225 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Adab (city), Akkad (city), Akkadian Empire, Akkadian language, Akshak, Albert Houtum-Schindler, Alexander the Great, Amorites, Amytis of Media, Anatolia, Ancient Greek, Ancient Macedonians, Apocalyptic literature, Arabs, Aramaic language, Arameans, Archibald Sayce, Architecture of Mesopotamia, Ashur-etil-ilani, Ashurbanipal, Assur, Assyria, Assyrian Church of the East, Assyrian people, Astronomy, Austen Henry Layard, Babil Governorate, Babilonas, Babylon 5, Babylonia, Babylonian captivity, Bad-tibira, Baghdad, Battle of Gaugamela, Battle of Opis, Bel (mythology), Belshazzar, Belus (Babylonian), Berlin, Berossus, Bible, Book of Genesis, Book of Revelation, Books of Chronicles, British Museum, Cable car, Callisthenes, Cambridge, Canaan, ..., Canaanite languages, Capitalism, Chaldea, Chaldean, Chaldean Catholic Church, Christianity, Chronology of the ancient Near East, Church of the East, Cimmerians, Cities of the ancient Near East, City-state, Claudius James Rich, Cleitarchus, Code of Hammurabi, Confusion of tongues, Ctesias, Cyaxares, Cyrus Cylinder, Cyrus the Great, Darius I, Darius III, David Rohl, Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft, Diadochi, Diodorus Siculus, Dysphemism, East Semitic languages, East Syrian Rite, Eastern Aramaic languages, Ebla, El (deity), Elam, Enki, Eridu, Esagila, Esarhaddon, Eshnunna, Etemenanki, Euphrates, First Babylonian Dynasty, Folk etymology, Fulgence Fresnel, George Rawlinson, George Smith (Assyriologist), George Syncellus, German Archaeological Institute, Girsu, Gnosticism, God, Greece, Gulf War, Hammurabi, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Haradum, Harran, Hatra, Hebrew Bible, Helipad, Hellanicus of Mytilene, Hellenistic period, Herodotus, Hillah, Historical urban community sizes, History of Iran, Hittites, Hormuzd Rassam, Hurrians, I Marine Expeditionary Force, Ignace Gelb, International New York Times, Iran, Iraq, Iraq War, Ishme-Dagan, Ishtar Gate, Isin, Islamization, James T. Conway, Jehoiachin's Rations Tablets, Jews, Joan Oates, Julius Oppert, Kandalanu, Kassite language, Kassites, Kazallu, Kish (Sumer), Labashi-Marduk, Lagash, Larsa, Levant, List of kings of Babylon, Lithuania, Lithuanian language, Mandaeism, Mani (prophet), Manichaeism, Marduk, Marduk-apla-iddina II, Mari, Syria, Mathematics, Medes, Mesopotamia, Middle Assyrian Empire, Muslim, Nabonidus, Nabopolassar, Nabu, Nebuchadnezzar II, Nebuchadnezzar III, Nebuchadnezzar IV, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neo-Babylonian Empire, Neriglissar, New Testament, Nimrod, Nimrud, Nineveh, Ninurta, Nippur, Nisroch, Northwest Semitic languages, Oxford University Press, Parthian Empire, Pergamon Museum, Persian Empire, Persian people, Phoroneus, Quintus Curtius Rufus, Reggae, Robert Koldewey, Roman Empire, Saddam Hussein, Sargon II, Sargon of Akkad, Sasanian Empire, Science fiction, Scythians, Sealand Dynasty, Seleucia, Seleucid Empire, Semitic people, Sennacherib, Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Shamash-shum-ukin, Shinar, Short chronology timeline, Shuruppak, Simplicius of Cilicia, Sin-shumu-lishir, Sinsharishkun, Sippar, Sir Henry Rawlinson, 1st Baronet, Space station, Stephanus of Byzantium, Strabo, Sumerian language, Sumu-abum, Suteans, Talmud, Tell, Tiberian vocalization, Tigris, Tomb of Daniel, Tower of Babel, Tukulti-Ninurta I, Ur, Uruk, Wars of the Diadochi, Whore of Babylon, William Loftus, Zagros Mountains, Ziggurat, 2003 invasion of Iraq, 2nd millennium BC. Expand index (175 more) » « Shrink index
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great, notable for embracing various civilizations and becoming the largest empire of the ancient history, spanning at its maximum extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east.
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Adab or Udab (Sumerian: Adabki, spelled UD.NUNKI) was an ancient Sumerian city between Telloh and Nippur.
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Akkad (also spelled Akkade or Agade) was the capital of the Akkadian Empire, which was the dominant political force in Mesopotamia at the end of the third millennium BCE.
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The Akkadian Empire was an ancient Semitic empire centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia. The empire united all the indigenous Akkadian-speaking Semites and the Sumerian speakers under one rule. The Akkadian Empire controlled Mesopotamia, the Levant, and parts of Iran.Mish, Frederick C., Editor in Chief. "Akkad" Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. ninth ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster 1985. ISBN 0-87779-508-8). During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Semitic Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language somewhere between the 3rd and the 2nd millennia BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate). The Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon of Akkad (2334–2279 BC). Under Sargon and his successors, Akkadian language was briefly imposed on neighboring conquered states such as Elam. Akkad is sometimes regarded as the first empire in history, though there are earlier Sumerian claimants. After the fall of the Akkadian Empire, the Akkadian people of Mesopotamia eventually coalesced into two major Akkadian speaking nations: Assyria in the north, and, a few centuries later, Babylonia in the south.
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Akkadian (akkadû, ak.kADû) is an extinct east Semitic language (part of the greater Afroasiatic language family) that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia.
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Akshak was a city of ancient Sumer, situated on the northern boundary of Akkad, sometimes identified with Babylonian Upi (Greek Opis).
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General Sir Albert Houtum-Schindler, KCIE (born 24 September 1846, the Netherlands or Germany; died 15 June 1916, Fenstanton, England) was a scholar of Persia and an employee of the Persian government.
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Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas, from the Greek ἀλέξω (alexō) "defend" and ἀνδρ- (andr-), the stem of ἀνήρ (anēr) "man" and means "protector of men") was a King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;. and a member of the Argead dynasty, a famous ancient Greek royal house.
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The Amorites (Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 MAR.TU; Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm; Egyptian Amar; Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī; Ἀμορραῖοι) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people from ancient Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon which was raised from a small administrative town to an independent state and major city.
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Amuhia or Amytis of Media (c. 630–565 BC) was the daughter or granddaughter of the Median king Cyaxares, and the wife of Nebuchadnezzar II.
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Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.
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Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
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The Macedonians (Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula.
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Apocalyptic literature is a genre of prophetical writing that developed in post-Exilic Jewish culture and was popular among millennialist early Christians.
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Arabs (عرب, ʿarab) are a major panethnic group whose native language is Arabic, comprising the majority of the Arab world.
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Aramaic (Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ) is a family of languages or dialects belonging to the Semitic family.
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The Arameans, or Aramaeans, (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ, ארמיא) were a Northwest Semitic people who originated in what is now present-day western, southern and central Syria (Biblical Aram) during the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
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The architecture of Mesopotamia is the ancient architecture of the region of the Tigris–Euphrates river system (also known as Mesopotamia), encompassing several distinct cultures and spanning a period from the 10th millennium BC, when the first permanent structures were built, to the 6th century BC.
Ashur-etil-ilani was a king of Assyria (ca. 631 BC – ca. 627 BC).
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Ashurbanipal (Aššur-bāni-apli; "ܐܵܫܘܿܪ ܒܵܢܝܼ ܐܵܦܠܝܼ"; 'Ashur is the creator of an heir'; 668 BC – c. 627 BC),These are the dates according to the Assyrian King list, also spelled Assurbanipal or Ashshurbanipal, was an Assyrian king, the son of Esarhaddon and the last strong king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (934–609 BC).
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Aššur (Akkadian) (English | Ashur/Assyria, Assyrian / Aššur; Assyrian Neo-Aramaic / Ātûr; אַשּׁוּר /; آشور / ALA-LC: Āshūr; Kurdish: Asûr), also known as Ashur, Qal'at Sherqat and Kalah Shergat, is a city from the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
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Assyria, a major Mesopotamian East Semitic kingdom and empire of the Ancient Near East, existed as an independent state for a period of approximately nineteen centuries, from the 25th century BC to 605 BC, spanning the mid to Early Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age.
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The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻIttā d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ, ʻIttā Qaddishtā w-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), is a Syriac Church historically centered in Assyria, northern Mesopotamia.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), also known as Chaldeans, Syriacs, and Arameans, (see names of Syriac Christians) are a Christian, Semitic,James Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: A-C, pp.
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Astronomy is a natural science which is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation.
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The Rt Hon Sir Austen Henry Layard (5 March 1817 – 5 July 1894) was an English traveller, archaeologist, cuneiformist, art historian, draughtsman, collector, author, politician and diplomat, best known as the excavator of Nimrud and of Niniveh, where he uncovered in 1851 the library of Ashurbanipal.
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Babil Governorate or Babylon Province (بابل Bābil) is a governorate in central Iraq.
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Babilonas (trademark "Babilonas – City Within City") is a privately developed district of retail, commercial, residential and public buildings in Panevėžys, Lithuania.
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Babylon 5 is an American space western television series created by writer and producer J. Michael Straczynski, under the Babylonian Productions label, in association with Straczynski's Synthetic Worlds Ltd.
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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking Semitic state and cultural region based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
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The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of Judahites of the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
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Bad-tibira, "Wall of the Copper Worker(s)", or "Fortress of the Smiths", identified as modern Tell al-Madineh, between Ash Shatrah and Tell as-Senkereh (ancient Larsa) in southern Iraq, was an ancient Sumerian city, which appears among antediluvian cities in the Sumerian King List.
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Baghdad (بغداد, Iraqi pronunciation) is the capital of the Republic of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Province.
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The Battle of Gaugamela (Γαυγάμηλα), also called the Battle of Arbela, was the decisive battle of Alexander the Great's invasion of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
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The Battle of Opis, fought in September 539 BC, was a major engagement between the armies of Persia under Cyrus the Great and the Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus during the Persian invasion of Mesopotamia.
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Bel (from Akkadian bēlu), signifying "lord" or "master", is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in the Mesopotamian religion of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.
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Belshazzar (Biblical Hebrew בלשאצר; Akkadian: Bēl-šarra-uṣur; Greek: Balthazar, from Akkadian, meaning "Protect His Life"; or, possibly, " Bel Protect the King") was Coregent of Babylon.
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Belus or Belos (Βῆλος) in classical Greek or classical Latin texts (and later material based on them) in a Babylonian context refers to the Babylonian god Bel Marduk.
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Berlin is the capital of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany.
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Berossus or Berosus (name possibly derived from Bēl-rē'ušunu, "Bel is their shepherd"; Βήρωσσος) was a Hellenistic-era Babylonian writer, a priest of Bel Marduk and astronomer who wrote in the Koine Greek language, and who was active at the beginning of the 3rd century BC.
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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of texts sacred in Judaism and Christianity.
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The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek γένεσις, meaning "origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, Bərēšīṯ, "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Christian Old Testament.
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The Book of Revelation, often known simply as Revelation or The Apocalypse of John, is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
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The two Books of Chronicles (דברי הימים Diḇrê Hayyāmîm, "The Matters of the Days"; Παραλειπομένων, Paraleipoménōn) are the final books of the Hebrew Bible in the order followed by modern Judaism; in that generally followed in Christianity, they follow the two Books of Kings and precede Ezra-Nehemiah, thus concluding the history-oriented books of the Old Testament.
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The British Museum is a museum dedicated to human history, art, and culture, located in the Bloomsbury area of London.
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A cable car is any of a variety of transportation systems relying on cables to pull vehicles along or lower them at a steady rate.
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Callisthenes of Olynthus ((); Καλλισθένης; c. 360 – 328 BC) was a Greek historian.
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The city of Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England.
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Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍; Biblical Hebrew: כנען /; Masoretic: כְּנָעַן /) was, during the late 2nd millennium BC, a region in the Ancient Near East.
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The Canaanite languages are a subfamily of the Semitic languages, which were spoken by the ancient peoples of the Canaan region, the Canaanites (including the Israelites and Phoenicians), Amorites, Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, and Carthaginians.
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Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are privately owned and operated via profit and loss calculation (price signals) through the price system.
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Chaldea, from Χαλδαία,; māt Kaldu/Kašdu; כשדים,; ܟܠܕܘ,, also spelled Chaldaea, was a small Semitic nation that emerged between the late 10th and early 9th century BC, surviving until the mid 6th century BC, after which it disappeared as the Chaldean tribes were absorbed into the native population of Babylonia.
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Chaldean (or Kaldani or Kaldean) may refer to.
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The Chaldean Catholic Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ʿītha kaldetha qāthuliqetha), (Arabic: الكنيسة الكلدانية al-kaniisa al-keldaneeya) is an Eastern Syriac particular church of the Catholic Church, under the Holy See of the Catholicos-Patriarch of Babylon, maintaining full communion with the Bishop of Rome and the rest of the Catholic Church.
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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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The chronology of the ancient Near East provides a framework of dates for various events, rulers and dynasties.
The Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ʿĒ(d)tāʾ d-Maḏn(ə)ḥāʾ), also known as the Nestorian Church, was a Christian church within the Syriac tradition of Eastern Christianity.
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The Cimmerians or Kimmerians (Κιμμέριοι, Kimmerioi) were an ancient Indo-European people living north of the Caucasus and the Sea of Azov as early as 1300 BC until they were driven southward by the Scythians into Anatolia during the 8th century BC.
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The largest cities in the Bronze Age ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands.
A city-state is a sovereign state consisting of a city and its dependent territories.
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Claudius James Rich (28 March 1787 – 5 October 1821) was a British business agent, traveller and antiquarian scholar,.
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Cleitarchus or Clitarchus (Κλείταρχος), one of the historians of Alexander the Great, son of the historian Dinon of Colophon, was possibly a native of Egypt, or at least spent a considerable time at the court of Ptolemy Lagus.
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The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1754 BC.
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The confusion of tongues (confusio linguarum) is the origin myth for the fragmentation of human languages described in the Book of Genesis 11:1–9, as a result of the construction of the Tower of Babel.
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Ctesias (Κτησίας, Ktēsías), also known as Ctesias the Cnidian or Ctesias of Cnidus, was a Greek physician and historian from the town of Cnidus in Caria.
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Cyaxares or Hvakhshathra (12 Uvaxštra, Κυαξάρης; r. 625–585 BC), the son of King Phraortes, and according to Herodotus was the third and most capable king of Media.
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The Cyrus Cylinder (منشور کوروش) is an ancient clay cylinder, now broken into several fragments, on which is written a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script in the name of Persia's Achaemenid king Cyrus the Great.
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Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش بُزُرگ Kurosh-e Bozorg  ; c. 600 or 576 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire.
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Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, c. 550–486 BCE) was the third king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
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Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.
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David Michael Rohl (born 12 September 1950 in Barton-upon-Irwell, Eccles) is an English EgyptologistBennett, Chris.
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The Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft (DOG) (in English, German Oriental Company or German Oriental Society) is an Eingetragener Verein - a registered voluntary association - based at Berlin in Germany.
The Diadochi (from Διάδοχοι, Diadokhoi, meaning "Successors") were the rival generals, families and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.
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Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
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A dysphemism is an expression with connotations that are offensive either about the subject matter or to the audience, or both.
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The East Semitic languages are one of six fairly uncontroversial divisions of the Semitic languages, the others being Northwest Semitic, Arabian, Old South Arabian (also known as Sayhadic), Modern South Arabian, and Ethio-Semitic.
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The East Syrian Rite is a Christian liturgy, also known as the Thomasine Rite, Assyrian-Chaldean Rite, Assyrian Rite and the Persian Rite, originated in Edessa, Mesopotamia.
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Eastern Aramaic languages have developed from the varieties of Aramaic that developed in and around Mesopotamia (Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria and northwest and southwest Iran), as opposed to western varieties of the Levant (modern Levantine Syria and Lebanon).
Ebla (إبلا., modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh), was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria.
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(or 'Il, written aleph-lamed, e.g. 𐎛𐎍, 𐤀𐤋, אל, ܐܠ, إل or إله, cognate to ilu) is a Northwest Semitic word meaning "god" or "deity", or referring (as a proper name) to any one of multiple major Ancient Near East deities.
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Elam was an ancient Pre-Iranic civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
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Enki (Sumerian: dEN.KI(G)) is a god in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Akkadian and Babylonian mythology.
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Eridu (Cuneiform: NUN.KI 𒉣 𒆠; Sumerian: eriduki; Akkadian: irîtu modern Arabic: Tell Abu Shahrain) is an archaeological site in southern Mesopotamia (modern Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq).
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The Ésagila, a Sumerian name signifying "É (temple) whose top is lofty", (literally: "house of the raised head") was a temple dedicated to Marduk, the protector god of Babylon.
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Esarhaddon or Asarhaddon (Akkadian: Aššur-ahu-iddin "Ashur has given a brother"; Aramaic: ܐܵܫܘܿܪ ܐܵܗܐܹ ܐܝܼܕܝܼܢܵܐ; אֵסַר חַדֹּן; Ασαραδδων; Asor Haddan), was a king of Assyria who reigned 681 – 669 BC.
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Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar in Diyala Province, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian (and later Akkadian) city and city-state in central Mesopotamia.
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Etemenanki (Sumerian É.TEMEN.AN.KI "temple of the foundation of heaven and earth") was the name of a ziggurat dedicated to Marduk in the city of Babylon of the 6th century BCE Neo-Babylonian dynasty.
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The Euphrates (الفرات: al-Furāt, ̇ܦܪܬ: Pǝrāt, Եփրատ: Yeprat, פרת: Perat, Fırat, Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
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The chronology of the first dynasty of Babylonia is debated as there is a Babylonian King List A and a Babylonian King List B. In this chronology, the regnal years of List A are used due to their wide usage.
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Folk etymology, pseudo-etymology, or reanalysis is change in a word or phrase over time resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
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Fulgence Fresnel (April 15, 1795 – November 30, 1855) was a French Orientalist who was a native of Mathieu, Calvados.
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Canon George Rawlinson (23 November 1812 – 7 October 1902) was a 19th-century English scholar, historian, and Christian theologian.
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George Smith (Chelsea, London 26 March 1840 – 19 August 1876), was a pioneering English Assyriologist who first discovered and translated the Epic of Gilgamesh, one of the oldest-known written works of literature.
George Syncellus (Γεώργιος Σύγκελλος; died after 810) was a Byzantine chronicler and ecclesiastic.
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The German Archaeological Institute (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, DAI) is an institution of research within the field of archaeology (and related fields), and a "scientific corporation", under the auspices of the federal Foreign Office of Germany.
Girsu (cuneiform:?; Sumerian:Ĝirsu; Akkadian:?) is modern Tell Telloh, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq, and it was a city of ancient Sumer, situated some northwest of Lagash.
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Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern term categorizing a collection of ancient religions whose adherents shunned the material world – which they viewed as created by the demiurge – and embraced the spiritual world.
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In monotheism and henotheism, God is conceived as the Supreme Being and principal object of faith.
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Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.
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The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
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Hammurabi (Akkadian from Amorite ʻAmmurāpi, "the kinsman is a healer", from ʻAmmu, "paternal kinsman", and Rāpi, "healer"; died c. 1750 BC) was the sixth Amorite king of Babylon (that is, of the First Babylonian Dynasty, the Amorite Dynasty) from 1792 BC to 1750 BC middle chronology (1728–1686 BC short chronology).
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The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one whose location has not been definitely established.
Haradum (modern Khirbit ed-Diniye, Iraq) was an ancient Near East city on the middle Euphrates about 90 kilometers southeast of Mari.
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Harran (Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.
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Hatra (الحضر) was an ancient city in the Ninawa Governorate and al-Jazira region of Iraq.
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Hebrew Bible or Hebrew Scriptures (Biblia Hebraica) is the term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Tanakh (תנ"ך), the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is the common textual source of the several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testament.
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A helicopter landing pad (helipad) is a landing area or platform for helicopters.
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Hellanicus of Lesbos (Greek: Ἑλλάνικος ὁ Λέσβιος) was an ancient Greek logographer who flourished during the latter half of the 5th century BC.
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The Hellenistic period covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος Hēródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484–425 BC).
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Hillah (الحلة), also spelled Hilla or Al Hillah (BGN: Al Ḩillah) is a city in central Iraq on the Hilla branch of the Euphrates River, south of Baghdad.
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These are estimated populations of historical cities over time.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as '''Persia''' in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
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The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who established an empire centred on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
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Hormuzd Rassam (182616 September 1910) (ܗܪܡܙܕ ܪܣܐܡ), was a native Assyrian and Christian Assyriologist who made a number of important discoveries from 1877 to 1882, including the clay tablets that contained the Epic of Gilgamesh, the world's oldest literature.
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The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.
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The I Marine Expeditionary Force ("I" pronounced "One") is a Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) of the United States Marine Corps primarily composed of the 1st Marine Division, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, and 1st Marine Logistics Group.
Ignace Jay Gelb (October 14, 1907, Tarnau, Austria-Hungary (now Tarnów, Poland) - December 22, 1985, Chicago, Illinois) was a Polish-American ancient historian and Assyriologist who pioneered the scientific study of writing systems.
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The International New York Times is an English language international newspaper.
Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.
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Iraq (or; العراق, Kurdish: Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جمهورية العراق; كۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia.
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The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, Gulf War II, and Gulf War 2.
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Ishme-Dagan was the fourth king in the First Dynasty of Isin, according to the Sumerian king list.
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The Ishtar Gate (بوابة عشتار, دروازه ایشتار) was the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon.
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Isin (Sumerian: I3-si-inki, modern Arabic: Ishan al-Bahriyat) is an archaeological site in Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq.
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Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification (pejorative Muhammadization) is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
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James Terry Conway (born December 26, 1947) is a retired United States Marine Corps four-star General who was the 34th Commandant of the Marine Corps.
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Jehoiachin's rations tablets date from the 6th century BC and describe the rations set aside for a royal captive identified with Jeconiah, king of Judah.
The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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Joan Oates, FBA (née Lines) is an American archaeologist and academic, specialising in the Ancient Near East.
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Julius Oppert (July 9, 1825 – August 21, 1905), French-German Assyriologist, was born at Hamburg, of Jewish parents.
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Kandalānu, king of Babylonia, from 648 BC to 627 BC.
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Kassite (also Cassite) was a language spoken by Kassites in the Zagros Mountains of Iran and southern Mesopotamia from approximately the 18th to the 4th century BC.
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The Kassites were an ancient Near Eastern people who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire ca.
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Kazalla or Kazallu is the name given in Akkadian sources to a city in the ancient Near East.
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Kish (Sumerian: Kiš; transliteration: Kiŝki; cuneiform:; Akkadian: kiššatu) was an ancient city of Sumer in Mesopotamia, considered to have been located near the modern Tell al-Uhaymir in the Babil Governorate of Iraq, some 12 km east of Babylon and 80 km south of Baghdad.
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Labashi-Marduk, was king of Babylon (556 BCE), and son of Neriglissar.
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Lagash is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq.
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Larsa (Sumerian logogram: UD.UNUGKI, read Larsamki) was an important city of ancient Sumer, the center of the cult of the sun god Utu.
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The Levant (Arabic: المشرق Naim, Samia, Dialects of the Levant, in Weninger, Stefan et al. (eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter (2011), p. 921) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean.
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The following is a list of the kings of Babylonia (ancient southern-central Iraq), compiled from the traditional Babylonian king lists and modern archaeological findings.
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Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in Northern Europe.
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Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognized as one of the official languages of the European Union.
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Mandaeism or Mandaeanism (מנדעיותא; مندائية /) is a gnostic religion with a strongly dualistic worldview.
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Mani (in Middle Persian Māni and Syriac Mānī, Greek Μάνης, Latin Manes; also Μανιχαίος, Latin Manichaeus, from Syriac ܡܐܢܝ ܚܝܐ Mānī ḥayyā "Living Mani"), of Iranian origin, was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was once widespread but is now extinct.
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Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin e Māni) was a major religion that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in Persian: مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes; 216–276 AD) in the Sasanian Empire.
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Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU "solar calf"; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios) was a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon.
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Marduk-apla-iddina II (cuneiform spelling ᴰMES.A.SUM-na; in the Bible Merodach-Baladan, also called Marduk-Baladan, Baladan and Berodach-Baladan, lit. Marduk has given me an heir) was a Chaldean prince who usurped the Babylonian throne in 721 BC and reigned in 722 BC--710 BC, and 703 BC--702 BC.
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Mari (modern Tell Hariri), was an ancient Semitic city in Syria.
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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change.
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The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (North-western Iran) and who spoke the Median language. Their arrival to the region is associated with the first wave of migrating Iranic Aryan tribes into Ancient Iran from the late 2nd millennium BCE (circa 1000 BC) (the Bronze Age collapse) through the beginning of the 1st millennium BCE (circa 900 BC). This period of migration coincided with a power vacuum in the Near East, with the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365-1020 BC) which had dominated north western Iran and eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus going into a comparative decline, allowing new peoples to pass through and settle. In addition, Elam, the dominant power in Ancient Iran was suffering a period of severe weakness, as was Babylonia to the west. From the 10th to late 7th centuries BCE, the western parts of Media fell under the domination of the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire based in northern Mesopotamia, but which stretched from Cyprus to Ancient Iran, and from the Caucasus to Egypt and Arabia. Assyrian kings such as Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal and Ashur-etil-ilani imposed Vassal Treaties upon the Median rulers, and also protected them from predatory raids by marauding Scythian and Cimmerian hordes. During the reign of Sinsharishkun (622-612 BC) the Assyrian empire, which had been in a state of constant civil war since 626 BC, began to unravel. Subject peoples, such as the Medes, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Scythians, Cimmerians, Lydians and Arameans quietly ceased to pay tribute to Assyria. An alliance with the Medes and rebelling Babylonians, Scythians, Chaldeans, and Cimmerians, helped the Medes to capture Nineveh in 612 BCE, which resulted in the eventual collapse of the Neo-Assyrian Empire by 605 BC. The Medes were subsequently able to establish their Median kingdom (with Ecbatana as their royal centre) beyond their original homeland and had eventually a territory stretching roughly from northeastern Iran to the Halys River in Anatolia. After the fall of the Assyrian Empire, between 616 BCE and 605 BCE, a unified Median state was formed, which, together with Babylonia, Lydia, and Egypt, became one of the four major powers of the ancient Near East. The Median kingdom was conquered in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great, who established the Iranian dynasty—the Persian Achaemenid Empire. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. The Medes had almost the same equipment as the Persians and indeed the dress common to both is not so much Persian as Median. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is almost entirely unknown. However a number of words from the Median language are still in use, and there are languages being geographically and comparatively traced to the northwestern Iranian language of Median. The Medes had an Ancient Iranian Religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later and during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zarathustra spread in western Iran. Besides Ecbatana (modern Hamedan), the other cities existing in Media were Laodicea (modern Nahavand) and the mound that was the largest city of the Medes, Rhages (also called Rey), on the outskirts of Shahr Rey, south of Tehran. The fourth city of Media was Apamea, near Ecbatana, whose precise location is unknown. In later periods, Medes and especially Mede soldiers are identified and portrayed prominently in ancient Persian archaeological sites such as Persepolis, where they are shown to have a major role and presence in the military of the Persian Empire's Achaemenid dynasty. According to the Histories of Herodotus, there were six Median tribes: The six Median tribes resided in Media proper, the triangle between Ecbatana, Rhagae and Aspadana, in today's central Iran, the area between Tehran, Isfahan and Hamadan. Of the Median tribes, the Magi resided in Rhaga, modern Tehran. It was a sort of sacred caste, which ministered to the spiritual needs of the Medes. The Paretaceni tribe resided in and around Aspadana, modern Isfahan, the Arizanti lived in and around Kashan and the Busae tribe lived in and around the future Median capital of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan. The Struchates and the Budii lived in villages in the Median triangle.
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Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میانرودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.
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The Middle Assyrian Empire (1392 BC–934 BC) of the Assyrian Empire.
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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.
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Nabonidus (Akkadian Nabû-naʾid, "Nabu is praised", نابونيد) was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, reigning from 556–539 BC.
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Nabopolassar (Akkadian: Nabû-apal-uṣur; 658 BC – 605 BC) was a king of Babylonia and a central figure in the fall of the Assyrian Empire.
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Nabu (in Biblical Hebrew Nebo נבו) is the Assyrian and Babylonian god of wisdom and writing, worshipped by Babylonians as Marduk and Sarpanitum's son and as Ea's grandson.
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Nebuchadnezzar II (ܢܵܒܘܼ ܟܘܼܕܘܼܪܝܼ ܐܘܼܨܘܼܪ; נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר; Ancient Greek: Ναβουχοδονόσωρ; Arabic: نِبُوخَذنِصَّر; c. 634 – 562 BC) was a Chaldean king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, who reigned c. 605 BC – 562 BC.
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Nebuchadnezzar III ruled over Babylon (c. 522 BC).
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Nebuchadnezzar IV, also known as Arakha, was a self-proclaimed King of Babylon.
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The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC.
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The Neo-Babylonian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
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Nergal-sharezer or Neriglissar (in Akkadian Nergal-šar-uṣur, "Oh god Nergal, preserve/defend the king"; the common form of his name is Neriglissar) was King of Babylon from 560 to 556 BC.
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The New Testament (Koine Greek: Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē) is the second major part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, which is based on the Hebrew Bible.
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Nimrod (ܢܡܪܘܕ نمرود, Numrood), king of Shinar, was, according to the Book of Genesis and Books of Chronicles, the son of Cush, the great-grandson of Noah.
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Nimrud (النمرود) is the later Arab name for an ancient Assyrian city located south of the city of Mosul, and south of the village of Selamiyah (السلامية), in the Nineveh plains in northern Mesopotamia.
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Nineveh (or; Ninua) is an ancient Mesopotamian city located in modern day Iraq; it is on the eastern bank of the Tigris River, and was the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
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Ninurta was a Sumerian and the Akkadian god of hunting and war.
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Nippur (Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as, EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;": Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. Akkadian: Nibbur) was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.
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Nisroch (Νεσεραχ; Nesroch) (ܢܝܼܫܪܵܟ݂) is an otherwise unknown Assyrian god in whose temple King Sennacherib was worshiping when he was assassinated by his sons Adrammelech and Shizrezer.
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Northwest Semitic is a division of the ancient Semitic language family, also known as Syro-Palestinian,, page 425 comprising the ancient languages of the Levant.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.
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The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran.
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The Pergamon Museum (Pergamonmuseum) is situated on the Museum Island in Berlin.
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The Persian Empire is any of a series of imperial dynasties centered in Persia (now Iran).
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The Persian people (Persian: پارسیان) are an Iranian people who speak the modern Persian language and closely related Iranian dialects and languages.
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In Greek mythology, Phoroneus (Φορωνεύς) was a culture-hero of the Argolid, fire-bringer, primordial king of Argos and son of the river god Inachus and either Melia, the primordial ash-tree nymph or Argia, the embodiment of the Argolid itself: "Inachus, son of Oceanus, begat Phoroneus by his sister Argia," wrote Hyginus, in Fabulae 143.
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Quintus Curtius Rufus was a Roman historian, probably of the 1st century, author of his only known and only surviving work, Historiae Alexandri Magni, "Histories of Alexander the Great," or more fully Historiarum Alexandri Magni Macedonis Libri Qui Supersunt, "All the Books That Survive of the Histories of Alexander the Great of Macedon." Much of it is missing.
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Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s.
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Robert Johann Koldewey (10 September 1855 – 4 February 1925) was a German archaeologist, famous for his in-depth excavation of the ancient city of Babylon in modern day Iraq (the site had been identified as that of the legendary city a century earlier by Claudius James Rich, but Koldewey conducted nearly twenty years of excavations there with spectacular results).
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq, serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
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Sargon II (Akkadian Šarru-ukin "he made firm the king"; reigned 722 – 705 BC) was an Assyrian king.
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Sargon of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great "the Great King" (Akkadian Šarru-kīnu, meaning "the true king" or "the king is legitimate"), was a Semitic Akkadian emperor famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th and 23rd centuries BC.
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The Sasanian Empire (or; also known as Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire), known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian language, was the last Iranian empire before the rise of Islam, ruled by the Sasanian dynasty from 224 AD to 651 AD.
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Science fiction is a genre of fiction dealing with imaginative content such as futuristic settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, time travel, faster than light travel, parallel universes and extraterrestrial life.
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The Scythians (or; from Greek Σκύθης, Σκύθοι), also known as Scyth, Saka, Sakae, Sacae, Sai, Iskuzai, or Askuzai, were a large group of probably mainly Iranian-speaking "All contemporary historians, archeologists and linguists are agreed that since the Scythian and Sarmatian tribes were of the Iranian linguistic group..." Eurasian nomads who were mentioned by the literate peoples surrounding them as inhabiting large areas in the central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
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The Sealand Dynasty, (ŠEŠ-KU) or the 2nd Dynasty of Babylon (although it was independent of Amorite ruled Babylon), very speculatively ca.
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Seleucia, also known as or, was a major Mesopotamian city of the Seleucid, Parthian, Roman, and Sassanid empires.
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The Seleucid Empire or Seleucia was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, 312 BC to 63 BC; it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the empire created by Alexander the Great.
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In studies of linguistics and ethnology, the term Semitic (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was first used to refer to a family of languages native to West Asia (the Middle East).
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Sennacherib (Akkadian: Sîn-ahhī-erība, "Sîn has increased the brothers"), king of Assyria 705 BCE–681 BCE, is remembered for his military campaigns against Babylon and Judah and for his building programs, notably at his capital Nineveh.
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The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World refers to remarkable constructions of classical antiquityAnon.
Shamash-shum-ukin was the Assyrian king of Babylon from 668-648 BC.
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Shinar (Hebrew שִׁנְעָר Šinʻar, Septuagint Σεννααρ Sennaar) is a biblical geographical locale of uncertain boundaries in Mesopotamia.
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The short chronology is one of the chronologies of the Near Eastern Bronze and Early Iron Age, which fixes the reign of Hammurabi to 1728–1686 BC and the sack of Babylon to 1531 BC.
Shuruppak or Shuruppag (Sumerian: "The Healing Place") was an ancient Sumerian city situated about 35 miles south of Nippur on the banks of the Euphrates at the site of modern Tell Fara in Iraq's Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate.
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Simplicius (Σιμπλίκιος; c. 490 – c. 560) of Cilicia, was a disciple of Ammonius Hermiae and Damascius, and was one of the last of the Neoplatonists.
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Sin-shumu-lishir (or Sin-shum-lishir, Sîn-šumu-līšir), was a usurper king of a part of the Assyrian empire during 626 BC.
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Sinsharishkun (Sin-shar-ishkun; Sîn-šarru-iškun, c. 627 – 612 BC), who seems to have been the Saràkos (Saracus) of Berossus, was one of the last kings of the Assyrian empire, followed only by Ashur-uballit II.
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Sippar (Sumerian: Zimbir) was an ancient Near Eastern city on the east bank of the Euphrates river, located at the site of modern Tell Abu Habbah in Iraq's Babil Governorate, some 60 km north of Babylon and 30 km southwest of Baghdad.
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Major-General Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, 1st Baronet GCB (5 April 1810 – 5 March 1895) was a British East India Company army officer, politician and Orientalist, sometimes described as the Father of Assyriology.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting a crew, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
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Stephen of Byzantium, also known as Stephanus Byzantinus (Greek: Στέφανος Βυζάντιος; fl. 6th century AD), was the author of an important geographical dictionary entitled Ethnica (Ἐθνικά).
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Strabo (Στράβων Strabōn; 64/63 BC – c. AD 24), was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian.
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Sumerian ("native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer, a language isolate which was spoken in northern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).
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Sumu-Abum (also Su-abu) was an Amorite, and the first King of the First Dynasty of Babylon (the Amorite Dynasty).
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The Suteans were a Semitic people who lived throughout the Levant and Canaan circa 1350 BC, and were later to be found in Babylonia also.
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The Talmud (Hebrew: talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root lmd "teach, study") is a central text of Rabbinic Judaism.
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A tell, or tel (from تَل,, תֵּל,Archaeology of Palestine, Art of Excavating a Palestinian Mound, William Foxwell Albright, 1960, p. 16) is a type of archaeological mound created by human occupation and abandonment of a geographical site over many centuries.
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The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud (Hebrew) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text.
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Batman River The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
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The Tomb of Daniel is the traditional burial place of the biblical prophet Daniel.
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The Tower of Babel (or; מִגְדַּל בָּבֶל, Migddal Bāḇēl) is a story told in the Book of Genesis of the Tanakh (also referred to as the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament) meant to explain the origin of different languages.
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Tukulti-Ninurta I (meaning: "my trust is in Ninurta"; reigned 1243–1207 BC) was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian Empire (1366 - 1050 BC).
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Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
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Uruk (Cuneiform:,URU UNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; Aramaic/Hebrew: אֶרֶךְ; Orchoē, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia; وركاء) was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates River, some 30 km east of modern As-Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.
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The Wars of the Diadochi or Wars of Alexander's Successors, (Greek: Πόλεμος των Διαδόχων, Polemos ton Diadochon) were a series of conflicts fought between Alexander the Great's generals over the rule of his vast empire, after his death.
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The Whore of Babylon or Babylon the Great is a Christian figure of evil mentioned in the Book of Revelation in the Bible.
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William Kennett Loftus (13 November 1820, Linton, Kent – 27 November 1858, at sea) was a British geologist, naturalist, explorer and archaeological excavator.
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The Zagros Mountains (رشته كوه زاگرس, زنجیرهچیاکانی زاگرۆس; Çiyayên Zagrosê, Lurish: کو یه لی زاگروس, جبال زغروس Aramaic: ܛܘܪ ܙܪܓܣ) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Kurdistan and Eastern Turkey.
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Ziggurats (Akkadian ziqqurat, D-stem of zaqāru "to build on a raised area") were massive structures built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley and western Iranian plateau, having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels.
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The 2003 Invasion of Iraq lasted from 19 March to 1 May 2003 and signaled the start of the Iraq War, which was dubbed Operation Iraqi Freedom by the United States (prior to 19 March, the mission in Iraq was called Operation Enduring Freedom, a carryover from the War in Afghanistan).
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The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age.
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