84 relations: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Adaptive immune system, Affinity maturation, Amyloidosis, Antibody, Antigen, Antigen presentation, Antigen-presenting cell, B-1 cell, B-cell receptor, Bird, Bone, Bone marrow, Bursa of Fabricius, Cancer, CD154, CD19, CD40 (protein), CD81, Cell growth, Cell membrane, Cellular differentiation, Central tolerance, Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Clonal anergy, Clonal deletion, Complement receptor 2, Cytokine, Cytokine receptor, Diabetes mellitus type 1, DNA methylation, Follicular B cell, Follicular B helper T cells, Follicular lymphoma, Gene expression, Germinal center, Hairy cell leukemia, Hematopoietic stem cell, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Humoral immunity, Immunoglobulin class switching, Immunoglobulin heavy chain, Immunoglobulin light chain, Immunoglobulin M, Immunosuppression, Interleukin 21, Interleukin 4, Locus (genetics), Lymph, Lymphocyte, ..., Lymphopoiesis, Malignant transformation, Mammal, Marginal zone B-cell, Memory B cell, MHC class II, Molecular binding, Multiple myeloma, Multiple sclerosis, Natural killer cell, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Peritoneal cavity, Plasma cell, Plasma cell dyscrasia, Pleural cavity, Proteolysis, Receptor editing, Receptor-mediated endocytosis, Regulatory B cells, Regulatory T cell, Rheumatoid arthritis, Scleroderma, Secretion, Somatic hypermutation, Systemic lupus erythematosus, T cell, T helper cell, T-cell receptor, Toll-like receptor, Transitional B cell, V(D)J recombination, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, White blood cell, Whole genome bisulfite sequencing. Expand index (34 more) » « Shrink index
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the lymphoid line of blood cells characterized by the development of large numbers of immature lymphocytes.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
In immunology, affinity maturation is the process by which Tfh cell-activated B cells produce antibodies with increased affinity for antigen during the course of an immune response.
Amyloidosis is a group of diseases in which abnormal protein, known as amyloid fibrils, builds up in tissue.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antigen presentation describes a vital immune process which is essential for T cell immune response triggering.
An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation.
B1 cells are a sub-class of B cell lymphocytes that are involved in the humoral immune response.
The B-cell receptor or BCR is composed of immunoglobulin molecules that form a type 1 transmembrane receptor protein usually located on the outer surface of a lymphocyte type known as B cells.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
In birds, the bursa of Fabricius (Latin: Bursa cloacalis or Bursa fabricii) is the site of hematopoiesis, a specialized organ that, as first demonstrated by Bruce Glick and later by Max Cooper and Robert Good, is necessary for B cell (part of the immune system) development in birds.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules.
B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, also known as CD19 molecule ('''C'''luster of '''D'''ifferentiation 19), B-Lymphocyte Surface Antigen B4, T-Cell Surface Antigen Leu-12 and CVID3 is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the gene CD19.
Cluster of differentiation 40, CD40 is a costimulatory protein found on antigen presenting cells and is required for their activation.
CD81 molecule, also known as CD81 (Cluster of Differentiation 81), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD81 gene.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Central tolerance, also known as negative selection, is the process of eliminating any developing T or B lymphocytes that are reactive to self.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Anergy is a term in immunobiology that describes a lack of reaction by the body's defense mechanisms to foreign substances, and consists of a direct induction of peripheral lymphocyte tolerance.
Clonal deletion is the removal through apoptosis of B cells and T cells that have expressed receptors for self before developing into fully immunocompetent lymphocytes.
Complement receptor type 2 (CR2), also known as complement C3d receptor, Epstein-Barr virus receptor, and CD21 (cluster of differentiation 21), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CR2 gene.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Cytokine receptors are receptors that bind cytokines.
Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
Follicular B cells (FO B cells) are a type of B cell that reside in primary and secondary lymphoid follicles (containing germinal centers) of secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs, including spleen and lymph nodes.
Follicular B helper T cells (also known as just follicular helper T cells or TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells found in the periphery within B cell follicles of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleens and Peyer's patches, and are identified by their constitutive expression of the B cell follicle homing receptor CXCR5.
Follicular lymphoma is a type of blood cancer.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Germinal centers or germinal centres (GCs) are sites within secondary lymphoid organs – lymph nodes and the spleen where mature B cells proliferate, differentiate, and mutate their antibody genes (through somatic hypermutation aimed at achieving higher affinity), and switch the class of their antibodies (for example from IgM to IgG) during a normal immune response to an infection.
Hairy cell leukemia is an uncommon hematological malignancy characterized by an accumulation of abnormal B lymphocytes.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells.
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind.
Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides.
Immunoglobulin class switching, also known as isotype switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination (CSR), is a biological mechanism that changes a B cell's production of immunoglobulin (antibodies) from one type to another, such as from the isotype IgM to the isotype IgG.
The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) is the large polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin).
The immunoglobulin light chain is the small polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin).
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several forms of antibody that are produced by vertebrates.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
Interleukin 21 (IL-21) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL21 gene.
The interleukin 4 (IL4, IL-4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Lymphopoiesis (lĭm'fō-poi-ē'sĭs) (or lymphocytopoiesis) is the generation of lymphocytes, one of the five types of white blood cell (WBC).
Malignant transformation is the process by which cells acquire the properties of cancer.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Marginal zone B cells are noncirculating mature B cells that segregate anatomically into the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen.
Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed within germinal centers following primary infection and are important in generating an accelerated and more robust antibody-mediated immune response in the case of re-infection (also known as a secondary immune response).
MHC class II molecules are a class of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules normally found only on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes, some endothelial cells, thymic epithelial cells, and B cells.
Molecular binding is an attractive interaction between two molecules that results in a stable association in which the molecules are in close proximity to each other.
Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.
The peritoneal cavity is a potential space between the parietal peritoneum (the peritoneum that surrounds the abdominal wall) and visceral peritoneum (the peritoneum that surrounds the internal organs).
Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.
Plasma cell dyscrasias (also termed plasma cell disorders and plasma cell proliferative diseases) are a spectrum of progressively more severe monoclonal gammopathies in which a clone or multiple clones of pre-malignant or malignant plasma cells (sometimes in association with lymphoplasmacytoid cells or B lymphocytes) over-produce and secrete into the blood stream a myeloma protein, i.e. an abnormal monoclonal antibody or portion thereof.
The pleural cavity is the thin fluid-filled space between the two pulmonary pleurae (known as visceral and parietal) of each lung.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.
Receptor editing is a process that occurs during the maturation of B cells, which are part of the adaptive immune system.
Receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME), also called clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is a process by which cells absorb metabolites, hormones, other proteins – and in some cases viruses – by the inward budding of plasma membrane vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being absorbed (endocytosis).
Regulatory B cells (Bregs) represent a small population of B cells which participates in immunomodulations and in suppression of immune responses.
The regulatory T cells (Tregs), formerly known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T cells that modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and prevent autoimmune disease.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Scleroderma is a group of autoimmune diseases that may result in changes to the skin, blood vessels, muscles, and internal organs.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Somatic hypermutation (or SHM) is a cellular mechanism by which the immune system adapts to the new foreign elements that confront it (e.g. microbes), as seen during class switching.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system.
Transitional B cells are B cells at an intermediate stage in their development between bone marrow immature cells and mature B cells in the spleen.
V(D)J recombination is the unique mechanism of genetic recombination that occurs only in developing lymphocytes during the early stages of T and B cell maturation.
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM), also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a type of cancer affecting two types of B cells, lymphoplasmacytoid cells and plasma cells.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS), is a next-generation sequencing technology used to determine the DNA methylation status of single cytosines by treating the DNA with sodium bisulfite before sequencing.