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Bernal Díaz del Castillo
Bernal Díaz del Castillo (c. 1496 – 1584) was a Spanish conquistador, who participated as a soldier in the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés and late in his life wrote an account of the events.
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Bernardino de Sahagún
Bernardino de Sahagún (c. 1499 – October 23, 1590) was a Franciscan friar, missionary priest and pioneering ethnographer who participated in the Catholic evangelization of colonial New Spain (now Mexico).
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Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
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A cabildo or ayuntamiento was a Spanish colonial, and early post-colonial, administrative council which governed a municipality.
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Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
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Cannibalism in pre-Columbian America
There is universal agreement that some Mesoamerican people practiced human sacrifice and cannibalism, but there is no scholarly consensus as to its extent.
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Cannibals and Kings
Cannibals and Kings (1977) is a book written by anthropologist Marvin Harris.
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The Cantares Mexicanos is the name given to a manuscript collection of Nahuatl songs or poems recorded in the 16th century.
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Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora
Don Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora (August 14, 1645 – August 22, 1700) was one of the first great intellectuals born in the Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain.
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A casta was a term to describe mixed-race individuals in Spanish America, resulting from unions of European whites (españoles), Amerinds (indios), and Africans (negros).
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Chālco was a complex pre-Columbian Nahua altepetl or confederacy in central Mexico.
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Chapultepec, more commonly called the "Bosque de Chapultepec" (Chapultepec Forest) in Mexico City, is one of the largest city parks in the Western Hemisphere, measuring in total just over 686 hectares (1,695 acres).
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The Chapultepec aqueduct (in Spanish: acueducto de Chapultepec) was built to provide potable water to Tenochtitlan, now known as Mexico City.
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Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg
Abbé Charles-Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg (8 September 1814 – 8 January 1874) was a noted French writer, ethnographer, historian and archaeologist.
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Charles E. Dibble
Charles E. Dibble (18 August 1909 – 30 November 2002) was an American academic, anthropologist, linguist, and scholar of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures.
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Charles Gibson (historian)
Charles Gibson (12 August 1920 - 22 August 1985, Keeseville, N.Y.) was an American ethnohistorian who wrote foundational works on the Nahua peoples of colonial Mexico and was elected President of the American Historical Association in 1977.
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Chiapas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas), is one of the 31 states that with Mexico City make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
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Domingo Francisco de San Antón Muñón Chimalpahin Quauhtlehuanitzin (1579, Amecameca, Chalco—1660, Mexico City), usually referred to simply as Chimalpahin or Chimalpain, was a Nahua annalist from Chalco.
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Chimalpopoca (t͡ʃiːmaɬpoˈpoːka for "smoking shield,") or Chīmalpopōcatzin (1397–1427) was the third Emperor of Tenochtitlan (1417–1427).
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Chinampa (chināmitl) is a type of Mesoamerican agriculture which used small, rectangular areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico.
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Cholula (Mesoamerican site)
Cholula (Cholōllān) (Spanish) was an important city of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, dating back to at least the 2nd century BCE, with settlement as a village going back at least some thousand years earlier.
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Chthonic (from translit, "in, under, or beneath the earth", from χθών italic "earth") literally means "subterranean", but the word in English describes deities or spirits of the underworld, especially in Ancient Greek religion.
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Coat of arms of Mexico
The current coat of arms of Mexico (Escudo Nacional de México, literally "national shield of Mexico") has been an important symbol of Mexican politics and culture for centuries.
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Coatlicue (cōātl īcue,, “skirt of snakes”), also known as Teteoh innan (tēteoh īnnān,, “mother of the gods”), is the Aztec goddess who gave birth to the moon, stars, and Huitzilopochtli, the god of the sun and war.
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The Coatlicue statue is a 2.7 metre (8.9 ft) tall andesite statue usually identified with the Aztec goddess Coatlicue ("snakes-her-skirt").
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A codex (from the Latin caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book), plural codices, is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials.
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The Codex Borbonicus is an Aztec codex written by Aztec priests shortly before or after the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
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The Codex Magliabechiano is a pictorial Aztec codex created during the mid-16th century, in the early Spanish colonial period.
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The Codex Mendoza is an Aztec codex, created between 1529 and 1553 and perhaps circa 1541.
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Codex Ríos is an Italian translation and augmentation of a Spanish colonial-era manuscript, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, that is partially attributed to Pedro de los Ríos, a Dominican friar working in Oaxaca and Puebla between 1547 and 1562.
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Culhuacan (koːlˈwaʔkaːn) was one of the Nahuatl-speaking pre-Columbian city-states of the Valley of Mexico.
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Coyoacán is a borough (delegación) of Mexico City and the former village which is now the borough’s “historic center.” The name comes from Nahuatl and most likely means “place of coyotes,” when the Aztecs named a pre-Hispanic village on the southern shore of Lake Texcoco which was dominated by the Tepanec people.
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In Aztec mythology, Coyolxauhqui (kojoɬˈʃaːʍki, "Face painted with Bells") was a daughter of Coatlicue and Mixcoatl and is the leader of the Centzon Huitznahuas, the southern star gods.
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The Coyolxauhqui Stone is a carved, circular Aztec stone, depicting the mythical being Coyolxauhqui dismembered and decapitated.
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Cuacuauhtzin (c. 1410–1443) was an Aztec poet, composing in the Nahuatl language, and lord of Tepechpan.
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Cuauhtémoc (also known as Cuauhtemotzin, Guatimozin or Guatemoc; c. 1495) was the Aztec ruler (tlatoani) of Tenochtitlan from 1520 to 1521, making him the last Aztec Emperor.
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A cuauhxicalli or quauhxicalli (meaning "eagle gourd bowl") was an altar-like stone vessel used by the Aztecs to hold human hearts extracted in sacrificial ceremonies.
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Cuernavaca (kʷawˈnaːwak "near the woods") is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico.
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Cuitláhuac (c. 1476 – 1520) or Cuitláhuac (in Spanish orthography; Cuitlāhuac,, honorific form Cuitlahuatzin) was the 10th tlatoani (ruler) of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan for 80 days during the year Two Flint (1520).
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D. H. Lawrence
Herman Melville, Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer, Lev Shestov, Walt Whitman | influenced.
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David Anthony Brading Litt.D, FRHistS, FBA (born 26 August 1936), is a British historian and Professor Emeritus of Mexican History at the University of Cambridge, where he is an Emeritus Fellow of Clare Hall and a Honorary Fellow of Pembroke College.
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Diego Durán (c. 1537 – 1588) was a Dominican friar best known for his authorship of one of the earliest Western books on the history and culture of the Aztecs, The History of the Indies of New Spain, a book that was much criticised in his lifetime for helping the "heathen" maintain their culture.
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Diego Muñoz Camargo
Diego Muñoz Camargo (c. 1529 – 1599) was the author of History of Tlaxcala, an illustrated codex that highlights the religious, cultural, and military history of the Tlaxcalan people.
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Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957) was a prominent Mexican painter.
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Doris Heyden (née Heydenreich; June 2, 1905 – September 25, 2005) was a prominent scholar of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, particularly those of central Mexico.
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A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
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Duke of Moctezuma de Tultengo
Duke of Moctezuma de Tultengo (Duque de Moctezuma de Tultengo) is a hereditary title of Spanish nobility held by a line of descendants of Emperor Moctezuma II, the ninth Tlatoani, or ruler, of Tenochtitlan.
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Dumbarton Oaks is a historic estate in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C. It was the residence and garden of Robert Woods Bliss (1875–1962) and his wife Mildred Barnes Bliss (1879–1969).
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Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
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Eduardo Matos Moctezuma
Eduardo Matos Moctezuma (born December 11, 1940) is a prominent Mexican archaeologist.
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Edward King, Viscount Kingsborough
Edward King, Viscount Kingsborough (16 November 1795 – 27 February 1837) was an Irish antiquarian who sought to prove that the indigenous peoples of the Americas were a Lost Tribe of Israel.
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Eloise Quiñones Keber
Eloise Quiñones Keber is Professor of Art History at Baruch College and the CUNY Graduate Center, where she specializes in Pre-Columbian and early colonial Latin American art.
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An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".
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Encomienda was a labor system in Spain and its empire.
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An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
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Ethnohistory is a peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1954 and published quarterly by Duke University Press on behalf of the American Society for Ethnohistory.
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Exonym and endonym
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
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Fall of Tenochtitlan
The Siege of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire, was a decisive event in the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
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Fernando Alvarado Tezozómoc
Fernando or Hernando (de) Alvarado Tezozómoc was a colonial Nahua noble.
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Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl
Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl (between 1568 and 1580 – 1648) was a Castizo nobleman of the Spanish Viceroyalty of New Spain, modern Mexico.
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Ficus aurea, commonly known as the Florida strangler fig (or simply strangler fig), golden fig, or higuerón, is a tree in the family Moraceae that is native to the U.S. state of Florida, the northern and western Caribbean, southern Mexico and Central America south to Panama.
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First Mexican Empire
The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) was a short-lived monarchy and the first independent post-colonial state in Mexico.
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Flag of Mexico
The flag of Mexico (Bandera de México) is a vertical tricolor of green, white, and red with the national coat of arms charged in the center of the white stripe.
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The Florentine Codex is a 16th-century ethnographic research study in Mesoamerica by the Spanish Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagún.
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The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
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Francisco del Paso y Troncoso
Francisco de Borja del Paso y Troncoso (October 8, 1842 in Veracruz, Veracruz Mexico – April 30, 1916 in Florence, Italy) was an important Mexican historian, archivist, and Nahuatl language scholar.
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Francisco Javier Clavijero
Francisco Javier Clavijero Echegaray (sometimes Francesco Saverio Clavigero) (September 9, 1731 – April 2, 1787), was a Mexican Jesuit teacher, scholar and historian.
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Fray Juan de Torquemada
Juan de Torquemada (c. 1562 – 1624) was a Franciscan friar, active as missionary in Spanish colonial Mexico and considered the "leading Franciscan chronicler of his generation." Administrator, engineer, architect and ethnographer, he is most famous for his monumental work commonly known as Monarquía indiana ("Indian Monarchy"), a survey of the history and culture of the indigenous peoples of New Spain together with an account of their conversion to Christianity, first published in Spain in 1615 and republished in 1723.
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A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability.
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Gary Jennings (September 20, 1928 – February 13, 1999) was an American author who wrote children's and adult novels.
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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
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Grandee (Grande,; Grande) is an official aristocratic title conferred on some Spanish nobility and, to a lesser extent, Portuguese nobility.
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Greenstone is a common generic term for valuable, green-hued minerals and metamorphosed igneous rocks and stones which early cultures used in the fashioning of hardstone carvings such as jewelry, statuettes, ritual tools, and various other artifacts.
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Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
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H. B. Nicholson
Henry Bigger Nicholson, (September 5, 1925 – March 2, 2007) who published under the name H.B. Nicholson, was a scholar of the Aztecs.
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Handbook of Middle American Indians
Handbook of Middle American Indians (HMAI) is a sixteen-volume compendium on Mesoamerica, from the prehispanic to the late twentieth century.
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Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
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Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
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Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España
Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España (The True History of the Conquest of New Spain) is the first-person narrative written in 1576 by Bernal Díaz del Castillo (1492–1581), the military adventurer, conquistador, and colonist settler who served in three Mexican expeditions; those of Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (1517) to the Yucatán peninsula; the expedition of Juan de Grijalva (1518), and the expedition of Hernán Cortés (1519) in the Valley of Mexico; the history relates his participation in the fall of Emperor Moctezuma II, and the subsequent defeat of the Aztec Empire.
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History of Mexico
The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia.
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Holt McDougal is an American publishing company, a division of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, that specializes in textbooks for use in secondary schools.
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Hubert Howe Bancroft
Hubert Howe Bancroft (May 5, 1832 – March 2, 1918) was an American historian and ethnologist who wrote, published and collected works concerning the western United States, Texas, California, Alaska, Mexico, Central America and British Columbia.
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Huehueteotl; is an aged Mesoamerican deity figuring in the pantheons of pre-Columbian cultures, particularly in Aztec mythology and others of the Central Mexico region.
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Huitzilihuitl or Huitzilihuitzin (Nahuatl language; English: Hummingbird Feather) (d. ca. 1417) was the second tlatoani of Tenochtitlan, governing from 1396 to 1417,García Purón (1984, p.31) (or 1390 to 1410 according to other sources).
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In the Aztec religion, Huitzilopochtli (wiːt͡siloːˈpoːt͡ʃt͡ɬi) is a Mesoamerican deity of war, sun, human sacrifice and the patron of the city of Tenochtitlan.
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Ignacio Manuel Altamirano
Ignacio Manuel Altamirano Basilio (1834 – 13 February 1893) was a Mexican radical liberal writer, journalist, teacher and politician.
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Juan Ignacio Paulino Ramírez Calzada, known as Ignacio Ramírez, (22 June 1818 – 15 June 1879) was a Mexican writer, poet, journalist, lawyer, atheist, and political libertarian from San Miguel de Allende, then called San Miguel el Grande.
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In Our Time (radio series)
In Our Time is a live BBC radio discussion series exploring the history of ideas, presented by Melvyn Bragg since 15 October 1998.
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Indigenismo in Mexico
Indigenismo is a Latin American nationalist political ideology that began in the late nineteenth century and persisted throughout the twentieth that attempted to construct the role of indigenous populations in the nation-state.
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Indigenous peoples of Mexico
Indigenous peoples of Mexico (pueblos indígenas de México), Native Mexicans (nativos mexicanos), or Mexican Native Americans (Mexicanos nativo americanos), are those who are part of communities that trace their roots back to populations and communities that existed in what is now Mexico prior to the arrival of Europeans.
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International Congress of Americanists
The International Congress of Americanists (ICA) is an international academic conference for research in multidisciplinary studies of the Americas.
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Doña Isabel Moctezuma (born Tecuichpoch Ixcaxochitzin; 1509/1510 – 1550/1551) was a daughter of the Aztec ruler Moctezuma II.
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An islet is a very small island.
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Isthmus of Tehuantepec
The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico.
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Itzcoatl (it͡sˈkoːwaːt͡ɬ, "Obsidian Serpent") was the fourth king of Tenochtitlan, ruling from 1427 (or 1428) to 1440, the period when the Mexica threw off the domination of the Tepanecs and laid the foundations for the eventual Aztec Empire.
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Ixtlilxochitl Ome Tochtli (1380-1418) was the ruler (tlatoani) of the Acolhua city-state of Texcoco from 1409 to 1418 and the father of the famous "poet-king" Nezahualcoyotl.
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J. M. Cohen
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Jean-Frédéric Maximilien de Waldeck (March 16, 1766? – April 30, 1875) was a French antiquarian, cartographer, artist and explorer.
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Joaquín García Icazbalceta
Joaquín García Icazbalceta (August 21, 1824 – November 26, 1894) was a Mexican philologist and historian.
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John Lloyd Stephens
John Lloyd Stephens (November 28, 1805 – October 13, 1852) was an American explorer, writer, and diplomat.
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José Fernando Ramírez
José Fernando Ramírez (May 5, 1804 – March 4, 1871) was a distinguished Mexican historian in the 19th century.
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José Sarmiento de Valladares, 1st Duke of Atrisco
José Sarmiento de Valladares y Arines-Troncoso Romay, 1st Duke of Atrisco, Grandee of Spain, jure uxoris Count of Moctezuma (May 1643 in San Roman de Saxamonde, Galicia, Spain – September 10, 1708 in Madrid) was viceroy of New Spain from December 18, 1696 to November 3, 1701.
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Juan Bautista Pomar
Juan Bautista (de) Pomar (c. 1535 – after 1601) was a mestizo descendant of the rulers of prehispanic Texcoco, a historian and writer on prehispanic Aztec history.
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Juan Carlos I of Spain
Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, born 5 January 1938) reigned as King of Spain from 1975 until his abdication in 2014.
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Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, also known as Juan Diegotzil (1474–1548), a native of Mexico, is the first Roman Catholic indigenous saint from the Americas.
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Karl Anton Nowotny
Karl Anton Nowotny (June 21, 1904, Hollabrunn – December 31, 1978, Vienna) was an Austrian ethnographer, art historian and academic, specialising in the study of Mesoamerican cultures.
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The kibibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for quantities of digital information.
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Lake Texcoco (Lago de Texcoco) was a natural lake within the "Anahuac" or Valley of Mexico.
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A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
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List of Tenochtitlan rulers
This is a list of the tlatoque of the pre-Columbian altepetl of Tenochtitlan.
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List of viceroys of New Spain
The following is a list of Viceroys of New Spain.
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Lucas Ignacio Alamán y Escalada (Guanajuato, New Spain, October 18, 1792 – Mexico City, Mexico, June 2, 1853) was a Mexican scientist, conservative politician, historian, and writer.
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The mācēhualtin (IPA:, singular mācēhualli) were the commoner social class in the Mexica Empire, commonly referred to as the Aztec Empire.
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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
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Manuel Orozco y Berra
Manuel Orozco y Berra (8 June 1816 - 27 January 1881; He was born and died in Mexico City) was a Mexican historian and a member of the Mexican Academy of Language.
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Marvin Harris (August 18, 1927 – October 25, 2001) was an American anthropologist.
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Massacre in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan
The Massacre in the Great Temple, also called the Alvarado Massacre, was an event on May 22, 1520, in the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan during Spanish conquest of Mexico, in which the celebration of the Feast of Toxcatl ended in a massacre of Aztec elites.
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Maximilian I of Mexico
Maximilian I (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.
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Maxtla (Nahuatl pronunciation: MASH-LAH) was a Tepanec ruler (tlatoani) of Azcapotzalco from 1426 to his death in 1428.
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The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
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Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
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Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of prehispanic Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation–3500 BCE), the Archaic (before 2600 BCE), the Preclassic or Formative (2000 BCE–250 CE), the Classic (250–900CE), and the Postclassic (900–1521 CE), Colonial (1521–1821), and Postcolonial (1821–present).
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Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
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Metro Moctezuma is a station on Line 1 the Mexico City Metro.
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The Mexica (Nahuatl: Mēxihcah,; the singular is Mēxihcatl Nahuatl Dictionary. (1990). Wired Humanities Project. University of Oregon. Retrieved August 29, 2012, from) or Mexicas were a Nahuatl-speaking indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico, known today as the rulers of the Aztec Empire.
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Mexican cuisine began about 9,000 years ago, when agricultural communities such as the Maya formed, domesticating maize, creating the standard process of corn nixtamalization, and establishing their foodways.
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Mexican featherwork, also called "plumería", was an important artistic and decorative technique in the pre-Hispanic and colonial periods in what is now Mexico.
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Mexican muralism was the promotion of mural painting starting in the 1920s, generally with social and political messages as part of efforts to reunify the country under the post Mexican Revolution government.
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The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) was a major armed struggle,, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government.
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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
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Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
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Mexico City Metro
The Mexico City Metro (Metro de la Ciudad de México), officially called Sistema de Transporte Colectivo, often shortened to STC, is a metro system that serves the metropolitan area of Mexico City, including some municipalities in Mexico State.
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Michael E. Smith
Michael Ernest Smith (born 1953) is an American archaeologist working primarily with Aztec and general Mesoamerican archaeology.
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Michoacán, formally Michoacán de Ocampo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Michoacán de Ocampo (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Michoacán de Ocampo), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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In Aztec mythology, Mictēcacihuātl (pronounced mik.teː.ka.ˈsí.waːt͡ɬ, literally "Lady of the Dead") is Queen of Mictlan, the underworld, ruling over the afterlife with Mictlantecuhtli, another deity who is her husband.
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Mictlāntēcutli (meaning "Lord of Mictlan"), in Aztec mythology, was a god of the dead and the king of Mictlan (Chicunauhmictlan), the lowest and northernmost section of the underworld.
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Miguel León-Portilla (born February 22, 1926 in Mexico City) is a Mexican anthropologist and historian, and a prime authority on Nahuatl thought and literature.
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Mixcoatl (Mixcōhuātl, from mixtli "cloud" and cōātl "serpent"), or Camaztle from camaz "deer sandal" and atle "without", or Camaxtli, was the god of the hunt and identified with the Milky Way, the stars, and the heavens in several Mesoamerican cultures.
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The Mixtecs, or Mixtecos, are indigenous Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico inhabiting the region known as La Mixteca of Oaxaca and Puebla as well as the state of Guerrero's Región Montañas, and Región Costa Chica, which covers parts of the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla. The Mixtec region and the Mixtec peoples are traditionally divided into three groups, two based on their original economic caste and one based on the region they settled. High Mixtecs or mixteco alto were of the upper class and generally richer; the Low Mixtecs or "mixteco bajo" were generally poorer. In recent times, an economic reversal or equalizing has been seen. The third group is Coastal Mixtecs "mixteco de la costa" whose language is closely related to that of the Low Mixtecs; they currently inhabit the Pacific slope of Oaxaca and Guerrero. The Mixtec languages form a major branch of the Otomanguean language family. In pre-Columbian times, a number of Mixtecan city states competed with each other and with the Zapotec kingdoms. The major Mixtec polity was Tututepec which rose to prominence in the 11th century under the leadership of Eight Deer Jaguar Claw, the only Mixtec king who ever united the Highland and Lowland polities into a single state. Like the rest of the indigenous peoples of Mexico, the Mixtec were conquered by the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies in the 16th century. Pre-Columbia Mixtecs numbered around 1.5 million. Today there are approximately 800,000 Mixtec people in Mexico, and there are also large populations in the United States.
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Moctezuma I (c. 1398-1469), also known as Motecuhzomatzin Ilhuicamina, Huehuemotecuhzoma or Montezuma I (Motēuczōma Ilhuicamīna, Huēhuemotēuczōma), was the second Aztec emperor and fifth king of Tenochtitlan.
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Moctezuma II (c. 1466 – 29 June 1520), variant spellings include Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma, Motēuczōmah, and referred to in full by early Nahuatl texts as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (Moctezuma the Young),moteːkʷˈsoːma ʃoːkoˈjoːtsin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520.
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Monument to Cuauhtémoc
The Monument to Cuauhtémoc is an 1887 statue dedicated to the last Mexica ruler (tlatoani) of Tenochtitlan Cuauhtémoc, located at the intersection of Avenida de los Insurgentes and Paseo de la Reforma in Mexico City.
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Morelos, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Morelos (Estado Libre y Soberano de Morelos), is one of the 32 states, which comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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The Nahuas are a group of indigenous people of Mexico and El Salvador.
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Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
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National Museum of Anthropology (Mexico)
The National Museum of Anthropology (Museo Nacional de Antropología, MNA) is a national museum of Mexico.
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New Fire ceremony
The New Fire Ceremony (in Nahuatl xiuhmolpilli—the Binding of the Years) was an Aztec ceremony performed once every 52 years — a full cycle of the Aztec calendar— in order to stave off the end of the world.
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New Philology generally refers to a branch of Mexican ethnohistory and philology that uses colonial-era native language texts written by Indians to construct history from the indigenous point of view.
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The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
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Nezahualcoyotl (Nezahualcoyōtl), meaning "Coyote in fast" or "Coyote who fasts") (April 28, 1402 – June 4, 1472) was a philosopher, warrior, architect, poet and ruler (tlatoani) of the city-state of Texcoco in pre-Columbian era Mexico. Unlike other high-profile Mexican figures from the century preceding Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Nezahualcoyotl was not Mexica; his people were the Acolhua, another Nahuan people settled in the eastern part of the Valley of Mexico, settling on the eastern side of Lake Texcoco. He is best remembered for his poetry, but according to accounts by his descendants and biographers, Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl and Juan Bautista Pomar, he had an experience of an "Unknown, Unknowable Lord of Everywhere" to whom he built an entirely empty temple in which no blood sacrifices of any kind were allowed — not even those of animals. However, he allowed human sacrifices to continue in his other temples.
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Norman is a city in the U.S. state of Oklahoma south of downtown Oklahoma City in its metropolitan area.
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Obsidian use in Mesoamerica
Obsidian is a naturally formed volcanic glass that was an important part of the material culture of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica.
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Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican poet and diplomat.
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Ōmeteōtl ("Two Gods") is a name sometimes used to refer to the pair of Aztec deities Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, also known as Tonacatecuhtli and Tonacacihuatl.
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Opuntia, commonly called prickly pear, is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae.
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Oto-Manguean languages (also Otomanguean) are a large family comprising several subfamilies of indigenous languages of the Americas.
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Our Lady of Guadalupe
Our Lady of Guadalupe (Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe), also known as the Virgin of Guadalupe (Virgen de Guadalupe), is a Catholic title of the Blessed Virgin Mary associated with a venerated image enshrined within the Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City.
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Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
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A pantheon (from Greek πάνθεον pantheon, literally "(a temple) of all gods", "of or common to all gods" from πᾶν pan- "all" and θεός theos "god") is the particular set of all gods of any polytheistic religion, mythology, or tradition.
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Paseo de la Reforma
Paseo de la Reforma is a wide avenue that runs diagonally across the heart of Mexico City.
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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
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Don Pedro (de) Moctezuma Tlacahuepan Ihualicahuaca was a son of the Aztec emperor Moctezuma II and María Miyahuaxochtzin, the daughter of Ixtlilcuecahuacatzin, ruler of Tollan.
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Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
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Pipil (natively Nawat) is a Uto-Toltec or Uto-Nicarao language of the Uto-Aztecan family, which stretches from Utah in the United States down through El Salvador to Nicaragua in Central America.
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The Pipiltzin (sg. pilli) were the noble social class in the Mexica Empire.
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The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
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Pochteca (singular pochtecatl) were professional, long-distance traveling merchants in the Aztec Empire.
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Pochutec is an extinct Uto-Aztecan language of the Nahuan (or Aztecan) branch which was spoken in and around the town of Pochutla on the Pacific coast of Oaxaca, Mexico.
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José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915) was a Mexican general and politician who served seven terms as President of Mexico, a total of three and a half decades, from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1911.
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The Primeros Memoriales ("First Memoranda") is an illustrated Nahuatl-language manuscript compiled by the Franciscan missionary Bernardino de Sahagún and his indigenous assistants in Tepepulco as the first part of his project to document pre-Columbian Nahua society, known as the Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva España ("General History of the Things of New Spain").
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Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.
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The Purépecha or Tarascans (endonym P'urhépecha) are a group of indigenous people centered in the northwestern region of Michoacán, Mexico, mainly in the area of the cities of Cherán and Pátzcuaro.
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Quetzal are strikingly colored birds in the trogon family.
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Quetzalcoatl (ket͡saɬˈkowaːt͡ɬ, in honorific form: Quetzalcohuātzin) forms part of Mesoamerican literature and is a deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "feathered serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent".
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Quetzalcoatlus northropi is a pterosaur known from the Late Cretaceous of North America (Maastrichtian stage) and one of the largest-known flying animals of all time.
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R. H. Barlow
Robert Hayward Barlow (May 18, 1918 – January 1 or 2, 1951Joshi & Schultz (2007): p. xx.) was an American author, avant-garde poet, anthropologist and historian of early Mexico, and expert in the Nahuatl language.
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Romances de los señores de Nueva España
The Romances de los señores de Nueva España (Spanish for "Ballads of the Lords of New Spain") is a 16th-century compilation of Nahuatl songs or poems preserved in the Library of the University of Texas.
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Ross Hassig (born December 13, 1945) is an American historical anthropologist specializing in Mesoamerican studies, particularly the Aztec culture.
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Rutgers University Press
Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in New Brunswick, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University.
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Salvador Carrasco is a Mexican film director based in Santa Monica, California.
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School for Advanced Research
The School for Advanced Research (SAR), until 2007 known as the School of American Research and founded in 1907 as the School for American Archaeology (SAA), is an advanced research center located in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA.
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Second Mexican Empire
The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) or Second Mexican Empire (Segundo Imperio Mexicano) was the name of Mexico under a limited hereditary monarchy declared by the Assembly of Notables on July 10, 1863, during the Second French intervention in Mexico.
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Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest
Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest is a 2003 work by ethnohistorian Matthew Restall in which he posits that there are seven myths about the Spanish colonization of the Americas that have come to be widely believed to be true.
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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
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Soconusco is a region in the southwest corner of the state of Chiapas in Mexico along its border with Guatemala.
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Spanish colonization of the Americas
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
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The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
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Stanford University Press
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
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Stone of Motecuhzoma I
The Stone of Motecuhzoma I is a large carved Aztec stone that was found in 1988 under the patio of the Edificio del Ex-Arzobispado in the Distrito Federal of Mexico.
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Stone of Tizoc
The Stone of Tizoc, Tizoc Stone or Sacrificial Stone is a large, round, carved Aztec stone.
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The Tarascan state was a state in pre-Columbian Mexico, roughly covering the geographic area of the present-day Mexican state of Michoacán, parts of Jalisco, and Guanajuato.
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A temalacatl was a gladiatorial platform that is believed was used by the different civilizations of Mesoamerica, consisting of a large stone disc with a handle in the center where the prisoner was tied for further gladiatorial combat.
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The Templo Mayor (Spanish for " Greater Temple") was the main temple of the Aztecs in their capital city of Tenochtitlan, which is now Mexico City.
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Tenayuca (tenanyōcān) is a pre-Columbian Mesoamerican archaeological site in the Valley of Mexico.
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Tenochtitlan (Tenochtitlan), originally known as México-Tenochtitlán (meːˈʃíʔ.ko te.noːt͡ʃ.ˈtí.t͡ɬan), was a large Mexica city-state in what is now the center of Mexico City.
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Teotihuacan, (in Spanish: Teotihuacán), is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.
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The Tepanecs or Tepaneca are a Mesoamerican people who arrived in the Valley of Mexico in the late 12th or early 13th centuries.
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Texcoco (Classical Nahuatl: Tetzco(h)co) was a major Acolhua altepetl (city-state) in the central Mexican plateau region of Mesoamerica during the Late Postclassic period of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican chronology.
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Tezcatlipoca (Tezcatlipōca) was a central deity in Aztec religion, and his main festival was the Toxcatl ceremony celebrated in the month of May.
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Tezozomoc Yacateteltetl (also Tezozómoc, Tezozomoctli, Tezozomoctzin; born 1320), was a Tepanec leader who ruled the altepetl (ethnic state) of Azcapotzalco from the year 1353 or Five Reed (1367) or Eight Rabbit (1370) until his death in the year Twelve Rabbit (1426).
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Thames & Hudson
Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) is a publisher of illustrated books on art, architecture, design, and visual culture.
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The Plumed Serpent
The Plumed Serpent is a 1926 novel by D. H. Lawrence.
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The University of Utah Press
The University of Utah Press is the independent publishing branch of the University of Utah and is a division of the J. Willard Marriott Library.
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Thelma D. Sullivan
Thelma Dorfman Sullivan (18 August 1918—11 August 1981) was an American paleographer, linguist and translator, regarded as one of the foremost scholars in the 20th century of the Classical Nahuatl language.
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Tlacopan (meaning "florid plant on flat ground"), also called Tacuba, was a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican city-state situated on the western shore of Lake Texcoco on the site of today's neighborhood of Tacuba in Mexico City.
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Tlaloc (ˈtɬaːlok) was a member of the pantheon of gods in Aztec religion.
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Tlaltecuhtli is a pre-Columbian Mesoamerican deity, identified from sculpture and iconography dating to the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology (ca. 1200–1519), primarily among the Mexica (Aztec) and other Nahuatl-speaking cultures.
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Tlatelolco (tɬateˈloːɬko) (also called Mexico Tlatelolco) was a prehispanic altepetl or city-state, in the Valley of Mexico.
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Tlatoani (tlahtoāni, "one who speaks, ruler"; plural tlahtohqueh or tlatoque), is the Classical Nahuatl term for the ruler of an āltepētl, a pre-Hispanic state.
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Tlaxcala (Nahua state)
Tlaxcala ("place of maize tortillas") was a pre-Columbian city and state in central Mexico.
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In Aztec mythology, Tlazolteotl (or Tlaçolteotl, Nahuatl Tlazōlteōtl) is a goddess of purification, steam bath, midwives, filth, and a patroness of adulterers.
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The Toltec culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology (ca. 900–1168 CE).
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In Aztec mythology, Tōnacacihuatl (toːnakaˈsiwaːt͡ɬ) was a creator and goddess of fertility, worshiped for peopling the earth and making it fruitful.
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In Aztec mythology, Tonacatecuhtli was a creator and fertility god, worshiped for peopling the earth and making it fruitful.
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The tonalpohualli, meaning "count of days" in Nahuatl, is an Aztec version of the 260-day calendar in use in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica.
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Toribio de Benavente Motolinia
Toribio of Benavente, O.F.M. (1482, Benavente, Spain – 1568, Mexico City, New Spain), also known as Motolinía, was a Franciscan missionary who was one of the famous Twelve Apostles of Mexico who arrived in New Spain in May 1524.
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Trema micrantha, common name Jamaican nettletree or guacimilla, is a plant species native to warmer parts of the Western Hemisphere.
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A tributary state is a term for a pre-modern state in a particular type of subordinate relationship to a more powerful state which involved the sending of a regular token of submission, or tribute, to the superior power.
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Tula (Mesoamerican site)
Tula is a Mesoamerican archeological site, which was an important regional center which reached its height as the capital of the Toltec Empire between the fall of Teotihuacan and the rise of Tenochtitlan.
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Twelve Apostles of Mexico
The Twelve Apostles of Mexico, or Twelve Apostles of New Spain, were a group of twelve Franciscan missionaries who arrived in the newly-founded Viceroyalty of New Spain on May 13 or 14, 1524 and reached Mexico City on June 17 or 18.
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In Aztec mythology, a Tzitzimitl (plural Tzitzimimeh) is a deity associated with stars.
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University of Arizona Press
The University of Arizona Press, a publishing house founded in 1959 as a department of the University of Arizona, is a nonprofit publisher of scholarly and regional books.
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University of California Press
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
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University of Minnesota
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (often referred to as the University of Minnesota, Minnesota, the U of M, UMN, or simply the U) is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota.
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University of Minnesota Duluth
The University of Minnesota Duluth (UMD) is a regional branch of the University of Minnesota system located in Duluth, Minnesota, United States.
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University of Oklahoma Press
The University of Oklahoma Press (OU Press) is the publishing arm of the University of Oklahoma.
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University of Texas Press
The University of Texas Press (or UT Press) is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin.
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University Press of Colorado
The University Press of Colorado is a nonprofit publisher supported partly by Adams State University, Colorado State University, Fort Lewis College, Metropolitan State University of Denver, the University of Colorado, the University of Northern Colorado, Utah State University, and Western State Colorado University.
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Uto-Aztecan or Uto-Aztekan is a family of Indigenous languages of the Americas, consisting of over 30 languages.
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Valley of Mexico
The Valley of Mexico (Valle de México; Tepētzallāntli Mēxihco) is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with present-day Mexico City and the eastern half of the State of Mexico.
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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
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William H. Prescott
William Hickling Prescott (May 4, 1796 – January 28, 1859) was an American historian and Hispanist, who is widely recognized by historiographers to have been the first American scientific historian.
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William Robertson (historian)
Rev William Robertson FRSE FSA Scot DD (19 September 1721 – 11 June 1793) was a Scottish historian, minister in the Church of Scotland, and Principal of the University of Edinburgh.
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A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
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In Aztec mythology and religion, Xipe Totec (ˈʃiːpe ˈtoteːkʷ) or Xipetotec ("Our Lord the Flayed One") was a life-death-rebirth deity, god of agriculture, vegetation, the east, disease, spring, goldsmiths, silversmiths, liberation and the seasons.
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The Xiuhpōhualli (from +) was a 365-day calendar used by the Aztecs and other pre-Columbian Nahua peoples in central Mexico.
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In Aztec mythology, Xiuhtecuhtli ("Turquoise Lord" or "Lord of Fire"), was the god of fire, day and heat.
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Xochimilco (Xōchimīlco) is one of the 16 ''mayoralities'' (Spanish: alcaldías) or boroughs within Mexico City.
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Xochipilli is the god of art, games, beauty, dance, flowers, and song in Aztec mythology.
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In Aztec mythology, Xochiquetzal (ʃoːtʃiˈketsaɬ), also called Ichpochtli itʃˈpoːtʃtɬi, meaning "maiden",Nahuatl Dictionary. (1997).
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The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica.
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The Zócalo is the common name of the main square in central Mexico City.
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Aztec, Aztec Civilisation, Aztec Civilization, Aztec Music, Aztec civilisation, Aztec civilization, Aztec civilizations, Aztec culture, Aztec people, Origin of Aztec term to refer to the Mexica, The Aztec civilization, The Aztec ways, The Aztecs.