157 relations: ABL (gene), Acetaldehyde, AKT1, Alpha helix, Androgen receptor, Ashkenazi Jews, Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related, ATF1, ATM serine/threonine kinase, Aurora A kinase, BACH1, Bangladesh Rehabilitation Centre for Trauma Victims, BARD1, Base pair, Beta sheet, Biological patent, BRCA mutation, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRCC3, BRCT domain, BRE (gene), Breast, Breast cancer, Breast cancer classification, BRIP1, C-jun, C-terminus, Cancer, Caretaker gene, Cell cycle, CHEK2, Chelation, Chromosome, Chromosome 17, CLSPN, Cofactor of BRCA1, Comparative genomic hybridization, CREB-binding protein, CSNK2B, CSTF2, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, Cysteine, DNA, DNA methylation, DNA repair, DNA replication, Dysplasia, ELK4, ..., EP300, Epigenetics, Estrogen receptor alpha, Fallopian tube, FANCA, FANCD2, Fanconi anemia, Federal Court of Australia, FHL2, Formaldehyde, Gene, Gene nomenclature, H2AFX, Hereditary breast–ovarian cancer syndrome, High Court of Australia, Histidine, Histone deacetylase, Homology (biology), Homology directed repair, HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, In vitro, In vivo, Invasive lobular carcinoma, JUNB, JunD, LMO4, Mammal, MAP3K3, Mary-Claire King, MED1, MED17, MED21, MED24, Meiosis, Methylation, MicroRNA, Mir-17 microRNA precursor family, Mir-30 microRNA precursor, Missense mutation, MRE11A, MRN complex, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, Muller's morphs, Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, Mutation, Myc, Myriad Genetics, N-myc-interactor, Negative elongation factor, Nibrin, Non-homologous end joining, NPM1, Nuclear export signal, Nuclear localization sequence, Nuclear receptor coactivator 2, NUFIP1, Ovarian cancer, P53, PALB2, Penetrance, POLR2A, PPP1CA, Progesterone receptor, Promoter (genetics), Prostate cancer, Protein, Protein dimer, Protein–protein interaction, Rad50, RAD51, RBBP4, RBBP7, RBBP8, Real-time polymerase chain reaction, RELA, Retinoblastoma protein, Retinoblastoma-like protein 1, Retinoblastoma-like protein 2, RING finger domain, RNA Helicase A, RNA polymerase II, Sequence homology, Sister chromatids, SMARCA4, SMARCB1, STAT1, Supreme Court of the United States, Synonym, Tandem repeat, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Sydney Morning Herald, Three prime untranslated region, Transcriptional regulation, Triple-negative breast cancer, Tumor suppressor, UBE2D1, Ubiquitin, University of California, Berkeley, USF2, Valosin-containing protein, XIST, Zinc finger, ZNF350, 60S ribosomal protein L31. Expand index (107 more) » « Shrink index
Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL) located on chromosome 9.
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKT1 gene.
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., 569 U.S. 576 (2013),.
Serine/threonine-protein kinase ATR also known as ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) or FRAP-related protein 1 (FRP1) is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the ATR gene.
Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF1 gene.
ATM serine/threonine kinase, symbol ATM, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks.
Aurora kinase A also known as serine/threonine-protein kinase 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AURKA gene.
Transcription regulator protein BACH1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BACH1 gene.
Bangladesh Rehabilitation Centre for Trauma Victims (BRCT; বিআরসিটি) is a Bangladeshi NGO, working in the area of rehabilitation of trauma victims.
BRCA1-associated RING domain protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BARD1 gene.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.
A biological patent is a patent on an invention in the field of biology that by law allows the patent holder to exclude others from making, using, selling, or importing the protected invention for a limited period of time.
A BRCA mutation is a mutation in either of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which are tumour suppressor genes.
BRCA1 and BRCA1 are a human gene and its protein product, respectively.
BRCA2 and BRCA2 are a human gene and its protein product, respectively.
Lys-63-specific deubiquitinase BRCC36 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BRCC3 gene.
BRCA1 C Terminus (BRCT) domain is a family of evolutionarily related proteins.
BRCA1-A complex subunit BRE is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BRE gene.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes criteria and serving a different purpose.
Fanconi anemia group J protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BRCA1-interacting protein 1 (BRIP1) gene.
c-Jun is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUN gene.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Changes in the genome that allow uncontrolled cell proliferation or cell immortality are responsible for cancer.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
CHEK2 (Checkpoint kinase 2) is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes the protein CHK2, a serine-threonine kinase.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chromosome 17 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Claspin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLSPN gene.
Cofactor of BRCA1, also known as COBRA1, is a human gene that encodes NELF-B.
Comparative genomic hybridization is a molecular cytogenetic method for analysing copy number variations (CNVs) relative to ploidy level in the DNA of a test sample compared to a reference sample, without the need for culturing cells.
CREB-binding protein, also known as CREBBP or CBP, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CREBBP gene.
Casein kinase II subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSNK2B gene.
Cleavage stimulation factor 64 kDa subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSTF2 gene.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, also known as cell division protein kinase 2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK2 gene.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Dysplasia (from Ancient Greek δυσ- dys-, "bad" or "difficult" and πλάσις plasis, "formation") is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality of development or an epithelial anomaly of growth and differentiation (epithelial dysplasia).
ETS domain-containing protein Elk-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ELK4 gene.
Histone acetyltransferase p300 also known as p300 HAT or E1A-associated protein p300 (where E1A.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or salpinges (singular salpinx), are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus, via the uterotubal junction.
Fanconi anaemia, complementation group A, also known as FAA, FACA and FANCA, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the FANCA gene.
Fanconi anemia group D2 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FANCD2 gene.
Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease resulting in impaired response to DNA damage.
The Federal Court of Australia is an Australian superior court of record which has jurisdiction to deal with most civil disputes governed by federal law (with the exception of family law matters), along with some summary (less serious) criminal matters.
Four and a half LIM domains protein 2 also known as FHL-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FHL2 gene.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene nomenclature is the scientific naming of genes, the units of heredity in living organisms.
H2AFX (H2A histone family, member X) is one of several genes coding for histone H2A.
Hereditary breast–ovarian cancer syndromes (HBOC) are cancer syndromes that produce higher than normal levels of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in genetically related families (either one individual had both, or several individuals in the pedigree had one or the other disease).
The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups (O.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Homology directed repair (HDR) is a mechanism in cells to repair double strand DNA lesions.
The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) is a committee of the Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) that sets the standards for human gene nomenclature.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Invasive lobular carcinoma accounts for 5-10% of invasive breast cancer.
Transcription factor jun-B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUNB gene.
Transcription factor JunD is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUND gene.
LIM domain transcription factor LMO4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LMO4 gene.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K3 gene, which is located on the long arm of chromosome 17 (17q23.3).
Mary-Claire King (born February 27, 1946) is an American human geneticist.
Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 1 also known as DRIP205 or Trap220 is a subunit of the Mediator complex and is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MED1 gene.
Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 17 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MED17 gene.
Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 21 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MED21 gene.
Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 24 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MED24 gene.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
The miR-17 microRNA precursor family are a group of related small non-coding RNA genes called microRNAs that regulate gene expression.
miR-30 microRNA precursor is a small non-coding RNA that regulates gene expression.
In genetics, a missense mutation is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid.
Double-strand break repair protein MRE11A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRE11A gene.
The MRN complex (MRX complex in yeast) is a protein complex consisting of Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1 (also known as Nibrin in humans and as Xrs2 in yeast).
DNA mismatch repair protein Msh2 also known as MutS protein homolog 2 or MSH2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MSH2 gene, which is located on chromosome 2.
DNA mismatch repair protein, MutS Homolog 3 (MSH3) is a human homologue of the bacterial mismatch repair protein MutS that participates in the mismatch repair (MMR) system.
MSH6 or mutS homolog 6 is a gene that codes for DNA mismatch repair protein Msh6 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Hermann J. Muller (1890–1967), who was a 1946 Nobel Prize winner, coined the terms amorph, hypomorph, hypermorph, antimorph and neomorph to classify mutations based on their behaviour in various genetic situations, as well as gene interaction between themselves.
Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a variation of the multiplex polymerase chain reaction that permits amplification of multiple targets with only a single primer pair.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Myc is a family of regulator genes and proto-oncogenes that code for transcription factors.
Myriad Genetics, Inc. is an American molecular diagnostic company based in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
N-myc-interactor also known as N-myc and STAT interactor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NMI gene.
In molecular biology, NELF (negative elongation factor) is a four-subunit protein (NELF-A, NELF-B, NELF-C/NELF-D, and NELF-E) that negatively impacts transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) by pausing about 20-60 nucleotides downstream from the transcription start site (TSS).
Nibrin, also known as NBN or NBS1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the NBN gene.
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a pathway that repairs double-strand breaks in DNA.
Nucleophosmin (NPM), also known as nucleolar phosphoprotein B23 or numatrin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NPM1 gene.
A nuclear export signal (NES) is a short amino acid sequence of 4 hydrophobic residues in a protein that targets it for export from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex using nuclear transport.
A nuclear localization signal or sequence (NLS) is an amino acid sequence that 'tags' a protein for import into the cell nucleus by nuclear transport.
The nuclear receptor coactivator 2 also known as NCoA-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCOA2 gene.
Nuclear fragile X mental retardation-interacting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUFIP1 gene.
Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
Partner and localizer of BRCA2, also known as PALB2 or FANCN, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PALB2 gene.
Penetrance in genetics is the proportion of individuals carrying a particular variant (or allele) of a gene (the genotype) that also express an associated trait (the phenotype).
DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1, also known as RPB1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2A gene.
Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-alpha catalytic subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPP1CA gene.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
DNA repair protein RAD50, also known as RAD50, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAD50 gene.
RAD51 is a eukaryotic gene.
Histone-binding protein RBBP4 (also known as RbAp48, or NURF55) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBBP4 gene.
Histone-binding protein RBBP7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBBP7 gene.
Retinoblastoma-binding protein 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBBP8 gene.
A real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR), also known as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), is a laboratory technique of molecular biology based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Transcription factor p65 also known as nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p65 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RELA gene.
The retinoblastoma protein (protein name abbreviated pRb; gene name abbreviated RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that is dysfunctional in several major cancers.
Retinoblastoma-like 1 (p107), also known as RBL1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBL1 gene.
Retinoblastoma-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBL2 gene.
In molecular biology, a RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger domain is a protein structural domain of zinc finger type which contains a C3HC4 amino acid motif which binds two zinc cations (seven cysteines and one histidine arranged non-consecutively).
ATP-dependent RNA helicase A (RHA; also known as DHX9, LKP, and NDHI) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DHX9 gene.
RNA polymerase II (RNAP II and Pol II) is a multiprotein complex.
Sequence homology is the biological homology between DNA, RNA, or protein sequences, defined in terms of shared ancestry in the evolutionary history of life.
A sister chromatid refers to the identical copies (chromatids) formed by the replication of a chromosome, with both copies joined together by a common centromere.
Transcription activator BRG1 also known as ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler SMARCA4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMARCA4 gene.
SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily B member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMARCB1 gene.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a transcription factor which in humans is encoded by the STAT1 gene.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
Tandem repeats occur in DNA when a pattern of one or more nucleotides is repeated and the repetitions are directly adjacent to each other.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia.
In molecular genetics, the three prime untranslated region (3'-UTR) is the section of messenger RNA (mRNA) that immediately follows the translation termination codon.
In molecular biology and genetics, transcriptional regulation is the means by which a cell regulates the conversion of DNA to RNA (transcription), thereby orchestrating gene activity.
Triple-negative breast cancer (sometimes abbreviated TNBC) refers to any breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her2/neu.
A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 D1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UBE2D1 gene.
Ubiquitin is a small (8.5 kDa) regulatory protein found in most tissues of eukaryotic organisms, i.e. it occurs ''ubiquitously''.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
Upstream stimulatory factor 2 is a protein that in humans just encoded by the USF2 gene.
Transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (TER ATPase) also known as valosin-containing protein (VCP) or CDC48 in S. Cerevisiae is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the VCP gene.
Xist (X-inactive specific transcript) is an RNA gene on the X chromosome of the placental mammals that acts as a major effector of the X inactivation process.
A zinc finger is a small protein structural motif that is characterized by the coordination of one or more zinc ions (Zn2+) in order to stabilize the fold.
Zinc finger protein 350 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZNF350 gene.
60S ribosomal protein L31 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPL31 gene.