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Index BIOS

BIOS (an acronym for Basic Input/Output System and also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS or PC BIOS) is non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs. [1]

202 relations: A20 line, Addison-Wesley, Advanced Configuration and Power Interface, Advanced Micro Devices, American Megatrends, Antivirus software, Apple Inc., Apple–Intel architecture, Application programming interface, Award Software, BIOS interrupt call, Blog, Boot sector, Booting, Brick (electronics), C (programming language), C't, Cassette deck, CD-ROM, Central processing unit, Checksum, Chernobyl disaster, Chipset, CIH (computer virus), Clock rate, CMOS, Common Hardware Reference Platform, Compact disc, Compaq Portable, Computer hardware, Computer History Museum, Computer keyboard, Coreboot, CP/M, Dd (Unix), De facto standard, Debug (command), Dell, Demoscene, Digital Research, Digital Systems, DIP switch, Direct memory access, Dot matrix, Double boot, DR-DOS, Dr. Dobb's Journal, DVD, E820, EEPROM, ..., El Torito (CD-ROM standard), Endianness, Entry point, EPROM, Extended Industry Standard Architecture, Extended System Configuration Data, Firmware, Flash memory, Floppy disk, Forth (programming language), FreeBSD, Gary Kildall, General Software, Gigabyte Technology, GNU Lesser General Public License, Google, GUID Partition Table, Hard disk drive, Hardware abstraction, Hash function, Heinz Heise, Hewlett-Packard, Hot swapping, IA-64, IBM, IBM BASIC, IBM PC DOS, IBM PCjr, IBM Personal Computer, IBM Personal Computer XT, IBM Personal Computer/AT, IBMBIO.COM, IMDOS, IMS Associates, Inc., IMSAI 8080, Industry Standard Architecture, Input/output, Insyde Software, INT 13H, Intel, Interface (computing), Interrupt vector table, IO.SYS, ISO 9660, Keyboard controller (computing), Kibibyte, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Legacy Plug and Play, LHA (file format), Library (computing), Libreboot, Linux, Linux distribution, Linux kernel, Low Pin Count, MacBook Pro, MacOS, Mass storage, Master boot record, Matt Blaze, Memory Reference Code, Micro-Star International, Microcode, Microcontroller, Microsoft, Microsoft Windows, Motherboard, MS-DOS, National Security Agency, Network interface controller, Nonvolatile BIOS memory, OLPC XO, Omron, Open Firmware, Open-source hardware, OpenBIOS, OpenBSD, Operating system, Opteron, Optical disc drive, Option ROM, Original equipment manufacturer, OS/2, Overclocking, P6 (microarchitecture), Packet switching, Parallel port, PCX, Pentium FDIV bug, Personal computer, Phoenix Technologies, Phrack, PL/M, Power management, Power-on self-test, PowerPC, Product recall, Programmable interrupt controller, Proprietary software, Protection ring, RAID, Ralf Brown's Interrupt List, Random-access memory, Read-only memory, Real mode, Recovery disc, Removable media, Reverse engineering, Rootkit, RS/6000, SCSI, SCSI host adapter, SeaBIOS, Serial Peripheral Interface, Serial port, SmartComputing, Software bug, SPARC, Special Interest Group, Splashtop Remote, System Locked Pre-installation, System Management BIOS, System time, Text mode, Text-based user interface, The Guardian, Trojan horse (computing), Tyan, Ultraviolet, Unified EFI Forum, Unified Extensible Firmware Interface, Upper memory area, USB, USB flash drive, User interface, VESA BIOS Extensions, Video BIOS, Video card, Volume boot record, William Millard (businessman), Windows 2000, Windows 9x, Windows NT, Windows XP, Wintel, X86, X86-64, Year 2000 problem, 16-bit, 32-bit, 60 Minutes, 8-bit. Expand index (152 more) »

A20 line

The A20, or addressing line 20, is one of the electrical lines that make up the system bus of an x86-based computer system.

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Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.

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Advanced Configuration and Power Interface

In a computer, the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) provides an open standard that operating systems can use to discover and configure computer hardware components, to perform power management by (for example) putting unused components to sleep, and to perform status monitoring.

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Advanced Micro Devices

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.

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American Megatrends

American Megatrends Incorporated (AMI) is an American hardware and software company, specializing in PC hardware and firmware.

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Antivirus software

Antivirus software, or anti-virus software (abbreviated to AV software), also known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent, detect, and remove malware.

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Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.

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Apple–Intel architecture

The Apple–Intel architecture, or Mactel, is an unofficial name used for Apple Macintosh personal computers developed and manufactured by Apple Inc. that use Intel x86 processors, rather than the PowerPC and Motorola 68000 ("68k") series processors used in their predecessors.

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Application programming interface

In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.

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Award Software

Award Software International Inc. was a BIOS manufacturer founded in 1983, by Rene Vishney and Bob Stillman in San Jose, California.

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BIOS interrupt call

BIOS interrupt calls are a facility that operating systems and application programs use to invoke the facilities of the Basic Input/Output System on IBM PC compatible computers.

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A blog (a truncation of the expression "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries ("posts").

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Boot sector

A boot sector is a region of a hard disk, floppy disk, optical disc, or other data storage device that contains machine code to be loaded into random-access memory (RAM) by a computer system's built-in firmware.

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In computing, booting is starting up a computer or computer appliance until it can be used.

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Brick (electronics)

The word "brick", when used in reference to consumer electronics, describes an electronic device such as a smartphone, game console, router, or tablet computer that, due to severe physical damage, a serious misconfiguration, corrupted firmware, or a hardware problem, can no longer function, hence, is as technologically useful as a brick.

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C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

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c't – Magazin für Computertechnik (magazine for computer technology) is a German computer magazine, published by the Heinz Heise publishing house.

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Cassette deck

A cassette deck is a type of tape machine for playing and recording audio compact cassettes.

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A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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A checksum is a small-sized datum derived from a block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors which may have been introduced during its transmission or storage.

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Chernobyl disaster

The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.

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In a computer system, a chipset is a set of electronic components in an integrated circuit known as a "Data Flow Management System" that manages the data flow between the processor, memory and peripherals.

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CIH (computer virus)

CIH, also known as Chernobyl or Spacefiller, is a Microsoft Windows 9x computer virus which first emerged in 1998.

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Clock rate

The clock rate typically refers to the frequency at which a chip like a central processing unit (CPU), one core of a multi-core processor, is running and is used as an indicator of the processor's speed.

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Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.

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Common Hardware Reference Platform

Common Hardware Reference Platform (CHRP) is a standard system architecture for PowerPC-based computer systems published jointly by IBM and Apple in 1995.

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Compact disc

Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.

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Compaq Portable

The Compaq Portable is an early portable computer which was one of the first 100% IBM PC compatible systems.

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Computer hardware

Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.

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Computer History Museum

The Computer History Museum (CHM) is a museum established in 1996 in Mountain View, California, US.

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Computer keyboard

In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.

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coreboot, formerly known as LinuxBIOS, is a software project aimed at replacing proprietary firmware (BIOS or UEFI) found in most computers with a lightweight firmware designed to perform only the minimum number of tasks necessary to load and run a modern 32-bit or 64-bit operating system.

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CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, is a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.

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Dd (Unix)

dd is a command-line utility for Unix and Unix-like operating systems whose primary purpose is to convert and copy files.

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De facto standard

A standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (for example, by early entrance to the market).

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Debug (command)

debug is a command in DOS, OS/2 and Microsoft Windows (only in 32bitAccording to, inline assembly is not supported for x64.) which runs the program debug.exe (or DEBUG.COM in DOS version 4.x and older).

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Dell (stylized as DELL) is an American multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services.

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The demoscene is an international computer art subculture focused on producing demos: self-contained, sometimes extremely small, computer programs that produce audio-visual presentations.

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Digital Research

Digital Research, Inc. (also known as DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM.

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Digital Systems

* Digital Systems, Seattle, USA, between 1966 and 1979 an accounting service and technology development company founded by John Torode.

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DIP switch

A DIP switch is a manual electric switch that is packaged with others in a group in a standard dual in-line package (DIP).

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Direct memory access

Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of computer systems that allows certain hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU).

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Dot matrix

A dot matrix is a 2-dimensional patterned array, used to represent characters, symbols and images.

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Double boot

Double boot (also known as cold double boot, double cold boot, double POST, power-on auto reboot, or fake boot) is a feature of the BIOS and may occur after changes to the BIOS settings or the system's configuration, or a power failure while the system was in certain sleep modes.

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DR-DOS (DR DOS, without hyphen up to and including version 6.0) is an operating system of the DOS family, written for IBM PC-compatible personal computers.

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Dr. Dobb's Journal


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DVD (an abbreviation of "digital video disc" or "digital versatile disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips and Sony in 1995.

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e820 is shorthand to refer to the facility by which the BIOS of x86-based computer systems reports the memory map to the operating system or boot loader.

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EEPROM (also E2PROM) stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers, integrated in microcontrollers for smart cards and remote keyless system, and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data but allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed.

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El Torito (CD-ROM standard)

The El Torito Bootable CD Specification is an extension to the ISO 9660 CD-ROM specification.

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Endianness refers to the sequential order in which bytes are arranged into larger numerical values when stored in memory or when transmitted over digital links.

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Entry point

In computer programming, an entry point is where control is transferred from the operating system to a computer program, at which place the processor enters a program or a code fragment and execution begins.

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An EPROM (rarely EROM), or erasable programmable read-only memory, is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off.

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Extended Industry Standard Architecture

The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (in practice almost always shortened to EISA and frequently pronounced "eee-suh") is a bus standard for IBM PC compatible computers.

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Extended System Configuration Data

The Extended System Configuration Data (ESCD) is a specification for configuring x86 computers of the ISA PNP era.

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In electronic systems and computing, firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware.

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Flash memory

Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.

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Floppy disk

A floppy disk, also called a floppy, diskette, or just disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles.

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Forth (programming language)

Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and environment originally designed by Charles "Chuck" Moore.

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FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).

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Gary Kildall

Gary Arlen Kildall (May 19, 1942 – July 11, 1994) was an American computer scientist and microcomputer entrepreneur who created the CP/M operating system and founded Digital Research, Inc. (DRI).

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General Software

General Software was a Washington, USA based creator and supplier of system software headquartered in Bellevue, Washington.

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Gigabyte Technology

Gigabyte Technology Co., Ltd., is an international manufacturer and distributor of computer hardware products.

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GNU Lesser General Public License

The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation (FSF).

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Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

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GUID Partition Table

GUID Partition Table (GPT) is a standard for the layout of the partition table on a physical storage device used in a desktop or server PC, such as a hard disk drive or solid-state drive, using globally unique identifiers (GUID).

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Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

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Hardware abstraction

Hardware abstractions are sets of routines in software that emulate some platform-specific details, giving programs direct access to the hardware resources.

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Hash function

A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size.

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Heinz Heise

Heinz Heise is a publishing house based in Hanover, Germany.

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The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.

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Hot swapping

Hot swapping (frequently inaccurately called hot plugging) is replacing or adding components without stopping or shutting down the system.

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IA-64 (also called Intel Itanium architecture) is the instruction set architecture (ISA) of the Itanium family of 64-bit Intel microprocessors.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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The IBM Personal Computer Basic, commonly shortened to IBM BASIC, is a programming language first released by IBM with the IBM Personal Computer (model 5150) in 1981.

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IBM PC DOS (an acronym for IBM personal computer disk operating system) is a discontinued operating system for the IBM Personal Computer, manufactured and sold by IBM from the early 1980s into the 2000s.

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The IBM PCjr (read "PC junior") was IBM's first attempt to enter the home computer market.

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IBM Personal Computer

The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.

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IBM Personal Computer XT

The IBM Personal Computer XT, often shortened to the IBM XT, PC XT, or simply XT, is a version of the IBM PC with a built-in hard drive.

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IBM Personal Computer/AT

The IBM Personal Computer AT, more commonly known as the IBM AT and also sometimes called the PC AT or PC/AT, was IBM's second-generation PC, designed around the 6 MHz Intel 80286 microprocessor and released in 1984 as System Unit 5170.

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IBMBIO.COM is a system file in many DOS operating systems.

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IMDOS was a modified version of the CP/M operating system for Intel 8080 processors, used by IMS Associates, Inc. (IMS) for their IMSAI 8080 personal computer.

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IMS Associates, Inc.

IMS Associates, Inc., or IMSAI, was a microcomputer company, responsible for one of the earliest successes in personal computing, the IMSAI 8080.

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IMSAI 8080

The IMSAI 8080 was an early microcomputer released in late 1975, based on the Intel 8080 and later 8085 and S-100 bus.

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Industry Standard Architecture

Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is a retronym term for the 16-bit internal bus of IBM PC/AT and similar computers based on the Intel 80286 and its immediate successors during the 1980s.

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In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.

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Insyde Software

Insyde Software is a company that specializes in UEFI system firmware and engineering support services, primarily for OEM and ODM computer and component device manufacturers.

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INT 13h is shorthand for BIOS interrupt call 13hex, the 20th interrupt vector in an x86-based computer system.

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Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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Interface (computing)

In computing, an interface is a shared boundary across which two or more separate components of a computer system exchange information.

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Interrupt vector table

An "interrupt vector table" (IVT) is a data structure that associates a list of interrupt handlers with a list of interrupt requests in a table of interrupt vectors.

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IO.SYS is an essential part of MS-DOS and Windows 9x.

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ISO 9660

ISO 9660 is a file system for optical disc media.

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Keyboard controller (computing)

In computing, a keyboard controller is a device that interfaces a keyboard to a computer.

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The kibibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for quantities of digital information.

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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952.

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Legacy Plug and Play

The term Legacy Plug and Play, also shortened to PnP, describes a series of specifications and Microsoft Windows features geared towards operating system configuration of devices.

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LHA (file format)

LHA is a freeware compression utility and associated file format.

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Library (computing)

In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.

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Libreboot (formerly known as GNU Libreboot) is a free software project aimed at replacing the proprietary BIOS firmware found in most computers with a libre, lightweight system designed to perform only the minimum number of tasks necessary to load and run a modern 32-bit or 64-bit operating system.

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Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.

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Linux distribution

A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.

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Linux kernel

The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.

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Low Pin Count

The Low Pin Count bus, or LPC bus, is a computer bus used on IBM-compatible personal computers to connect low-bandwidth devices to the CPU, such as the boot ROM, "legacy" I/O devices (integrated into a super I/O chip), and Trusted Platform Module (TPM).

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MacBook Pro

The MacBook Pro (sometimes abbreviated as MBP) is a line of Macintosh portable computers introduced in January 2006 by Apple Inc.

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macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.

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Mass storage

In computing, mass storage refers to the storage of large amounts of data in a persisting and machine-readable fashion.

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Master boot record

A master boot record (MBR) is a special type of boot sector at the very beginning of partitioned computer mass storage devices like fixed disks or removable drives intended for use with IBM PC-compatible systems and beyond.

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Matt Blaze

Matt Blaze is a researcher in the areas of secure systems, cryptography, and trust management.

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Memory Reference Code

The Memory Reference Code (or MRC) is a fundamental component in the design of some computers, and is "one of the most important aspects of the BIOS" for an Intel-based motherboard.

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Micro-Star International

MSI (Micro-Star International Co., Ltd, Chinese: 微星科技股份有限公司), stylized as MSi is a Taiwanese multinational information technology corporation headquartered in New Taipei City, Taiwan.

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Microcode is a computer hardware technique that imposes an interpreter between the CPU hardware and the programmer-visible instruction set architecture of the computer.

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A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.

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Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

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Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

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A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, baseboard, planar board or logic board, or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in general purpose microcomputers and other expandable systems.

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MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.

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National Security Agency

The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.

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Network interface controller

A network interface controller (NIC, also known as a network interface card, network adapter, LAN adapter or physical network interface, and by similar terms) is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.

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Nonvolatile BIOS memory

Nonvolatile BIOS memory refers to a small memory on PC motherboards that is used to store BIOS settings.

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The OLPC XO, previously known as the $100 Laptop, Children's Machine, and 2B1, is an inexpensive laptop computer intended to be distributed to children in developing countries around the world, to provide them with access to knowledge, and opportunities to "explore, experiment and express themselves" (constructionist learning).

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is an electronics company based in Kyoto, Japan.

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Open Firmware

Open Firmware, or OpenBoot in Sun Microsystems parlance, is a standard defining the interfaces of a computer firmware system, formerly endorsed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

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Open-source hardware

Open-source hardware (OSH) consists of physical artifacts of technology designed and offered by the open design movement.

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OpenBIOS is a project aiming to provide free and open source implementations of Open Firmware.

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OpenBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Opteron is AMD's x86 former server and workstation processor line, and was the first processor which supported the AMD64 instruction set architecture (known generically as x86-64).

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Optical disc drive

In computing, an optical disc drive (ODD) is a disc drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs.

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Option ROM

An Option ROM typically consists of firmware that is called by the BIOS.

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Original equipment manufacturer

An Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) is a company that produces parts and equipment that may be marketed by another manufacturer.

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OS/2 is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci.

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Overclocking is configuration of computer hardware components to operate faster than certified by the original manufacturer, with "faster" specified as clock frequency in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz).

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P6 (microarchitecture)

The P6 microarchitecture is the sixth-generation Intel x86 microarchitecture, implemented by the Pentium Pro microprocessor that was introduced in November 1995.

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Packet switching

Packet switching is a method of grouping data which is transmitted over a digital network into packets which are made of a header and a payload.

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Parallel port

A parallel port is a type of interface found on computers (personal and otherwise) for connecting peripherals.

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PCX, standing for PiCture eXchange, is an image file format developed by the now-defunct ZSoft Corporation of Marietta, Georgia, United States.

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Pentium FDIV bug

The Pentium FDIV bug was a computer bug that affected the floating point unit (FPU) of the early Intel Pentium processors.

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Personal computer

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

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Phoenix Technologies

Phoenix Technologies Ltd is an American company that designs, develops and supports core system software for personal computers and other computing devices.

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Phrack is an ezine written by and for hackers, first published November 17, 1985.

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The PL/M programming language (an acronym of Programming Language for Microcomputers) is a high-level language conceived and developed by Gary Kildall in 1973 for Hank Smith at Intel for its microprocessors.

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Power management

Power Management is a feature of some electrical appliances, especially copiers, computers, GPUs and computer peripherals such as monitors and printers, that turns off the power or switches the system to a low-power state when inactive.

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Power-on self-test

A power-on self-test (POST) is a process performed by firmware or software routines immediately after a computer or other digital electronic device is powered on.

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PowerPC (with the backronym Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM.

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Product recall

A product recall is a request to return a product after the discovery of safety issues or product defects that might endanger the consumer or put the maker/seller at risk of legal action.

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Programmable interrupt controller

In computing, a programmable interrupt controller (PIC) is a device that is used to combine several sources of interrupt onto one or more CPU lines, while allowing priority levels to be assigned to its interrupt outputs.

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Proprietary software

Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.

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Protection ring

In computer science, hierarchical protection domains, often called protection rings, are mechanisms to protect data and functionality from faults (by improving fault tolerance) and malicious behaviour (by providing computer security).

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RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks, originally Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) is a data storage virtualization technology that combines multiple physical disk drive components into one or more logical units for the purposes of data redundancy, performance improvement, or both.

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Ralf Brown's Interrupt List

Ralf Brown's Interrupt List (aka RBIL, x86 Interrupt List, MS-DOS Interrupt List or INTER) is a comprehensive list of interrupts, calls, hooks, interfaces, data structures, CMOS settings, memory and port addresses, as well as processor opcodes and special function registers for x86 machines (including many clones) from the very start of the PC era in 1981 up into the year 2000, most of it still applying to PCs today.

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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Read-only memory

Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.

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Real mode

Real mode, also called real address mode, is an operating mode of all x86-compatible CPUs.

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Recovery disc

A recovery disc is any of various media containing a backup of the original factory condition or a favored condition of a computer as configured by an original equipment manufacturer or an end-user.

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Removable media

In computer storage, some types of removable media are designed to be read to or written to by removable readers, writers and drives.

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Reverse engineering

Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.

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A root kit is a collection of computer software, typically malicious, designed to enable access to a computer or areas of its software that is not otherwise allowed (for example, to an unauthorized user) and often masks its existence or the existence of other software.

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RISC System/6000, or RS/6000 for short, is a family of RISC-based UNIX servers, workstations and supercomputers made by IBM in the 1990s.

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Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices.

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SCSI host adapter

A SCSI host adapter is a device used to connect one or more other SCSI devices to a computer bus.

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SeaBIOS is an open source implementation of a 16-bit x86 BIOS, serving as a freely available firmware for x86 systems.

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Serial Peripheral Interface

The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) is a synchronous serial communication interface specification used for short distance communication, primarily in embedded systems.

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Serial port

In computing, a serial port is a serial communication interface through which information transfers in or out one bit at a time (in contrast to a parallel port).

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Smart Computing was a monthly computing and technology magazine published by Sandhills Publishing Company in Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.

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Software bug

A software bug is an error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.

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SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems.

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Special Interest Group

A Special Interest Group (SIG) is a community within a larger organization with a shared interest in advancing a specific area of knowledge, learning or technology where members cooperate to affect or to produce solutions within their particular field, and may communicate, meet, and organize conferences.

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Splashtop Remote

Splashtop Remote remote-desktop software allows users to connect to and control computers from various devices, such as a personal computer, iPad, iPhone, or Android device.

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System Locked Pre-installation

System Locked Pre-installation, often abbreviated as SLP, is a procedure used by major OEM computer-manufacturers in order to pre-activate Microsoft Windows before mass distribution.

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System Management BIOS

In computing, the System Management BIOS (SMBIOS) specification defines data structures (and access methods) that can be used to read management information produced by the BIOS of a computer.

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System time

In computer science and computer programming, system time represents a computer system's notion of the passing of time.

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Text mode

Text mode is a computer display mode in which content is internally represented on a computer screen in terms of characters rather than individual pixels.

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Text-based user interface

Text-based user interface (TUI), also called textual user interface or terminal user interface, is a retronym coined sometime after the invention of graphical user interfaces.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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Trojan horse (computing)

In computing, a Trojan horse, or Trojan, is any malicious computer program which misleads users of its true intent.

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Tyan Computer Corporation (泰安電腦科技股份有限公司; also known as Tyan Business Unit, or TBU), is a subsidiary of MiTAC International, and a manufacturer of computer motherboards, including models for both Intel and AMD processors.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Unified EFI Forum

The Unified Extensible Firmware Interface Forum or UEFI Forum is an alliance between several leading technology companies to modernize the booting process.

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Unified Extensible Firmware Interface

The Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) is a specification that defines a software interface between an operating system and platform firmware.

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Upper memory area

In DOS memory management, the upper memory area (UMA) refers to memory between the addresses of 640 KB and 1024 KB (0xA0000–0xFFFFF) in an IBM PC or compatible.

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USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus), is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices.

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USB flash drive

A USB flash drive, also variously known as a thumb drive, pen drive, gig stick, flash stick, jump drive, disk key, disk on key (after the original M-Systems DiskOnKey drive from 2000), flash-drive, memory stick (not to be confused with the Sony Memory Stick), USB stick or USB memory, is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated USB interface.

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User interface

The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.

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VESA BIOS Extensions

VESA BIOS Extensions (VBE) is a VESA standard, currently at version 3, that defines the interface that can be used by software to access compliant video boards at high resolutions and bit depths.

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Video BIOS

Video BIOS is the BIOS of a graphics card in a (usually IBM PC-derived) computer.

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Video card

A video card (also called a display card, graphics card, display adapter or graphics adapter) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display (such as a computer monitor).

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Volume boot record

A volume boot record (VBR) (also known as a volume boot sector, a partition boot record or a partition boot sector) is a type of boot sector introduced by the IBM Personal Computer.

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William Millard (businessman)

William "Bill" Millard was the founder of IMS Associates, makers of the IMSAI series of computers and the electronics retailer ComputerLand.

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Windows 2000

Windows 2000 (codenamed NT 5.0) is an operating system for use on both client and server computers.

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Windows 9x

Windows 9x is a generic term referring to a series of Microsoft Windows computer operating systems produced from 1995 to 2000, which were based on the Windows 95 kernel and its underlying foundation of MS-DOS, both of which were updated in subsequent versions.

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Windows NT

Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993.

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Windows XP

Windows XP (codenamed Whistler) is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.

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Wintel is a portmanteau of Windows and Intel, referring to personal computers using Intel x86-compatible processors running Microsoft Windows.

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x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.

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x86-64 (also known as x64, x86_64, AMD64 and Intel 64) is the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set.

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Year 2000 problem

The Year 2000 problem, also known as the Y2K problem, the Millennium bug, the Y2K bug, or Y2K, is a class of computer bugs related to the formatting and storage of calendar data for dates beginning in the year 2000.

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16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.

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32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.

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60 Minutes

60 Minutes is an American newsmagazine television program broadcast on the CBS television network.

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8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.

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Redirects here:

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIOS

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