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B vitamins

Index B vitamins

B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. [1]

145 relations: Acetyl-CoA, Acetylcholine, Acne, Adenine, Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosylcobalamin, Alcoholic drink, Alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome, Amino acid, Amnesia, Amygdalin, Anaphylaxis, Anemia, Angular cheilitis, Antibody, Beta oxidation, Biosynthesis, Biotin, Carbohydrate, Carboxylation, Carnitine, Casimir Funk, Catabolism, Cell (biology), Cell division, Chemical substance, Chemical synthesis, Chicken, Cholesterol, Choline, Chondrodystrophy, Citric acid cycle, Cobalamin, Coenzyme A, Cofactor (biochemistry), Confabulation, Conrad Elvehjem, Cyanocobalamin, Dean Burk, Death, Dementia, Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dietary supplement, Dimethylglycine, DNA, Edema, Electron transport chain, Energy drink, Epilepsy, ..., Erythropoiesis, Ethanol, Fatty acid, Fatty acid metabolism, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Flavin mononucleotide, Flavoprotein, Flushing (physiology), Folate, Food and Drug Administration, Glossitis, Gluconeogenesis, Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Homocysteine, Hyperaemia, In vitro, Inositol, Insomnia, Itch, Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, Ketone bodies, Labia majora, Legume, Leucine, Los Angeles Times, Lucy Wills, Mania, Max Tishler, Megaloblastic anemia, Metabolism, Methylation, Methylcobalamin, Methylmalonic acid, Molasses, Mucous membrane, Multiple carboxylase deficiency, Nasolabial fold, National Institutes of Health, Nervous system, Neural tube defect, Neurology, Neurotransmitter, Niacin, Nicotinamide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nicotinamide riboside, Nucleobase, Nutritional yeast, Orotic acid, Pangamic acid, Pantothenic acid, Paresthesia, Paul Gyorgy, Pellagra, Peripheral neuropathy, Pharynx, Precursor (chemistry), Protein, Protein metabolism, Psychosis, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal phosphate, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxine, Radical (chemistry), Reactive oxygen species, Red blood cell, Riboflavin, RNA, Roger J. Williams, Scrotum, Seborrhoeic dermatitis, Sore throat, Sugar, Sunscreen, Syphilis, Tempeh, Tetrahydrofolic acid, Thiamine, Thiamine pyrophosphate, Tryptophan, Ultraviolet, United States Pharmacopeia, Veganism, Vitamin, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, Vitamin B6, Weakness, Wernicke encephalopathy, Xanthopterin, Yeast, 4-Aminobenzoic acid. Expand index (95 more) »


Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

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Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

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Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.

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Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).

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Adenosine monophosphate

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.

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Adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), which is also known as cobamamide and dibencozide, is, along with methylcobalamin (MeCbl), one of the active forms of vitamin B12.

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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Alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome

Alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome (AKS), Korsakoff syndrome is an amnestic disorder caused by thiamine deficiency associated with prolonged ingestion of alcohol.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.

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Amygdalin (from Ancient Greek: ἀμυγδαλή amygdálē "almond") is a naturally occurring chemical compound, famous for falsely being promoted as a cancer cure.

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Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Angular cheilitis

Angular cheilitis (AC) is inflammation of one or both corners of the mouth.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Beta oxidation

In biochemistry and metabolism, beta-oxidation is the catabolic process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the cytosol in prokaryotes and in the mitochondria in eukaryotes to generate acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle, and NADH and FADH2, which are co-enzymes used in the electron transport chain.

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Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.

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Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin, also called vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R. Biotin is composed of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carboxylation is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is produced by treating a substrate with carbon dioxide.

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Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N- trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants and some bacteria. Carnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, as they are optically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine. Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all organisms and animal tissue. Carnitine is the generic expression for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. It is most accumulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles as it accounts for 0.1% of its dry matter. It was first derived from meat extracts in 1905, therefore the name carnitine is derived from Latin "carnus" or flesh. The body synthesizes enough carnitine from lysine side chains to keep up with the needs of energy production in the body as carnitine acts as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized and produce energy. Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (like preterm infants) cannot make enough, so this makes carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient for them.

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Casimir Funk

Kazimierz Funk (February 23, 1884 – November 19, 1967 Casimir Funk A Biographical Sketch (1884–1967). Journal of Nutrition 1972 Sep;102(9):1105–13.. Available from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/102/9/1105.full.pdf), commonly anglicized as Casimir Funk, was a Polish biochemist, generally credited with being among the first to formulate (in 1912) the concept of vitamins, which he called "vital amines" or "vitamines".

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Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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Chemical substance

A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.

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Chemical synthesis

Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.

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The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.

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Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.

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Chondrodystrophy (literally, "cartilage maldevelopment") refers to a skeletal disorder caused by one of myriad genetic mutations that can affect the development of cartilage.

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Citric acid cycle

The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Cobalamin (Cbl) is a general term that is referred to a number of compounds, that have cobalt ion in the middle, hence the name of the compound.

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Coenzyme A

Coenzyme A (CoA,SCoA,CoASH) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.

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Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.

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In psychiatry, confabulation (verb: confabulate) is a disturbance of memory, defined as the production of fabricated, distorted, or misinterpreted memories about oneself or the world, without the conscious intention to deceive.

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Conrad Elvehjem

Conrad Arnold Elvehjem (May 27, 1901July 27, 1962) was internationally known as an American biochemist in nutrition.

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Cyanocobalamin is a synthetic form of 12.

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Dean Burk

Dean Burk (March 21, 1904 – October 6, 1988) was an American biochemist, medical researcher, and a cancer researcher at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute and the National Cancer Institute.

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.

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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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Dietary supplement

A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.

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Dimethylglycine is a derivative of the amino acid glycine with the structural formula (CH3)2NCH2COOH.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.

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Electron transport chain

An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.

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Energy drink

An energy drink is a type of beverage containing stimulant drugs, usually including caffeine, which is marketed as providing mental and physical stimulation (marketed as "energy", but distinct from food energy).

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Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Erythropoiesis (from Greek 'erythro' meaning "red" and 'poiesis' meaning "to make") is the process which produces red blood cells (erythrocytes).

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fatty acid metabolism

Fatty acid metabolism consists of catabolic processes that generate energy, and anabolic processes that create biologically important molecules (triglycerides, phospholipids, second messengers, local hormones and ketone bodies).

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Flavin adenine dinucleotide

In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism.

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Flavin mononucleotide

Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), or riboflavin-5′-phosphate, is a biomolecule produced from riboflavin (vitamin B2) by the enzyme riboflavin kinase and functions as prosthetic group of various oxidoreductases including NADH dehydrogenase as well as cofactor in biological blue-light photo receptors.

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Flavoproteins are proteins that contain a nucleic acid derivative of riboflavin: the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN).

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Flushing (physiology)

For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions.

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Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Glossitis can mean soreness of the tongue, or more usually inflammation with depapillation of the dorsal surface of the tongue (loss of the lingual papillae), leaving a smooth and erythematous (reddened) surface, (sometimes specifically termed atrophic glossitis).

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Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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Homocysteine is a non-proteinogenic α-amino acid.

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Hyperemia, hyperæmia, or hyperaemia (Greek ὑπέρ (hupér, "over") + αἷμα (haîma, “blood”)) is the increase of blood flow to different tissues in the body.

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In vitro

In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.

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Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).

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Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.

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Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.

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Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine

The Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine (JEBIM), published previously as the Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (JEBCAM), is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal that covers hypothesis-driven and evidence-based research in the field of alternative medicine.

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Ketone bodies

Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) containing the ketone group that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus.

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Labia majora

The labia majora (singular: labium majus) are two prominent longitudinal cutaneous folds that extend downward and backward from the mons pubis to the perineum.

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A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).

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Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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Lucy Wills

Lucy Wills, MA (Cantab), LRCP, MB BS (Lond) (10 May 1888 – 26 April 1964) was a leading English haematologist.

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Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.

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Max Tishler

Max Tishler (October 30, 1906 – March 18, 1989) was president of Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories where he led the research teams that synthesized ascorbic acid, riboflavin, cortisone, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, nicotinamide, methionine, threonine, and tryptophan.

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Megaloblastic anemia

Megaloblastic anemia (or megaloblastic anaemia) is an anemia (of macrocytic classification) that results from inhibition of DNA synthesis during red blood cell production.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.

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Methylcobalamin (mecobalamin, MeCbl, or MeB) is a cobalamin, a form of 12.

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Methylmalonic acid

Methylmalonic acid (MMA) (conjugate base methylmalonate) is a dicarboxylic acid that is a C-methylated derivative of malonate.

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Molasses, or black treacle (British, for human consumption; known as molasses otherwise), is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.

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Multiple carboxylase deficiency

Multiple carboxylase deficiency is a form of metabolic disorder involving failures of carboxylation enzymes.

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Nasolabial fold

The nasolabial folds, commonly known as "smile lines" or "laugh lines", are facial features.

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neural tube defect

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects in which an opening in the spinal cord or brain remains from early in human development.

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Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

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Nicotinamide (NAA), also known as niacinamide, is a form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as a dietary supplement and medication.

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.

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Nicotinamide riboside

Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a pyridine-nucleoside form of vitamin B3 that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+.

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Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.

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Nutritional yeast

Nutritional yeast is a deactivated yeast, often a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is sold commercially as a food product.

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Orotic acid

Orotic acid is a heterocyclic compound and an acid; it is also known as pyrimidinecarboxylic acid.

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Pangamic acid

Pangamic acid, also called pangamate, is the name given to the chemical compound described as d-gluconodimethylamino acetic acid, initially promoted by Ernst T. Krebs, Sr.

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Pantothenic acid

Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin.

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Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.

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Paul Gyorgy

Paul György (April 7, 1893 – March 1, 1976) was a Hungarian-born American biochemist, nutritionist, and pediatrician best known for his discovery of three B vitamins: riboflavin, B6, and biotin.

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Pellagra is a disease caused by a lack of the vitamin niacin (vitamin B3).

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Peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.

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The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.

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Precursor (chemistry)

In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein metabolism

Protein metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the synthesis of proteins and amino acids, and the breakdown of proteins (and other large molecules) by catabolism.

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Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.

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Pyridoxal is one form of vitamin B6.

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Pyridoxal phosphate

Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, P5P), the active form of vitamin B6, is a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic reactions.

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Pyridoxamine is one form of vitamin B6.

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Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.

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Reactive oxygen species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Roger J. Williams

Roger John Williams (August 14, 1893 – February 20, 1988), was an American biochemist who spent his academic career at the University of Texas at Austin.

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The scrotum is an anatomical male reproductive structure that consists of a suspended dual-chambered sack of skin and smooth muscle that is present in most terrestrial male mammals and located under the penis.

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Seborrhoeic dermatitis

Seborrhoeic dermatitis, also known as seborrhoea, is a long-term skin disorder.

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Sore throat

Sore throat, also known as throat pain, is pain or irritation of the throat.

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Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Sunscreen, also known as sunblock, sun cream or suntan lotion, is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against sunburn.

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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.

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Tempeh (témpé) is a traditional soy product originating from Indonesia.

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Tetrahydrofolic acid

Tetrahydrofolic acid, or tetrahydrofolate, is a folic acid derivative.

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Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.

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Thiamine pyrophosphate

Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP or ThPP), or thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), or cocarboxylase is a thiamine (vitamin B1) derivative which is produced by the enzyme thiamine diphosphokinase.

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Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United States Pharmacopeia

The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is a pharmacopeia (compendium of drug information) for the United States published annually by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (usually also called the USP), a nonprofit organization that owns the trademark and copyright.

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Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.

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A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.

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Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

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Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, of which pernicious anemia is a type, is a disease in which not enough red blood cells are produced due to a deficiency of vitamin B12.

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Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.

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Weakness or asthenia is a symptom of a number of different conditions.

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Wernicke encephalopathy

Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) also Wernicke's encephalopathy is the presence of neurological symptoms caused by biochemical lesions of the central nervous system after exhaustion of B-vitamin reserves, in particular thiamine (vitamin B1).

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Xanthopterin is a yellow, crystalline solidhttp://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?xanthopterin that occurs mainly in the wings of butterflies and in the urine of mammals.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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4-Aminobenzoic acid

4-Aminobenzoic acid (also known as para-aminobenzoic acid or PABA because the number 4 carbon in the benzene ring is also known as the para position) is an organic compound with the formula H2NC6H4CO2H.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_vitamins

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