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Abadan (آبادان Ābādān) is a city and capital of Abadan County, Khuzestan Province which is located in southwest of Iran.
Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed al-Megrahi (عبد الباسط محمد علي المقرحي,; 1 April 1952 – 20 May 2012) was a Libyan who was head of security for Libyan Arab Airlines, director of the Centre for Strategic Studies in Tripoli, Libya, and an alleged Libyan intelligence officer.
Aberdeen (Aiberdeen,; Obar Dheathain; Aberdonia) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and for the local authority area.
Access Industries, Inc. is a privately held multinational industrial group.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetic anhydride, or ethanoic anhydride, is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3CO)2O.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
Air BP is the specialised aviation division of BP.
Aker BP ASA is an oil exploration and development company focusing petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf.
The Alaska North Slope is the region of the U.S. state of Alaska located on the northern slope of the Brooks Range along the coast of two marginal seas of the Arctic Ocean, the Chukchi Sea being on the western side of Point Barrow, and the Beaufort Sea on the eastern.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
Alfa Group Consortium is one of Russia's largest privately owned investment groups, with interests in oil and gas, commercial and investment banking, asset management, insurance, retail trade, telecommunications, water utilities and special situation investments.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel.
"." Houston Business Journal.
An American depositary receipt (ADR, and sometimes spelled depository) is a negotiable security that represents securities of a non-U.S. company that trades in the U.S. financial markets.
The American Marketing Association (AMA) is a professional association for marketing professionals with 30,000 members as of 2012.
Amoco Corporation, originally Standard Oil Company (Indiana), is a global chemical and oil company that was founded in 1889 around a refinery located in Whiting, Indiana, United States.
The ampm brand (rarely "am/pm") is a convenience store chain with branches located in several U.S. states, including Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, recently in Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Georgia, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Florida, and in several countries worldwide.
Amy Goodman is an American broadcast journalist, syndicated columnist, investigative reporter, and author.
The Anchorage Daily News is a daily newspaper published by the Binkley Group, and based in Anchorage, Alaska.
Andeavor, formerly known as Tesoro Corporation, or simply as Tesoro, is a Fortune 100 and a Fortune Global 500 company headquartered in Texas at San Antonio, with 2013 annual revenues of $37 billion, and over 13,000 employees worldwide.
The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was a British company founded in 1908 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran.
Antonia Juhasz (born 1970) is an American oil and energy analyst, author, journalist and activist.
Apache Corporation is an American petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company incorporated in Delaware and headquartered in Houston.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
Aral is a brand of automobile fuels and petrol stations, present in Germany and Luxembourg, but formerly used in most countries of Western and Central Europe.
Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO, pronounced ar-kouh) is an American oil company with operations in the United States, Indonesia, the North Sea, the South China Sea and Mexico.
Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Associated British Foods plc (ABF) is a British multinational food processing and retailing company whose headquarters are in London.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
The Athabasca oil sands (or tar sands) are large deposits of bitumen or extremely heavy crude oil, located in northeastern Alberta, Canada – roughly centred on the boomtown of Fort McMurray.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
The Atlantic LNG Company of Trinidad and Tobago is a liquefied natural gas (LNG) producing company operating a liquefied natural gas plant in Point Fortin, Trinidad and Tobago.
The Atlantis oil field is the third largest oil field in the Gulf of Mexico.
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers.
Aviation fuel is a specialized type of petroleum-based fuel used to power aircraft.
Azeri (Azerbaijani: Azəri) is an offshore oil field in the Caspian Sea, located east of Baku, Azerbaijan and is a part of the larger Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli (ACG) project.
Azeri–Chirag–Gunashli (ACG, Azəri-Çıraq-Günəşli) or Azeri–Chirag–Deepwater Gunashli is a complex of oil fields in the Caspian Sea, about off the coast of Azerbaijan.
Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic, covers the history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule.
The Baku–Supsa Pipeline (also known as the Western Route Export Pipeline and Western Early Oil Pipeline) is an long oil pipeline, which runs from the Sangachal Terminal near Baku to the Supsa terminal in Georgia.
The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline is a long crude oil pipeline from the Azeri–Chirag–Gunashli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
The barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) is a unit of energy based on the approximate energy released by burning one barrel (42 U.S. gallons or 158.9873 litres) of crude oil.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Bergen Airport, Flesland (Bergen lufthavn, Flesland) is an international airport located at Flesland in Bergen, a city and municipality in Hordaland county, Norway.
Big Oil is a name used to describe the world's six or seven largest publicly traded oil and gas companies, also known as supermajors.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
BlackRock, Inc. is an American global investment management corporation based in New York City.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
A blowout is the uncontrolled release of crude oil and/or natural gas from an oil well or gas well after pressure control systems have failed.
Bluefin tuna is a common name used to refer to several species of tuna of the genus Thunnus.
Robert Warren Dudley (born September 14, 1955) is the group chief executive of BP.
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), firing torpedoes and bullets or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.
BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.
BP Biofuels Highlands was a subsidiary of BP developing cellulosic ethanol project in Florida.
BP Canada Energy Group ULC (commonly, BP Canada), is a Canadian oil and gas company headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, and a subsidiary of BP plc (formerly named British Petroleum).
BP Shipping is the maritime arm of British headquartered global oil company, BP.
BP Solar was a manufacturer and installer of photovoltaic solar cells headquartered in Madrid, Spain, with production facilities in India and the People's Republic of China.
Bridas Corporation is an independent oil and gas holding company based in Argentina.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
British Tanker Company Limited was the maritime transport arm of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, the forerunner of BP.
Britoil was originally a privatised British oil company operating in the North Sea.
The Burmah Oil Company was a leading British oil business which was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.
Bushehr Province (استان بوشهر, Ostān-e Būshehr) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Business Line or The Hindu Business Line is an Indian business newspaper published by Kasturi & Sons, the publishers of the newspaper The Hindu located in Chennai, India.
Butanol may be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine.
Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta.
Calouste Gulbenkian (Western Գալուստ Կիւլպէնկեան; 23 March 1869 – 20 July 1955) was a businessman and philanthropist of British nationality and Armenian origin.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Campaign finance refers to all funds raised to promote candidates, political parties, or policy initiatives and referenda.
Campos Basin is one of 12 coastal sedimentary basins of Brazil.
Canary Wharf is a commercial estate and locality in between Poplar, Millwall and Limehouse on the Isle of Dogs in Greater London, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets.
Canton, officially the Charter Township of Canton, is a charter township of Wayne County in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carl Joseph Barbier (born 1944) is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana.
Carl-Henric Svanberg (born 29 May 1952), is a Swedish businessman and current Chairman of BP and Volvo.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Castrol is a British global brand of industrial and automotive lubricants offering a wide range of oils, greases and similar products for most lubrication applications.
The Cedar Creek Wind Farm is a 551.3MW, 397 wind turbine facility, consists of 2 phases, Cedar Creek I and Cedar Creek II, located 13 km (8 miles) east of Grover in north-central Weld County, Colorado, which became fully operational with the completion of Cedar Creek II in 2010. The initial 300.5 megawatt (MW) Cedar Creek I wind power installation was completed on time, within budget and without incident - with the operation commencing on 21 November 2007. Cedar Creek I is an important contributor to Colorado's New Energy Economy, providing enough wind-powered electricity for 81,135 homes. The power produced from the Cedar Creek wind farm is sold to the Public Service Company of Colorado. Cedar Creek II has an additional 250.8MW of generating capacity, and was commissioned in 2010. The first phase has 221 1MW wind turbines (produced by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries) and 53 1.5MW turbines (produced by General Electric), and the second phase has an additional 63 1.6MW SLE turbines from General Electric, and 60 2.5MW from German wind turbine supplier Nordex. The Cedar Creek Wind Farm I is owned by Cedar Creek Wind Energy LLC which is a conglomerate group with Infigen Energy owning 67% and BP Wind Energy the other 33%. The Cedar Creek Wind Farm II is owned by BP Wind Energy (50%) and Sempra Generation (50%). The power from the Cedar Creek 2 Wind Farm has been sold under a long-term power purchase agreement to the Public Service Company of Colorado, an Xcel Energy company. Electricity from the Cedar Creek II Wind Farm reaches the grid through approximately 20 miles of new transmission lines that connect to the Cedar Creek I Wind Farm. From there, the project utilizes an existing 76-mile (230kV) transmission line to deliver the electrical power. The Cedar Creek II project employed some 350 workers during peak construction, and some 19 jobs have been created to monitor and maintain the facility.
Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the plant's seeds or fruit.
The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) is an environmental nonprofit organization based in Arlington, Virginia.
The Cherry Point Refinery, owned by BP, is the largest oil refinery in Washington (and was the 30th largest in the U.S. in 2015).
Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation.
China National Offshore Oil Corporation, or CNOOC Group (Chinese: 中国海洋石油总公司 Pinyin: Zhōngguó Háiyáng Shíyóu Zǒnggōngsī), is a major national oil company in China.
The China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)A common shortname for the corporation in Chinese, Zhongguo Shiyou (中国石油), formerly shared the same name as the Chinese Petroleum Corporation, the Republic of China (Taiwan)'s state-owned fuel corporation.
The Clair oilfield is an offshore oil field in Scottish territorial waters west of Shetland in water depths of up to.
The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.) is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.
The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution.
Climate change denial, or global warming denial, is part of the global warming controversy.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coalbed methane (CBM or coal-bed methane), coalbed gas, coal seam gas (CSG), or coal-mine methane (CMM) is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is an independent agency of the US government created in 1974, that regulates futures and option markets.
Commonwealth Oil Refineries (COR) was an Australian oil company that operated between 1920 and 1952 as a joint venture of the Australian government and the Anglo-Persian Oil Company.
Companies House is the United Kingdom's registrar of companies and is an executive agency and trading fund of Her Majesty's Government.
Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup (Københavns Lufthavn, Kastrup) is the main international airport serving Copenhagen, Denmark, the entire Zealand, the Øresund Region, and a large part of southern Sweden (not only Scania).
Corexit (often styled COREXIT) is a product line of oil dispersants used during oil spill response operations.
In finance, cornering the market consists of obtaining sufficient control of a particular stock, commodity, or other asset in an attempt to manipulate the market price.
Courchelettes is a commune of the Nord department in northern France.
Cumberland Farms, colloquially known as "Cumbies," is a regional chain of convenience stores based in Westborough, Massachusetts, operating primarily in New York, New England and Florida.
Dalmeny is a village and parish in Scotland.
Day.az is an Azerbaijani news portal established in 2003 by MP Anar Mammadkhanov, trading as the Day.Az Media Company.
Decatur is a city in Morgan and Limestone counties in the State of Alabama.
Deepwater Horizon was an ultra-deepwater, dynamically positioned, semi-submersible offshore drilling rig owned by Transocean.
The Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion was the April 20, 2010, explosion and subsequent fire on the Deepwater Horizon semi-submersible Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), which was owned and operated by Transocean and drilling for BP in the Macondo Prospect oil field about southeast off the Louisiana coast.
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill/leak, the BP oil disaster, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, and the Macondo blowout) is an industrial disaster that began on 20 April 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect, considered to be the largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry and estimated to be 8% to 31% larger in volume than the previous largest, the Ixtoc I oil spill.
The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Trust is the $20 billion trust fund established by BP to settle claims arising from the ''Deepwater Horizon'' oil spill.
Democracy Now! is an hour-long American TV, radio and internet news program hosted by journalists Amy Goodman and Juan González.
The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) was a United Kingdom government department formed on 19 October 1970.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
Devon Energy Corporation is an American independent natural gas, natural gas liquids, and petroleum exploration company focused on onshore exploration and production in North America.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
Donald Alexander Smith, 1st Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal, (6 August 182021 January 1914), was a Scottish-born Canadian businessman who became one of the British Empire's foremost builders and philanthropists.
Dorset (archaically: Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.
The oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major sectors: upstream, midstream, and downstream. The downstream sector is the refining of petroleum crude oil and the processing and purifying of raw natural gas, as well as the marketing and distribution of products derived from crude oil and natural gas.
Draugen is an oil field in the Norwegian Sea with a sea depth of.
The Eagle Ford Group (also called the Eagle Ford Shale) is a sedimentary rock formation deposited during the Cenomanian and Turonian ages of the Late Cretaceous over much of the modern-day state of Texas.
The Effie Awards are marketing communications awards given yearly by Effie Worldwide to honor the most effective marketing communications ideas.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Endicott Island is a artificial island located in the U.S. state of Alaska, 2.5 miles (4 km) offshore and from Prudhoe Bay of the Beaufort Sea.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Environmentally friendly or environment-friendly, (also referred to as eco-friendly, nature-friendly, and green) are sustainability and marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that claim reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The extraction of petroleum is the process by which usable petroleum is drawn out from beneath the earth's surface location.
Fazlollah Zahedi (Fazlollāh Zāhedi, pronounced; c. 1892 – 2 September 1963) was an Iranian general and statesman who replaced the democratically elected Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh through a coup d'état, in which he played a major role.
The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is the United States federal agency that regulates the transmission and wholesale sale of electricity and natural gas in interstate commerce and regulates the transportation of oil by pipeline in interstate commerce.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
The term felony, in some common law countries, is defined as a serious crime.
The Financial Post was an English Canadian business newspaper, which published from 1907 to 1998.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.
Flag of convenience (FOC) is a business practice whereby a ship's owners register a merchant ship in a ship register of a country other than that of the ship's owners, and the ship flies the civil ensign of that country, called the flag state.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
In architecture, a forecourt is an open area in front of a structure's entrance.
The Forties pipeline system (FPS) is a major pipeline network in the North Sea carrying 30% of the UK's oil, or about of oil a day, to shore.
The Fowler Ridge Wind Farm is a wind farm in Benton County, Indiana, near the city of Fowler, IN about northwest of Lafayette and northwest of Indianapolis.
Franchising is based on a marketing concept which can be adopted by an organisation as a strategy for business expansion.
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange (Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse, FWB) is the world's 10th largest stock exchange by market capitalization.
Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.
The Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 Index, also called the FTSE 100 Index, FTSE 100, FTSE, or, informally, the "Footsie", is a share index of the 100 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange with the highest market capitalisation.
Galveston County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas, located along the Gulf Coast adjacent to Galveston Bay.
Göteborg Landvetter Airport is an international airport serving the Gothenburg (Swedish: Göteborg) region in Sweden.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Global Climate Coalition (GCC) (1989–2001) was an international lobbyist group of businesses that opposed action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and challenged the science behind global warming.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Golden Hills Wind Project is a proposed electricity generating wind farm facility in Sherman County, Oregon.
The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia (also referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, or the Federal Government) is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Grangemouth Refinery is a mature oil refinery complex located on the Firth of Forth in Grangemouth, Scotland.
Grease is a semisolid lubricant.
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Greenwashing (a compound word modelled on "whitewash"), also called "green sheen", is a form of spin in which green PR or green marketing is deceptively used to promote the perception that an organization's products, aims or policies are environmentally friendly.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Southern United States meets the Gulf of Mexico.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
Gulf Oil was a major global oil company from 1901 to 1981.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Haj Ali Razmara (Ḥājī`alī Razmārā; 30 March 1901 – 7 March 1951) was a military leader and prime minister of Iran.
Halliburton is an American multinational corporation.
Halmstad Airport, also known as Halmstad City Airport, is an airport situated northwest of Halmstad, a city in the Halmstad Municipality of Halland County, Sweden.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Helge Lund (born 16 October 1962) is a Norwegian businessman, a director of Schlumberger since June 2016, and the former chief executive officer (CEO) of BG Group, Statoil and Aker Kværner.
Helios (Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) is the god and personification of the Sun in Greek mythology.
A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
The Houston Chronicle is the largest daily newspaper in Houston, Texas, United States.
The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) is the largest LGBT civil rights advocacy group and political lobbying organization in the United States.
Husky Energy Inc. is one of Canada’s largest integrated energy companies, headquartered in Calgary, Alberta.
Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.
Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel when burned with oxygen.
Indorama Ventures Public Company Limited, founded by Indian businessman Aloke Lohia, is one of the world's leading producers in the intermediate petrochemicals industry and a leading global manufacturer of wool yarns.
INEOS is a privately owned multinational chemicals company headquartered in London, UK, and with registered offices in Lyndhurst, Hampshire, UK and London, United Kingdom.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranian nationalism refers to nationalism among the people of Iran and individuals whose national identity is Iranian.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), known prior to 1929 as the Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC), is an oil company which, between 1925 and 1961, had a virtual monopoly on all oil exploration and production in Iraq.
The Irish Independent is Ireland's largest-selling daily newspaper, published by Independent News & Media (INM).
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.
Isobutanol (IUPAC nomenclature: 2-methylpropan-1-ol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2OH (sometimes represented as i-BuOH).
James Edward Hansen (born 29 March 1941) is an American adjunct professor directing the Program on Climate Science, Awareness and Solutions of the Earth Institute at Columbia University.
Jimmy Donal Wales (born August 7, 1966), also known by the online moniker Jimbo, is an American Internet entrepreneur, best known as the co-founder of the online non-profit encyclopedia Wikipedia, and the for-profit web hosting company Wikia.
A jobber, or petroleum marketer, is a person or company that purchases quantities of refined fuel from refining companies (e.g. BP, Shell, Exxon), either for sale to retailers (e.g., gasoline stations), or to sell directly to the users of those products (e.g., home heating oil to homeowners, lubricating oils to industrial operations or repair shops, jet fuel to FBOs, etc.). In essence, the jobber acts as the "middleman" between the company that refines the petroleum products and those that either use them or market them at retail prices.
Edmund John Philip Browne, Baron Browne of Madingley, FRS, FREng, FGS, FInstP, HonFRSC, HonFIMechE, HonFIChemE, CIMgt, FInstPet, FIMMM (born 20 February 1948) is a British businessman.
KFC, until 1991 known as Kentucky Fried Chicken, is an American fast food restaurant chain that specializes in fried chicken.
Khaz'al bin Jabir bin Merdaw al-Ka'bi (خزعل بن جابر بن مرداو الكعبي، شیخ خزعل) (18 August 1863 – 24 May 1936), Muaz us-Sultana, and Sardar-e-Aqdas (Most Sacred Officer of the Imperial Order of the Aqdas), was the independent Emir of the Sheikhdom of "Mohammerah", located today in the Khuzestan province of Iran.
Khuzestan Province (استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, محافظة خوزستان Muḥāfaẓa Khūzistān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq (المملكة العراقية الهاشمية) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of World War I. Although a League of Nations mandate was awarded to the UK in 1920, the 1920 Iraqi revolt resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favor of a British administered semi-independent kingdom, under the Hashemite allies of Britain, via the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.
Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.
The Kuwait Investment Authority (KIA) is Kuwait's sovereign wealth fund, managing body, specializing in local and foreign investment.
The Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) is an oil company headquartered in Ahmadi, Kuwait.
The Kwinana Refinery, operated by BP, is located on the shore of Cockburn Sound at Kwinana, near Fremantle, Western Australia.
Laverton is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 17 km south-west of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the Cities of Hobsons Bay and Wyndham local government areas.
Legal & General Group plc, commonly known as Legal & General, is a British multinational financial services company headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Lightsource BP is a British solar parks developer based in London, United Kingdom.
Linn Energy, Inc. is a petroleum, natural gas, and natural gas liquids exploration and production company incorporated in Delaware and headquartered in Houston.
This is a list of companies in London, England.
This list comprises the world's largest businesses by consolidated revenue as of 2016, according to the Fortune Global 500 tally.
Llandarcy is a village near Neath in Neath Port Talbot county borough, southwest Wales, and formerly the site of the UK's first oil refinery.
An LNG carrier is a tank ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG).
An LNG train is a liquefied natural gas plant's liquefaction and purification facility.
Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange located in the City of London, England.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
An LPG carrier or LPG tanker is a gas carrier/gas tanker ship designed for transporting liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in bulk.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Lubrication is the process or technique of using a lubricant to reduce friction and/or wear in a contact between two surfaces.
The Macondo Prospect (Mississippi Canyon Block 252, abbreviated MC252) is an oil and gas prospect in the United States Exclusive Economic Zone of the Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Louisiana.
Mad Dog Oil Field is an offshore oil field located along the Sigsbee Escarpment at Green Canyon blocks 825, 826 and 782, Western Atwater Foldbelt, Gulf of Mexico.
Malmö Airport, until 2007 known as Sturup Airport (Sturups flygplats) is Sweden's fourth busiest airport, handling 2,169,901 passengers in 2015, a new all-time high.
The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration, or Mandatory Iraq (الانتداب البريطاني على العراق), was created in 1921, following the 1920 Iraqi Revolt against the proposed British Mandate of Mesopotamia, and enacted via the 1922 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.
Marathon Petroleum Corporation is an American petroleum refining, marketing, and transportation company headquartered in Findlay, Ohio.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Market capitalization (market cap) is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares.
Masjed Soleyman County (شهرستان مسجد سلیمان) is a county in Khuzestan Province in Iran.
McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Methyl tert-butyl ether (also known as MTBE and tert-butyl methyl ether) is an organic compound with a structural formula (CH3)3COCH3.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mohammad Mosaddegh (محمد مصدق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Mother Jones (abbreviated MoJo) is a progressive American magazine that focuses on news, commentary, and investigative reporting on topics including politics, the environment, human rights, and culture.
A motor fuel is a fuel that is used to provide power to motor vehicles.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
Nando's is an international casual dining restaurant chain originating in South Africa.
The Nasdaq Stock Market is an American stock exchange.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) conducts research into the effects of the environment on human disease, as one of the 27 institutes and centers of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
The National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC; شرکت ملّی نفت ایران Sherkat-e Melli-ye Naft-e Īrān), a government-owned corporation under the direction of the Ministry of Petroleum of Iran, is a national oil and natural gas producer and distributor headquartered in Tehran.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
The New York Post is the fourth-largest newspaper in the United States and a leading digital media publisher that reached more than 57 million unique visitors in the U.S. in January 2017.
The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
The North West Shelf of Western Australia is an extensive oil and gas region off the North West Australia coast in the Pilbara region.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
The Ocensa pipeline (Oleoducto Central) is a crude oil pipeline in Colombia.
The Oil & Gas Journal is a leading petroleum industry weekly publication with a worldwide coverage.
An oil dispersant is a mixture of emulsifiers and solvents that helps break oil into small droplets following an oil spill.
Oil reserves in Iraq are considered the world’s fifth -largest proven oil reserves, with 140 billion barrels.
Oil sands, also known as tar sands or crude bitumen, or more technically bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit.
Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales), can be produced.
The oil shale industry is an industry of mining and processing of oil shale—a fine-grained sedimentary rock, containing significant amounts of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds), from which liquid hydrocarbons can be manufactured.
An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products.
Oklahoma City, often shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
Oregon is a city in Lucas County, Ohio, United States.
Oslo Airport (Oslo Lufthavn) is the main international airport serving Oslo, Norway, the capital and most populous city in the country.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pan Am Flight 103 was a regularly scheduled Pan Am transatlantic flight from Frankfurt to Detroit via London and New York.
Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada southwards into the United States and Mexico.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.
PennWell Corporation is a family-owned, diversified business-to-business ded-tree press publisher founded in 1910 and based in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Major-General Sir Percy Zachariah Cox (20 November 1864 – 20 February 1937) was a British Indian Army officer and Colonial Office administrator in the Middle East.
Perenco is an independent Anglo-French oil and gas company with a headquarters in London and Paris It has exploration and production activities in 16 countries around the globe (the North Sea, Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guatemala, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Brazil, Belize, Tunisia, Egypt, Turkey, Iraq, Vietnam).
Sir Peter Ingram Walters (born 1931) is a retired British businessman.
Petro-Canada is a retail and wholesale marketing brand of Suncor Energy.
Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. — Petrobras, more commonly known as simply Petrobras, is a semi-public Brazilian multinational corporation in the petroleum industry headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
Petroleum products are materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries.
Phú Mỹ Power Plants is a power generation complex located in Phú Mỹ, Tân Thành District, Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province, Vietnam.
A photovoltaic power station, also known as a solar park, is a large-scale photovoltaic system (PV system) designed for the supply of merchant power into the electricity grid.
Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.
Pigging in the context of pipelines refers to the practice of using devices known as "pigs" to perform various maintenance operations.
Plains All American Pipeline is a publicly traded Master limited partnership in the oil pipeline transportation, marketing, and storage business in the United States, liquefied petroleum gas business in Canada, and natural gas storage business in Michigan and Louisiana.
Plains Exploration & Production was a petroleum and natural gas exploration company based in Houston, Texas.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Margaret Thatcher served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1979 to November 1990.
The Project On Government Oversight (POGO) is a nonpartisan non-profit organization based in Washington, DC, that investigates and works to expose waste, fraud, abuse, and conflicts of interest in the U.S. federal government.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
Propene, also known as propylene or methyl ethylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6.
ProPublica is an American nonprofit organization based in New York City.
Prudhoe Bay Oil Field is a large oil field on Alaska's North Slope.
The Prudhoe Bay oil spill (2006 Alaskan oil spill) was an oil spill that was discovered on March 2, 2006 at a pipeline owned by BP Exploration, Alaska (BPXA) in western Prudhoe Bay, Alaska.
Prudhoe Bay or Sagavanirktok is a census-designated place (CDP) located in North Slope Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska.
A public limited company (legally abbreviated to plc) is a type of public company under the United Kingdom company law, some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and the Republic of Ireland.
Puma Energy is a mid- and downstream oil company, majority-owned by the Singaporean Trafigura and the Angolan Sonangol Group.
The Red Line Agreement is an agreement signed by partners in the Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC) on July 31, 1928.
Refining (also perhaps called by the mathematical term affining) is the process of purification of a (1) substance or a (2) form.
Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) is an Indian conglomerate holding company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Renova Group is a Russian conglomerate with interests in aluminium, oil, energy, telecoms and a variety of other sectors.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
Sir Robert Horton, FRSA (18 August 1939 – 30 December 2011) was a British businessman.
PJSC Rosneft Oil Company (stylized as ROSNEFT) is a Russian integrated energy company headquartered in the Russian capital of Moscow.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
The Rumaila oil field is a super-giant oil field located in southern Iraq, approximately from the Kuwaiti border.
Rumaila Operating Organization (ROO) is an international petroleum company based in Iraq.
RWE AG, until 1990: Rheinisch-Westfälisches Elektrizitätswerk AG (Rhenish-Westphalian Power Plant), is a German electric utilities company based in Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia.
The Standard & Poor's 500, often abbreviated as the S&P 500, or just the S&P, is an American stock market index based on the market capitalizations of 500 large companies having common stock listed on the NYSE or NASDAQ.
S&P Global Platts is a provider of energy and commodities information and a source of benchmark price assessments in the physical energy markets.
Salt End or Saltend is a hamlet in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, in an area known as Holderness.
The San Juan Basin is a geologic structural basin located near the Four Corners region of the Southwestern United States.
The Sangachal Terminal is an industrial complex consisting of a natural gas processing plant and oil production plant, located on the coast of the Caspian Sea south of Baku, Azerbaijan.
Scandia is a city in Republic County, Kansas, United States.
The Schiehallion oilfield is a deepwater offshore oilfield approximately west of the Shetland Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
The scientific opinion on climate change is the overall judgment among scientists regarding the extent to which global warming is occurring, its likely causes, and its probable consequences.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (HUMINT) in support of the UK's national security.
Shafag-Asiman (Azerbaijani: Şəfəq və Asiman) is a large complex of offshore geological structures in the Caspian Sea located southeast of Baku, Azerbaijan.
Shah Deniz gas field is the largest natural gas field in Azerbaijan.
Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations.
Shale gas in the United States is rapidly increasing as an available source of natural gas.
Shale oil is an unconventional oil produced from oil shale rock fragments by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution.
Share repurchase (or stock buyback) is the re-acquisition by a company of its own stock.
Shell Nigeria is the common name for Royal Dutch Shell's Nigerian operations carried out through four subsidiaries—primarily Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited (SPDC).
Shell-Mex and BP Ltd was a British joint marketing venture between petroleum companies Royal Dutch Shell (Shell) and British Petroleum (BP).
The Sherbino Mesa Wind Farm is located in Pecos County in west Texas.
Sidanko (Сиданко; Siberian-Far Eastern Oil Company) was a Russian oil company, the 8th largest company in the country by revenue in 1995.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
Sinclair Oil Corporation is an American petroleum corporation, founded by Harry F. Sinclair on May 1, 1916, as the Sinclair Oil and Refining Corporation by combining the assets of 11 small petroleum companies.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The South Caucasus Pipeline (also known as Baku–Tbilisi–Erzurum Pipeline, BTE pipeline, or Shah Deniz Pipeline) is a natural gas pipeline from the Shah Deniz gas field in the Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea to Turkey.
The South Coast Air Quality Management District, also using the acronym SCAQMD, formed in 1976, is the air pollution agency responsible for regulating stationary sources of air pollution in the South Coast Air Basin, in Southern California.
Southern California (colloquially known as SoCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's southernmost counties.
In public relations and politics, spin is a form of propaganda, achieved through providing a biased interpretation of an event or campaigning to persuade public opinion in favor or against some organization or public figure.
Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).
SS Torrey Canyon was an LR2 Suezmax class oil tanker with a cargo capacity of 120,000 tons of crude oil.
Standard Oil of Ohio or Sohio was an American oil company, and the earliest component of the original Standard Oil company founded by John D. Rockefeller.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Statoil Fuel & Retail was a Norwegian energy retail company, formed by the 2010 separation of the downstream business of Statoil ASA into a separate listed company.
Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD; "Sag-D") is an enhanced oil recovery technology for producing heavy crude oil and bitumen.
Stockholm Arlanda Airport, is an international airport located in the Sigtuna Municipality of Sweden, near the town of Märsta, north of Stockholm and nearly south-east of Uppsala.
Styrene, also known as ethenylbenzene, vinylbenzene, and phenylethene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH.
Sunbury-on-Thames is a town and London suburb located in Surrey, England.
Superfund is a United States federal government program designed to fund the cleanup of sites contaminated with hazardous substances and pollutants.
Supertest Petroleum was an oil and gas company in Canada that operated from 1923 to 1973.
Susan D. Shaw (born October 24, 1943 in Dallas, Texas) is an American environmental health scientist, explorer, ocean conservationist, and author.
Talisman Energy Inc. was a Canadian multinational oil and gas exploration and production company headquartered in Calgary, Alberta.
The Tangguh gas field lies in Bintuni Bay, in the province of West Papua, Indonesia.
Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London.
Terephthalic acid is an organic compound with formula C6H4(CO2H)2.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Texas City Refinery explosion occurred on March 23, 2005, when a hydrocarbon vapor cloud was ignited and violently exploded at the ISOM isomerization process unit at BP's Texas City refinery in Texas City, Texas, killing 15 workers, injuring more than 180 others and severely damaging the refinery.
Texas City is a city in Galveston County in the U.S. state of Texas.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The American Journal of Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal and the official journal of the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine.
The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Distillers Company Limited was a leading Scottish drinks and pharmaceutical company which at one time was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Moscow Times is an English-language weekly newspaper published in Moscow, with a circulation of 55,000 copies.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Washington Examiner is an American political journalism website and weekly magazine based in Washington, D.C. that covers politics and policy in the United States and internationally.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics.
Thin-film optics is the branch of optics that deals with very thin structured layers of different materials.
Thunder Horse oil field is a large offshore deepwater oil field in the Gulf of Mexico, around southeast of New Orleans, Louisiana.
Thunder Horse PDQ is a BP plc and ExxonMobil joint venture semi-submersible oil platform on location over the Mississippi Canyon Thunder Horse oil field (Block 778/822), in deepwater Gulf of Mexico, southeast of New Orleans, moored in waters of.
Tight gas is natural gas produced from reservoir rocks with such low permeability that massive hydraulic fracturing is necessary to produce the well at economic rates.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The Titan Wind Project is 25MW wind farm with a proposed expansion to 5,050 MW, formerly known as Rolling Thunder, based in South Dakota.
TNK-BP (Tyumenskaya Neftyanaya Kompaniya, Tyumen Oil Company) was a major vertically integrated Russian oil company headquartered in Moscow.
The, which is called or TSE/TYO for short, is a stock exchange located in Tokyo, Japan.
Anthony Bryan Hayward (born 21 May 1957) is a British businessman and former chief executive of oil and energy company BP.
The Torrey Canyon oil spill was one of the world's most serious oil spills.
A trader is person or entity, in finance, who buys and sells financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, commodities, derivatives, and mutual funds in the capacity of agent, hedger, arbitrageur, or speculator.
The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) includes the trans-Alaska crude-oil pipeline, 11 pump stations, several hundred miles of feeder pipelines, and the Valdez Marine Terminal.
Transocean Ltd. is one of the world's largest offshore drilling contractors and is based in Vernier, Switzerland.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, generally referred to as the Chemical Safety Board or CSB, is an independent U.S. federal agency charged with investigating industrial chemical accidents.
Unconventional gas is natural gas obtained from sources of production that are, in a given era and location, considered to be new and different.
United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (in case citations, 5th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following federal judicial districts.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT or DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the U.S. government concerned with transportation.
Upstream is an independent oil and gas industry upstream sector weekly newspaper and a daily internet news site.
The oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major sectors: upstream (or exploration and production- E&P), midstream and downstream.
The Utica Shale is a stratigraphical unit of Upper Ordovician age in the Appalachian Basin.
VEBA AG (originally from Vereinigte Elektrizitäts und Bergwerks Aktiengesellschaft or "United Electricity and Mining Corporation") was a German state owned energy company.
In microeconomics and management, vertical integration is an arrangement in which the supply chain of a company is owned by that company.
The Vitol Group is a global energy and commodity trading company that was founded in Rotterdam in 1966 by Henk Viëtor and Jacques Detiger.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
The Whiting Refinery is an oil refinery located on the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan and the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal and operated by BP.
William Knox D'Arcy (11 October 1849 – 1 May 1917) was one of the principal founders of the oil and petrochemical industry in Persia (Iran).
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity.
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
World energy consumption is the total energy used by the entire human civilization.
World Fuel Services Corporation is a Fortune 500 company that is based in Miami, Florida.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Wytch Farm is an oil field and processing facility in the Purbeck district of Dorset, England.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.
The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état (کودتای ۲۸ مرداد), was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax").
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
20 Canada Square is an office building located in the Canary Wharf section of London.
60 Minutes is an Australian version of the U.S. television newsmagazine program 60 Minutes airing on Sunday nights on the Nine Network.
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