259 relations: Abimelech (Judges), Abu Salabikh, Acre, Israel, Adon, Adonis, Africa (Roman province), Agriculture, Ahaziah of Israel, Akkadian language, Allah, American English, Amharic, Amorite language, Anat, Ancient Canaanite religion, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek religion, Ancient Mesopotamian religion, Ancient Near East, Ancient Semitic religion, Anthropomorphism, Antiquities of the Jews, Arabic, Aramaic language, Arameans, Article (grammar), Astarte, Astrolatry, Ayin, Baal (demon), Baal (disambiguation), Baal Berith, Baal Hammon, Baal in popular culture, Baal with Thunderbolt, Baal-zephon, Baalah, Baalbek, Baalshamin, Baaltars, Battle of Himera (480 BC), Bealiah, Beelzebub, Bel (mythology), Belenus, Belial, Belus, Belus (Babylonian), Bible, Biblical judges, ..., Book of Daniel, Book of Deuteronomy, Book of Hosea, Book of Isaiah, Book of Job, Books of Kings, Books of Samuel, Born to Kvetch, Brazier, Brook of Egypt, Bull, Cambridge, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Canaan, Carthage, Catholic Church, Catholic Encyclopedia, Christianity, Cilicia, Colonies in antiquity, Covenant (biblical), Cronus, Cuneiform script, Dagon, Daniel 7, David, Demon, Demonology, Deuteronomist, Development of the Hebrew Bible canon, Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, Dotdash, Ebionites, Edward Lipiński (orientalist), Egypt, Ekron, El (deity), Elagabalus (deity), Elias, Elijah, Elyon, EN (cuneiform), Encyclopaedia Biblica, Encyclopaedia Judaica, English Reformation, Enki, Enlil, Epic poetry, Epithet, Ernest Renan, Euphrates, Evangelism, Evolutionary origin of religions, Fallen angel, False god, Feces, Fertility, Fly, Frank Moore Cross, Genitive case, Gideon, God in Judaism, Hadad, Hebrew language, Hebrews, Henotheism, Henrik Samuel Nyberg, Hercules, Heresy of Peor, Honorific, Hosea, Icon, Idolatry, Incense, Infection, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Interpretatio graeca, Iron Age, Ish-bosheth, Islam, Israel, Israelites, Ithaca, New York, Jah, Jahannam, Jebel Aqra, Jews, Jezebel, John Day (Old Testament scholar), John Milton, Josephus, Joshua, Jupiter, King of the Gods, Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy), Koine Greek, Lacuna (manuscripts), Latinisation of names, Lebanon, Legend of Keret, Levant, Levantine Arabic, Leviathan, Lightning, List of death deities, List of fertility deities, List of lunar deities, List of nature deities, List of rain deities, List of thunder gods, List of water deities, List of wind deities, Lists of deities, Litan, Lord, Lower Egypt, Marduk, Mary, mother of Jesus, Masoretic Text, Mediterranean Basin, Melqart, Mephibosheth, Mesopotamia, Middle Kingdom of Egypt, Monolatry, Monotheism, Mot (god), Muslim, Names of God in Judaism, New Testament, Northwest Semitic languages, Nur Mountains, Oxford English Dictionary, Paradise Lost, Patronage, Philistines, Philo of Byblos, Phoenicia, Phoenician language, Polytheism, Prayer, Prince, Property, Prophet, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Psalms, Quran, Rain, Reformation, Religion in ancient Rome, Religion in Carthage, Rephaite, Sacred bull, Sacrifice, Sailor, Saint, Samaria, Sanchuniathon, Satan, Saturn (mythology), Saul, Season, Septuagint, Set (deity), Seven-headed serpent, Shapash, Shechem, Sheep, Shekel, Silver, Solar deity, Stele, Strong's Concordance, Sumerian language, Sumerian religion, Sun, Symmachus (translator), Syria, Syria (region), Tanakh, Tanit, Tannin (monster), Temple of Bel, Teshub, Tetragrammaton, The New Yorker, Theispas, Theophoric name, Tutelary deity, Twelve Tribes of Israel, Tyre, Lebanon, Ugarit, Ugaritic, Underworld, Utu, Vermin, Vestment, Virginity, Vulgate, War, Weather, Weather god, Wife, Wind, Wolfgang Herrmann, Yahweh, Yam (god), Yigael Yadin. Expand index (209 more) » « Shrink index
Abimelech (אֲבִימֶלֶךְ ’Ǎḇîmeleḵ) was a son of judge Gideon.
The low tells at Abu Salabikh, around northwest of the site of ancient Nippur in Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq mark the site of a small Sumerian city of the mid third millennium BCE, with cultural connections to the cities of Kish, Mari and Ebla.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
Adon (𐤀𐤃𐤍) literally means "lord." Adon has an uncertain etymology, although it is generally believed to be derived from the Ugaritic ad, “father.”.
Adonis was the mortal lover of the goddess Aphrodite in Greek mythology.
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Ahaziah (’Ăḥazyāh, "Yah has grasped"; also Ὀχοζίας, Ochozias in the Septuagint and the Douai-Rheims translation) was king of the northern Kingdom of Israel and the son of Ahab and Jezebel.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.
Amorite is an extinct early Northwest Semitic language, formerly spoken by the Amorite tribes prominent in ancient Near Eastern history.
Anat, classically Anath (עֲנָת ʿĂnāth; 𐤏𐤍𐤕 ʿAnōt; 𐎓𐎐𐎚 ʿnt; Αναθ Anath; Egyptian Antit, Anit, Anti, or Anant) is a major northwest Semitic goddess.
Canaanite religion refers to the group of ancient Semitic religions practiced by the Canaanites living in the ancient Levant from at least the early Bronze Age through the first centuries of the Common Era.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, particularly Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia between circa 3500 BC and 400 AD, after which they largely gave way to Syriac Christianity.
The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.
Ancient Semitic religion encompasses the polytheistic religions of the Semitic peoples from the ancient Near East and Northeast Africa.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.
Antiquities of the Jews (Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία, Ioudaikē archaiologia; Antiquitates Judaicae), also Judean Antiquities (see Ioudaios), is a 20-volume historiographical work composed by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the 13th year of the reign of Roman emperor Flavius Domitian which was around AD 93 or 94.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Arameans, or Aramaeans (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC).
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Astarte (Ἀστάρτη, Astártē) is the Hellenized form of the Middle Eastern goddess Astoreth (Northwest Semitic), a form of Ishtar (East Semitic), worshipped from the Bronze Age through classical antiquity.
Astrolatry is the worship of stars and other heavenly bodies as deities, or the association of deities with heavenly bodies.
Ayin (also ayn, ain; transliterated) is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac ܥ, and Arabic rtl (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only).
Baal (sometimes spelled Bael, Baël (French), Baell, Buel) is in 17th century goetic occult writings as one of the seven princes of Hell.
Baal is a Semitic term for "Lord" or "owner".
Baʿal Berith ("Lord of the Covenant") and El Berith ("God of the Covenant") are two gods, or one god, worshiped in Shechem, in ancient Israel.
Baal Hammon, properly Baʿal Ḥammon or Ḥamon (Phoenician: baʿal ḥamūn; Punic), was the chief god of Carthage.
The Canaanite god Baal in the Hebrew Bible is referenced in popular culture.
Baal with Thunderbolt or the Baal stele is a white limestone bas-relief stele from the ancient kingdom of Ugarit in northwestern Syria.
Baal-zephon or Baalzephon, properly Baʿal Zaphon or Ṣaphon (בעל צפון; im Be-el Ḫa-zi; Tšb Ḫlbğ), was the form of the Canaanite storm god Baʿal ("The Lord") in his role as lord of Mount Zaphon; he is identified in the Ugaritic texts as Hadad.
Baalah, properly Baʿalah ("Mistress" in the Northwest Semitic languages), is the feminine form of Baʿal ("Lord") and was applied to various Levantine goddesses.
Baalbek, properly Baʿalbek (بعلبك) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a city in the Anti-Lebanon foothills east of the Litani River in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley, about northeast of Beirut and about north of Damascus.
Baalshamin or Ba'al Šamem (Aramaic: ܒܥܠ ܫܡܝܢ), lit.
Baaltars (combination of "Baal" and "Tarsus"; Aramaic: בעלתרז) was a deity of the Persian Empire, the Baal or Zeus of the city of Tarsus.
The Battle of Himera (480 BC), supposedly fought on the same day as the more famous Battle of Salamis, or at the same time as the Battle of Thermopylae, saw the Greek forces of Gelon, King of Syracuse, and Theron, tyrant of Agrigentum, defeat the Carthaginian force of Hamilcar the Magonid, ending a Carthaginian bid to restore the deposed tyrant of Himera.
Bealiah (בְּעַלְיָה beh-al-yaw) or Baalyah, a Benjamite, was one of David's thirty heroes who went to Ziklag, mentioned in.
Beelzebub or Beelzebul (or; בַּעַל זְבוּב Baʿal Zəvûv) is a name derived from a Philistine god, formerly worshipped in Ekron, and later adopted by some Abrahamic religions as a major demon.
Bel (from Akkadian bēlu), signifying "lord" or "master", is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in the Mesopotamian religion of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.
Belenus (also Belenos, Belinus, Bel, Beli Mawr) is a sun god from Celtic Mythology and, in the third century, the patron deity of the Italian city of Aquileia.
(בְּלִיַעַל) Belial (also Belhor, Baalial, Beliar, Beliall, Beliel, Beliya'al) is a term occurring in the Hebrew Bible which later became personified as the devilSee the reference to "Beliar" in The Ascension of Isaiah, at, specifically at 1:8-9, 2:4, 3:11-13, 4:2, 4:14-18, 5:1, 5:15.
Belus (Latin) or Belos (Βῆλος, Bē̂los) was the indifferent classical rendering of the Semitic words bēlu and baʿal ("lord") as a theonym, personal name, and royal title.
Belus or Belos (Ancient Greek: Βῆλος, Bēlos) in classical Greek or classical Latin texts (and later material based on them) in a Babylonian context refers to the Babylonian god Bel Marduk.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Biblical judges (sing. שופט šōp̄êṭ/shofet, pl. šōp̄əṭîm/shoftim) are described in the Hebrew Bible, and mostly in the Book of Judges, as people who served roles as military leaders in times of crisis, in the period before an Israelite monarchy was established.
The Book of Daniel is a biblical apocalypse, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (the study of last things) which is both cosmic in scope and political in its focus.
The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law," from Greek deuteros + nomos) is the fifth book of the Torah (a section of the Hebrew Bible) and the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיהו) is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב Iyov) is a book in the Ketuvim ("Writings") section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), and the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.
The two Books of Kings, originally a single book, are the eleventh and twelfth books of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.
The Books of Samuel, 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel.
Born to Kvetch: Yiddish Language and Culture in All Its MoodsBorn to Kvetch: Yiddish Language and Culture in All Its Moods, Michael Wex, St.
A brazier is a container for hot coals, generally taking the form of an upright standing or hanging metal bowl or box.
The Brook of Egypt is the name used in some English translations of the Bible for the Hebrew Naḥal Mizraim ("River of Egypt") used for the river defining the westernmost border of the Land of Israel.
A bull is an intact (i.e., not castrated) adult male of the species Bos taurus (cattle).
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
A biblical covenant is a religious covenant that is described in the Bible.
In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos (or from Κρόνος, Krónos), was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Dagon (Dāgūn; דָּגוֹן, Tib.) or Dagan (𒀭𒁕𒃶) is an ancient Mesopotamian (Assyro-Babylonian) and Levantine (Canaanite) deity.
Daniel 7 (the seventh chapter of the Book of Daniel) tells of Daniel's vision of four world-kingdoms replaced by the kingdom of God.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
A demon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimónion) is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.
Demonology is the study of demons or beliefs about demons, especially the methods used to summon and control them.
The Deuteronomist, or simply D, is one of the sources identified through source criticism as underlying much of the Hebrew Bible (Christian Old Testament).
Rabbinic Judaism recognizes the 24 books of the Masoretic Text, commonly called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, as authoritative.
The Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (DDD) is an academic reference work edited by Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking and Pieter W. van der Horst which contains academic articles on the named gods, angels, and demons in the books of the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint and Apocrypha, as well as the New Testament and patristic literature.
Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.
Ebionites (Ἐβιωναῖοι Ebionaioi, derived from Hebrew אביונים ebyonim, ebionim, meaning "the poor" or "poor ones") is a patristic term referring to a Jewish Christian movement that existed during the early centuries of the Christian Era.
Edward Lipiński, or Edouard Lipiński (born 18 June 1930 in Łódź, Poland), is a Belgian Biblical scholar and Orientalist.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The city of Ekron (עֶקְרוֹן ʿeqrōn), in the Hellenistic period known as Accaron, was one of the five cities of the famed Philistine pentapolis, located in southwestern Canaan.
(or ’Il, written aleph-lamed, e.g. 𐎛𐎍; 𐤀𐤋; אל; ܐܠ; إل or rtl; cognate to ilu) is a Northwest Semitic word meaning "god" or "deity", or referring (as a proper name) to any one of multiple major Ancient Near East deities.
Elagabalus, Aelagabalus, or Heliogabalus is a Syro-Roman sun god.
Elias is the Latin and Greek equivalent of Elijah (Hebrew Eliyahu), a prophet in Israel in the 9th century BCE, mentioned in several holy books.
Elijah (meaning "My God is Yahu/Jah") or latinized form Elias (Ἡλίας, Elías; ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ, Elyāe; Arabic: إلياس or إليا, Ilyās or Ilyā) was, according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of King Ahab (9th century BC).
Elyon (Biblical Hebrew עליון; Masoretic ʿElyōn) is an epithet of the God of the Israelites in the Hebrew Bible.
EN (Borger 2003 nr. 164; U+12097 𒂗, see also ENSI) is the Sumerian cuneiform for "lord" or "priest".
Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political and Religion History, the Archeology, Geography and Natural History of the Bible (1899), edited by Thomas Kelly Cheyne and J. Sutherland Black, is a critical encyclopedia of the Bible.
The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and of Judaism.
The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
Enki (Sumerian: dEN.KI(G)) is the Sumerian god of water, knowledge (gestú), mischief, crafts (gašam), and creation (nudimmud).
Enlil, later known as Elil, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of wind, air, earth, and storms.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.
Joseph Ernest Renan (28 February 1823 – 2 October 1892) was a French expert of Semitic languages and civilizations (philology), philosopher, historian, and writer, devoted to his native province of Brittany.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The emergence of religious behavior by the Neolithic period has been discussed in terms of evolutionary psychology, the origin of language and mythology, cross-cultural comparison of the anthropology of religion, as well as evidence for spirituality or cultic behavior in the Upper Paleolithic, and similarities in great ape behavior.
Fallen angels are angels who were expelled from Heaven.
In some monotheistic religious denominations, the deities of pagan religions -- as well as other competing entities or objects to which particular importance is attributed -- are often called false gods. Conversely, polytheistic pagans may regard the gods of various monotheistic religions as "false gods" because they do not believe that any real deity possesses the properties ascribed by monotheists to their sole deity.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".
Frank Moore Cross, Jr. (July 13, 1921 – October 16, 2012) was the Hancock Professor of Hebrew and Other Oriental Languages Emeritus at Harvard University, notable for his work in the interpretation of the Dead Sea Scrolls, his 1973 magnum opus Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, and his work in Northwest Semitic epigraphy.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Gideon or Gedeon, also named Jerubbaal, and Jerubbesheth, was a military leader, judge and prophet whose calling and victory over the Midianites are recounted in of the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible.
In Judaism, God has been conceived in a variety of ways.
Hadad (𐎅𐎄), Adad, Haddad (Akkadian) or Iškur (Sumerian) was the storm and rain god in the Northwest Semitic and ancient Mesopotamian religions.
Hebrews (Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm; Modern Hebrew ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim; ISO 259-3 ʕibrim, ʕibriyim) is a term appearing 34 times within 32 verses of the Hebrew Bible.
Henotheism is the worship of a single god while not denying the existence or possible existence of other deities.
Henrik Samuel (H.S.) Nyberg (28 December 1889 – 9 February 1974) was a Swedish scholar of broad interest and a well known expert of Iranology and Arab studies.
Hercules is a Roman hero and god.
The heresy of Peor is an event related in the Torah at Numbers 25:1–15.
An honorific is a title that conveys esteem or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person.
In the Hebrew Bible, Hosea (or;; Greek Ὠσηέ, Ōsēe), son of Beeri, was an 8th-century BC prophet in Israel who authored the book of prophecies bearing his name.
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon.
Incense is aromatic biotic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia refers to two different revisions of a Bible encyclopedia.
Interpretatio graeca (Latin, "Greek translation" or "interpretation by means of Greek ") is a discourse in which ancient Greek religious concepts and practices, deities, and myths are used to interpret or attempt to understand the mythology and religion of other cultures.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Ish-bosheth (Standard: Ishbóshet; Tiberian: ʼÎšbṓšeṯ) also called Eshbaal (Standard: Eshbáʻal; Tiberian: ʼEšbáʻal), Ashbaal or Ishbaal, was one of the four sons of King Saul and was chosen as the second king over the Kingdom of Israel, which then consisted of all the Twelve Tribes of Israel, after the death of his father and three brothers at the Battle of Mount Gilboa.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Ithaca is a city in the Finger Lakes region of New York.
Jah or Yah (יהּ Yah) is a short form of Yahweh (in consonantal spelling YHWH יהוה, called the Tetragrammaton), the proper name of God in the Hebrew Bible.
Jahannam (جهنم (etymologically related to Hebrew גיהנום. Gehennom and Greek: γέεννα) refers to an afterlife place of punishment for evildoers. The punishments are carried in accordance with the degree of evil one has done during his life. In Quran, Jahannam is also referred as al-Nar ("The Fire"), Jaheem ("Blazing Fire"), Hatamah ("That which Breaks to Pieces"), Haawiyah ("The Abyss"), Ladthaa, Sa’eer ("The Blaze"), Saqar. and also the names of different gates to hell. Suffering in hell is both physical and spiritual, and varies according to the sins of the condemned. As described in the Quran, Hell has seven levels (each one more severe than the one above it); seven gates (each for a specific group of sinners); a blazing fire, boiling water, and the Tree of Zaqqum. Not all Muslims and scholars agree whether hell is an eternal destination or whether some or even all of the condemned will eventually be forgiven and allowed to enter paradise.
Jebel Aqra, properly Jebel al-ʾAqraʿ (جبل الأقرع,; Cebel-i Akra), also known as Mount Casius, is a limestone mountain located on the Syrian–Turkish border near the mouth of the Orontes River on the Mediterranean Sea.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jezebel is described in the Book of Kings (1 Kings 16:31) as a queen who was the daughter of Ithobaal I of Sidon and the wife of Ahab, King of Israel.
John Day (born 1948) is an English Old Testament scholar.
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Joshua or Jehoshua (יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Yehōšuʿa) or Isho (Aramaic: ܝܼܫܘܿܥ ܒܲܪ ܢܘܿܢ Eesho Bar Non) is the central figure in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Joshua.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
In polytheistic systems there is a tendency for one deity, usually male, to achieve pre-eminence as King of the gods.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible.
A lacuna (lacunae or lacunas) is a gap in a manuscript, inscription, text, painting, or a musical work.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Legend of Keret, also known as the Epic of King Keret, is an ancient Ugaritic epic poem, dated to Late Bronze Age, circa 1500 – 1200 BC.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Levantine Arabic (الـلَّـهْـجَـةُ الـشَّـامِـيَّـة,, Levantine Arabic: il-lahže š-šāmiyye) is a broad dialect of Arabic and the vernacular Arabic of the eastern coastal strip of the Levantine Sea, that is Shaam.
Leviathan is a sea monster referenced in the Hebrew Bible in the Book of Job, Psalms, the Book of Isaiah, and the Book of Amos.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
Deities associated with death take many different forms, depending on the specific culture and religion being referenced.
A fertility deity is a god or goddess associated with sex, fertility, pregnancy, and childbirth.
In mythology, a lunar deity is a god or goddess associated with, or symbolic of the moon.
In nature worship, a nature deity is a deity in charge of forces of nature such as water deity, vegetation deity, sky deity, solar deity, fire deity or any other naturally occurring phenomena such as mountains, trees, or volcanoes.
There are many different gods of rain in different religions.
Polytheistic peoples of many cultures have postulated a thunder god, the personification or source of the forces of thunder and lightning; a lightning god does not have a typical depiction, and will vary based on the culture.
A water deity is a deity in mythology associated with water or various bodies of water.
There are many different gods of wind in different religions.
This is an index to deities of the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world, listed by type and by region.
Litan (died 900) was abbot of Tuam.
Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler.
Lower Egypt (مصر السفلى.) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.
Marduk (cuneiform: dAMAR.UTU; Sumerian: amar utu.k "calf of the sun; solar calf"; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios) was a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
The Masoretic Text (MT, 𝕸, or \mathfrak) is the authoritative Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
Melqart (Phoenician:, lit. milik-qurt, "King of the City"; Akkadian: Milqartu) was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre.
According to the Books of Samuel of the Tanakh, Mephibosheth was the son of Jonathan, grandson of King Saul and father of Mica or Micha.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.
Monolatry (Greek: μόνος (monos).
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Mot (𐤌𐤅𐤕 mōwet, מות māweṯ, موت mut) was the ancient Canaanite god of death and the Underworld.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The name of God most often used in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton (YHWH). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah and Yahweh and written in most English editions of the Bible as "the " owing to the Jewish tradition viewing the divine name as increasingly too sacred to be uttered.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Northwest Semitic is a division of the Semitic language family comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant.
The Nur Mountains (Nur Dağları, "Mountains of Holy Light"), formerly known as Alma-Dağ or the ancient Amanus (Ἁμανός), is a mountain range in the Hatay Province of south-central Turkey, which runs roughly parallel to the Gulf of İskenderun.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton (1608–1674).
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
The Philistines were an ancient people known for their conflict with the Israelites described in the Bible.
Philo of Byblos (Φίλων Βύβλιος, Phílōn Býblios; Philo Byblius; – 141), also known as Herennius Philon, was an antiquarian writer of grammatical, lexical and historical works in Greek.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship, typically a deity, through deliberate communication.
A prince is a male ruler or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family ranked below a king and above a duke.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.
The religion of Carthage in North Africa was a direct continuation of the Phoenician variety of the polytheistic ancient Canaanite religion with significant local modifications.
In the Hebrew Bible, as well as non-Jewish ancient texts from the region, the North-West Semitic term Rephaite (Heb. plural רפאים, Rephaim; Phoenician) refers either to a people group of greater-than-average height and stature (possibly giants), or to dead ancestors who are residents of the Netherworld.
Numerous peoples throughout the world have at one point in time honored bulls as sacred.
Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.
A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who navigates waterborne vessels or assists as a crewmember in their operation and maintenance.
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
Samaria (שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard, Tiberian Šōmərôn; السامرة, – also known as, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of ancient Land of Israel, also known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south.
Sanchuniathon (Σαγχουνιάθων; probably from SKNYTN, Sakun-yaton, " Sakon has given") is the purported Phoenician author of three lost works originally in the Phoenician language, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos, according to the Christian bishop Eusebius of Caesarea.
Satan is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin.
Saturn (Saturnus) is a god in ancient Roman religion, and a character in myth as a god of generation, dissolution, plenty, wealth, agriculture, periodic renewal and liberation.
Saul (meaning "asked for, prayed for"; Saul; طالوت, Ṭālūt or شاؤل, Ša'ūl), according to the Hebrew Bible, was the first king of the Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
Set or Seth (Egyptian: stẖ; also transliterated Setesh, Sutekh, Setekh, or Suty) is a god of the desert, storms, disorder, violence, and foreigners in ancient Egyptian religion.
The Seven-headed Serpent (from Sumerian muš-saĝ-7: snake with seven heads) in Sumerian mythology was one of the Heroes slain by Ninurta, patron god of Lagash, in ancient Iraq.
Shapash, Shapsh, Shapshu or sometimes Shemesh was the Canaanite goddess of the sun, daughter of El and Asherah.
Shechem, also spelled Sichem (שְׁכָם / Standard Šəḵem Tiberian Šeḵem, "shoulder"), was a Canaanite city mentioned in the Amarna letters, and is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as an Israelite city of the tribe of Manasseh and the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Shekel (Akkadian: šiqlu or siqlu; שקל,. shekels or sheqalim) is any of several ancient units of weight or of currency.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, generally known as Strong's Concordance, is a Bible concordance, an index of every word in the King James Version (KJV), constructed under the direction of James Strong.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Sumerian religion was the religion practiced and adhered to by the people of Sumer, the first literate civilization of ancient Mesopotamia.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Symmachus (Σύμμαχος "ally"; fl. late 2nd century) translated the Old Testament into Greek.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tanit was a Punic and Phoenician goddess, the chief deity of Carthage alongside her consort Baal-hamon.
Tannin (תנין) or Tunannu (Ugaritic: 𐎚𐎐𐎐 tnn, vocalized tu-un-na-nu) was a sea monster in Canaanite, Phoenician, and Hebrew mythology used as a symbol of chaos and evil.
The Temple of Bel (معبد بل), sometimes also referred to as the "Temple of Baal", was an ancient temple located in Palmyra, Syria.
Teshub (also written Teshup or Tešup; cuneiform; hieroglyphic Luwian, read as TarhunzasAnnick Payne (2014), Hieroglyphic Luwian: An Introduction with Original Texts, 3rd revised edition, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 159.) was the Hurrian god of sky and storm.
The tetragrammaton (from Greek Τετραγράμματον, meaning " four letters"), in Hebrew and YHWH in Latin script, is the four-letter biblical name of the God of Israel.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
Theispas (also known as Teisheba or Teišeba) of Kumenu was the Araratian (Urartian) weather-god, notably the god of storms and thunder.
A theophoric name (from Greek: θεόφορος, theophoros, literally "bearing or carrying a god") embeds the name of a god, both invoking and displaying the protection of that deity.
A tutelary (also tutelar) is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture, or occupation.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Tribes of Israel (שבטי ישראל) were said to have descended from the 12 sons of the patriarch Jacob (who was later named Israel) by two wives, Leah and Rachel, and two concubines, Zilpah and Bilhah.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Ugarit (𐎜𐎂𐎗𐎚, ʼUgart; أُوغَارِيت Ūġārīt, alternatively أُوجَارِيت Ūǧārīt) was an ancient port city in northern Syria.
Ugaritic is an extinct Northwest Semitic language discovered by French archaeologists in 1929.
The underworld is the world of the dead in various religious traditions, located below the world of the living.
Utu later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, justice, morality, and truth, and the twin brother of the goddess Inanna, the Queen of Heaven.
Vermin (colloquially varmint or varmit) are pests or nuisance animals, that spread diseases or destroy crops or livestock.
Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religion, especially among the Eastern Orthodox, Catholics (Latin Church and others), Anglicans, and Lutherans.
Virginity is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.
A weather god is a deity in mythology associated with weather phenomena such as thunder, lightning, rain and wind.
A wife is a female partner in a continuing marital relationship.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
Wolfgang Herrmann (March 14, 1904 – April 1945 near Brno) was a German librarian and member of the Nazi Party, whose blacklist provided the template for the Nazi book burnings in May 1933.
Yahweh (or often in English; יַהְוֶה) was the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah.
Yam (also Yamm) is the god of the sea in the Canaanite pantheon.
Yigael Yadin (יִגָּאֵל יָדִין, born Yigael Sukenik 20 March 1917 – 28 June 1984) was an Israeli archeologist, politician, and the second Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.