455 relations: Abductive reasoning, Abi-Eshuh, Abrahamic religions, Achaemenid Empire, Adab (city), Adad-apla-iddina, Adad-nirari II, Adad-nirari III, Adad-shuma-iddina, Adad-shuma-usur, Adasi, Addagoppe of Harran, Adiabene, Agonist, Agum II, Agum III, Akkad (city), Akkadian Empire, Akkadian language, Akshak, Alexander the Great, Amasis II, Amel-Marduk, Ammi-Ditana, Ammi-Saduqa, Amorites, Anatolia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian medicine, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek astronomy, Ancient Greek medicine, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient history, Ancient Mesopotamian religion, Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Anshan (Persia), Apil-Sin, Arabian Peninsula, Arabization, Arabs, Aram (region), Arameans, Arik-den-ili, Armenians, Arrapha, Asōristān, Ashur, Ashur (god), Ashur-bel-kala, ..., Ashur-bel-nisheshu, Ashur-dan I, Ashur-etil-ilani, Ashur-nadin-shumi, Ashur-nirari IV, Ashur-nirari V, Ashur-resh-ishi I, Ashur-uballit I, Ashur-uballit II, Ashurbanipal, Ashurnasirpal II, Assur, Assyria, Assyria (Roman province), Assyrian continuity, Assyrian people, Astrolabe, Astrology, Astronomy, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Astyages, Austen Henry Layard, Awal, Axiom, Šuppiluliuma I, Baba-aha-iddina, Babylon, Babylonian Chronicles, Babylonian law, Babylonian numerals, Babylonian religion, Bahrain, Balawat, Balkans, Bandage, Bel (mythology), Bel-bani, Belshazzar, Berossus, Beth Garmai, Bible, Black Sea, Borsippa, Brill Publishers, Burna-Buriash II, Burnaburiash I, Buttress, Byzantine Empire, Cambyses II, Canaan, Carchemish, Caucasus, Central Asia, Chaldea, Charles Sanders Peirce, Chronology of the ancient Near East, Cimmerians, City-state, Clay, Clay tablet, Code of Hammurabi, Consistency, Cream (pharmaceutical), Cultural area, Cuneiform script, Curse, Cyaxares, Cyprus, Cyrus the Great, Damascus, Darius I, Dūr-Katlimmu, Der (Sumer), Dialectic, Dialogue, Dialogue of Pessimism, Dilmun, Disease, Divisor, Diyala River, DjVu, Dohuk, Dur-Kurigalzu, Dur-Sharrukin, Early Kassite rulers, Earth's rotation, East Semitic languages, East Syrian Rite, Eastern Aramaic languages, Ecbatana, Eclipse, Egypt, Egyptian chronology, Ekallatum, Elam, Empiricism, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Enlil, Enlil-kudurri-usur, Enlil-nadin-apli, Enlil-nadin-shumi, Epic of Gilgamesh, Epic poetry, Epilepsy, Equator, Erbil, Eriba-Marduk, Eridu, Erishum I, Esagil-kin-apli, Esagila, Esarhaddon, Eshnunna, Ethics, Etiology, Exorcism, First Babylonian dynasty, Floruit, Folklore, Fresco, George Sarton, Gilgamesh, Giovanni Morelli, Gnomon, Gobryas, Gold, Greek mathematics, Gutian people, Hamazi, Hammurabi, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Harran, Hatra, Hattians, Hīt, Heliacal rising, Heliocentrism, Hellenistic philosophy, Hellenistic religion, Heraclitus, Hippocratic Corpus, History of astronomy, History of Iran, Hittites, Hurrians, Hurro-Urartian languages, Hyksos, Hymn, Ikunum, Ilu-shuma, Inanna, Indian astronomy, Indo-European languages, Intercalation (timekeeping), Iran, Iranian peoples, Iraq, Ishme-Dagan, Isin, Islamization, Israelites, Itti-Marduk-balatu, Jacques de Morgan, Jean-Vincent Scheil, Jehoiakim, Jordan, Kadašman-Buriaš, Kadashman-Enlil I, Kadashman-Enlil II, Kadashman-Harbe II, Kadashman-Turgu, Kandalanu, Karaindash, Karduniaš, Kashtiliash III, Kashtiliash IV, Kassite deities, Kassites, Kazallu, Kültepe, Kingdom of Judah, Kirkuk, Kish (Sumer), Kudur-Enlil, Kurigalzu I, Kurigalzu II, Labashi-Marduk, Lagash, Language isolate, Larsa, Late Bronze Age collapse, Lathe, Lead, Lead glass, Levant, Lingua franca, List of Assyrian kings, List of kings of Babylon, Logic, Louvre, Lullubi, Lyrics, Mandaeans, Mar-biti-apla-usur, Marduk, Marduk-ahhe-eriba, Marduk-apla-iddina I, Marduk-apla-iddina II, Marduk-apla-usur, Marduk-balassu-iqbi, Marduk-bel-zeri, Marduk-kabit-ahheshu, Marduk-nadin-ahhe, Marduk-shapik-zeri, Marduk-zakir-shumi I, Marduk-zakir-shumi II, Marduk-zer-X, Mari, Syria, Medes, Medical diagnosis, Medical prescription, Medicine, Mediterranean Sea, Meli-Shipak II, Mesopotamia, Mesopotamia (Roman province), Middle Assyrian Empire, Milesian school, Mitanni, Mithridates I of Parthia, Moon, Mudbrick, MUL.APIN, Mursili I, Muslim conquest of Persia, Mut-Ashkur, Nabû-mukin-apli, Nabonassar, Nabonidus, Nabopolassar, Nabu-apla-iddina, Nabu-mukin-zeri, Nabu-nadin-zeri, Nabu-shum-libur, Nabu-shuma-ishkun, Nabu-shuma-ukin I, Nabu-suma-ukin II, Nazi-Maruttash, Near East, Nebuchadnezzar I, Nebuchadnezzar II, Nebuchadnezzar III, Nebuchadnezzar IV, Necho II, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Nergal-ushezib, Neriglissar, New Testament, Nimrud, Nineveh, Ninurta, Ninurta-apla-X, Ninurta-kudurri-usur II, Ninurta-nadin-shumi, Nippur, North Africa, Northwest Semitic languages, Nubia, Nuzi, Observation, Old Assyrian Empire, Opis, Osroene, Otto E. Neugebauer, Oxford University Press, Parthia, Parthian Empire, Patient, Persian Gulf, Persian language, Persian people, Philosophy, Philosophy of science, Phoenicia, Phrygians, Physical examination, Pilaster, Plato, Plutarch, Prognosis, Prose, Proto-Indo-Europeans, Proverb, Puzur-Ashur III, Puzur-Sin, Pythagorean theorem, Rapiqum, Rationality, Reason, Relief, Rock (geology), Roman Empire, Sabium, Sagartians, Saint Peter, Samaria, Samsu-Ditana, Samsu-iluna, Sargon I, Sargon II, Sargon of Akkad, Sasanian Empire, Satrap, Scientific Revolution, Scythians, Sealand Dynasty, Seleucia, Seleucid Empire, Seleucus of Seleucia, Semiramis, Semitic languages, Sennacherib, Sexagesimal, Shagarakti-Shuriash, Shalmaneser III, Shalmaneser V, Shamash-mudammiq, Shamash-shum-ukin, Shammuramat, Shamshi-Adad I, Shamshi-Adad V, Sherlock Holmes, Short chronology, Shuqamuna, Shutruk-Nakhunte, Sidon, Sigmund Freud, Simbar-shipak, Sin, Sin-Muballit, Sin-shumu-lishir, Sinai Peninsula, Sinsharishkun, Sippar, Socrates, Socratic method, Sophist, Sprachbund, Square root of 2, State (polity), Statues of Gudea, Stele, Sumer, Sumerian language, Sumu-abum, Sumu-la-El, Sun, Susa, Suteans, Syllabary, Symptom, Syria, Syriac Christianity, Syro-Hittite states, Tablet (pharmacy), Tammuz (Babylonian calendar), Tanakh, Tell Halaf, Terracotta, Thales of Miletus, Theophilus Pinches, Therapy, Third Dynasty of Ur, Thutmose III, Tiglath-Pileser I, Tiglath-Pileser III, Tile, Timeline of the Assyrian Empire, Tower of Babel, Trajan, Tukulti-Ninurta I, Tukulti-Ninurta II, Tushhan, Tyre, Lebanon, Ulamburiash, Umma, Universe, University of Georgia, Upper Mesopotamia, Ur, Uruk, Water clock, West Semitic languages, Western Europe, Whore of Babylon, Wisdom literature, Yamhad, YBC 7289, Zababa-shuma-iddin, Zagros Mountains, Zinc, Zodiac, Zoroastrianism, 2nd millennium BC. Expand index (405 more) » « Shrink index
Abductive reasoning (also called abduction,For example: abductive inference, or retroduction) is a form of logical inference which starts with an observation or set of observations then seeks to find the simplest and most likely explanation.
Abī-Ešuḫ (variants: ma-bi-ši,Chronicle of Early Kings, (ABC 20), Tablet B, reverse, lines 8 to 10. "Abiši", mE-bi-šum,Babylonian King List B, obverse line 8. "Ebišum") was the 8th king of the 1st Dynasty of Babylon and reigned for 28 years from ca.
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Adab or Udab (Sumerian: Adabki, spelled UD.NUNKI) was an ancient Sumerian city between Telloh and Nippur.
Adad-apla-iddina, typically inscribed in cuneiform mdIM-DUMU.UŠ-SUM-na, mdIM-A-SUM-namdAdad-àpla-idinnana.
Adad-nirari II (reigned from 911 to 891 BC) is generally considered to be the first King of Assyria in the Neo-Assyrian period.
Adad-nirari III (also Adad-narari) was a King of Assyria from 811 to 783 BC.
Adad-šuma-iddina, inscribed mdIM-MU-SUM-na, ("Adad has given a name") and dated to around ca.
Adad-šuma-uṣur, inscribed dIM-MU-ŠEŠ, meaning "O Adad, protect the name!," and dated very tentatively ca.
Adasi is a small village in Gondia district, Maharashtra state, India.
Addagoppe of Harran (c. 648-544 BC), also known as Adad-guppi, was an Assyrian priestess, a devotee of the moon god Sîn in the northern Assyrian city of Harran, and the mother of King Nabonidus (ruled 556–39 BC) of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
Adiabene (from the Ancient Greek Ἀδιαβηνή, Adiabene, itself derived from ܚܕܝܐܒ, or, Middle Persian: Nodshēragān, Armenian: Նոր Շիրական, Nor Shirakan) was an ancient kingdom in Assyria, with its capital at Arbela (modern-day Erbil, Iraq).
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Agum IIInscribed a-gu-um-ka-ak-ri-me in his eponymous inscription, elsewhere unattested.
Agum IIIInscribed mA-gu-um in the Chronicle of Early Kings.
Akkad (also Accad, Akkade, Agade; cuneiform URIKI) was the capital of the Akkadian Empire, which was the dominant political force in Mesopotamia during a period of about 150 years in the last third of the 3rd millennium BC.
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Akshak(Sumerian:, akšak) was a city of ancient Sumer, situated on the northern boundary of Akkad, sometimes identified with Babylonian Upi (Greek Opis).
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Amasis II (Ἄμασις) or Ahmose II was a pharaoh (reigned 570 BCE526 BCE) of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt, the successor of Apries at Sais.
Amel-Marduk (dMarduk, spelled Amēl-Marduk/Amil-Marduk but pronounced Awēl-Marduk/Awîl-Marduk;; Evil-Merodach), 'man of Marduk'Sack, 1992.
Ammi-Ditana was a king of Babylon who reigned from 1683–1640s BC.
Ammi-Saduqa (or Ammisaduqa, Ammizaduga) was a king (c. 1646–1626 BC according to the Middle Chronology dating, and c.1582-1562 according to the Short Chronology) of the First Dynasty of Babylon.
The Amorites (Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 MAR.TU; Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm; Egyptian Amar; Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī; Ἀμορραῖοι) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people from Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon, which was raised from a small town to an independent state and a major city.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Greek astronomy is astronomy written in the Greek language in classical antiquity.
Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, particularly Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia between circa 3500 BC and 400 AD, after which they largely gave way to Syriac Christianity.
Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples were West Asian people who lived throughout the Ancient Near East, including the Levant, Mesopotamia, Arabian peninsula, and Horn of Africa from the third millennium BC until the end of antiquity.
Anshan (𒀭𒍝𒀭 Anzan), modern Tall-i Malyan (تل ملیان), was an ancient city.
Apil-Sin was an Amorite King of the First Dynasty of Babylon (the Amorite Dynasty).
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aram is a region mentioned in the Bible located in present-day central Syria, including where the city of Aleppo now stands.
The Arameans, or Aramaeans (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC).
Arik-den-ili, inscribed mGÍD-DI-DINGIR, “long-lasting is the judgment of god,” (1319 BC–1308 BC or 1307 BC–1296 BC) (short chronology) was an Assyrian king of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1366–1050 BC) who succeeded Enlil-nirari, his father, and was to rule for twelve years and inaugurate the tradition of annual military campaigns against Assyria’s neighbors.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Arrapha or Arrapkha (Akkadian: Arrapḫa, Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, أررابخا,عرفة) was an ancient city in what today is northeastern Iraq, on the site of the modern city of Kirkuk.
Asōristān (𐭠𐭮𐭥𐭥𐭮𐭲𐭭 Asōrestān, Āsūrestān) was the name of the Sasanian provinces of Mesopotamia from 226 to 637.
Ashur (אַשּׁוּר) was the second son of Shem, the son of Noah.
Ashur (also, Assur, Aššur; cuneiform: dAš-šur) is an East Semitic god, and the head of the Assyrian pantheon in Mesopotamian religion, worshipped mainly in the northern half of Mesopotamia, and parts of north-east Syria and south east Asia Minor which constituted old Assyria.
Aššūr-bēl-kala, inscribed maš-šur-EN-ka-la and meaning “Aššur is lord of all,” was the king of Assyria 1074/3–1056 BC, the 89th to appear on the Assyrian Kinglist.
Aššūr-bēl-nīšēšu, inscribed mdaš-šur-EN-UN.MEŠ--šú,Nassouhi King List, Istanbul A. 116 (Assur 8836), iii 11–12.
Aššur-dān I, mAš-šur-dān(kal)an, was the 83rd king of Assyria, reigning for 46Khorsabad King List and the SDAS King List both read, iii 19, 46 MU.MEŠ KI.MIN.
Ashur-etil-ilani was a king of Assyria (c. 631 BC – c. 627 BC).
Ashur-nadin-shumi (d. 694 BC) was the son of the Assyrian king Sennacherib, and an ancient King of Babylon.
Aššur-nērārī IV, inscribed maš-šur-ERIM.GABA, "(the god) Aššur is my help," was the king of Assyria, the 94th to appear on the Assyrian Kinglist,Khorsabad Kinglist, tablet IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS 828, DS 32-54), iv 8.
Ashur-nirari V was King of Assyria from 755 to 745 BC.
Aššur-rēša-iši I, inscribed maš-šur-SAG-i-ši and meaning “Aššur has lifted my head,” c. 1133–1116 BC, son of Mutakkil-Nusku, was a king of Assyria, the 86th to appear on the Assyrian King ListAssyrian King List’s: Nassouhi, iv 4, 6; Khorsabad, iii 37, 39; SDAS, iii 23, 25.
Ashur-uballit I (Aššur-uballiṭ I), who reigned between 1365 and 1330 BC, was the first king of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC).
Ashur-uballit II (Aššur-uballiṭ II) was the last king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, succeeding Sin-shar-ishkun (623–612 BC).
Ashurbanipal (Aššur-bāni-apli; ܐܫܘܪ ܒܢܐ ܐܦܠܐ; 'Ashur is the creator of an heir'), also spelled Assurbanipal or Ashshurbanipal, was King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 668 BC to c. 627 BC, the son of Esarhaddon and the last strong ruler of the empire, which is usually dated between 934 and 609 BC.
Ashur-nasir-pal II (transliteration: Aššur-nāṣir-apli, meaning "Ashur is guardian of the heir") was king of Assyria from 883 to 859 BC.
Aššur (Akkadian; ܐܫܘܪ 'Āšūr; Old Persian Aθur, آشور: Āšūr; אַשּׁוּר:, اشور: Āšūr, Kurdish: Asûr), also known as Ashur and Qal'at Sherqat, was an Assyrian city, capital of the Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1750 BC), of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC), and for a time, of the Neo-Assyrian Empire of 911–608 BC.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Assyria was a Roman province that lasted only two years (116–118 AD).
Assyrian continuity is the claim by modern Assyrians and supporting academics that they are at root the direct descendants of the Semitic inhabitants who spoke originally Akkadian and later Imperial Aramaic of ancient Assyria and its immediate surrounds.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
An astrolabe (ἀστρολάβος astrolabos; ٱلأَسْطُرلاب al-Asturlāb; اَختِرِیاب Akhteriab) is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers and navigators to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body, day or night.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
Astyages (spelled by Herodotus as Ἀστυάγης Astyages; by Ctesias as Astyigas; by Diodorus as Aspadas; Babylonian: Ištumegu) was the last king of the Median Empire, r. 585–550 BCE, the son of Cyaxares; he was dethroned in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great.
Sir Austen Henry Layard (5 March 18175 July 1894) was an English traveller, archaeologist, cuneiformist, art historian, draughtsman, collector, politician and diplomat.
Awal (أوال) is an ancient name of Bahrain, an island country in the Persian Gulf.
An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.
Suppiluliuma I or Suppiluliumas I was king of the Hittites (r. c. 1344–1322 BC (short chronology)).
Bāba-aḫa-iddina, typically inscribed mdBA.Ú-PAB-AŠSynchronistic Kinglist fragment, Ass.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
The Babylonian Chronicles are many series of tablets recording major events in Babylonian history.
Babylonian law is a subset of cuneiform law that has received particular study, owing to the singular extent of the associated archaeological material that has been found for it.
Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record.
Babylonian religion is the religious practice of Babylonia.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Balawat (ܒܝܬ ܠܒܬ) is an archaeological site of the ancient Assyrian city of Imgur-Enlil, and modern village in Nineveh Province (Iraq).
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
A bandage is a piece of material used either to support a medical device such as a dressing or splint, or on its own to provide support to or to restrict the movement of a part of the body.
Bel (from Akkadian bēlu), signifying "lord" or "master", is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in the Mesopotamian religion of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.
Bel-bani or Bēl-bāni, inscribed mdEN-ba-ni, “the Lord is the creator,” was the king of Assyria ca.
Belshazzar (Greek: Βαλτάζαρ, Baltázar, from Akkadian: 𒂗𒈗𒋀, Belsharruzur, more accurately Bēl-šarra-uṣur, meaning "Bel protect the king") was the eldest son of Nabonidus, the last king of the Neo-Babylonian empire, and regent for his father during the latter's prolonged absence from the city, although he never assumed the titles or ritual functions of kingship.
Berossus or Berosus (name possibly derived from script, "Bel is his shepherd"; Βήρωσσος) was a Hellenistic-era Babylonian writer, a priest of Bel Marduk and astronomer who wrote in the Koine Greek language, and who was active at the beginning of the 3rd century BC.
Beth Garmai, (باجرمي, Middle Persian: Garamig/Garamīkān/Garmagān, New Persian/Kurdish: Garmakan, ܒܝܬ ܓܪܡܐ, Latin and Greek: Garamaea) is a historical region around the city of Kirkuk in northern Iraq.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Borsippa (Sumerian: BAD.SI.(A).AB.BAKI; Akkadian: Barsip and Til-Barsip): Vol.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Burna-Buriaš II, rendered in cuneiform as Bur-na- or Bur-ra-Bu-ri-ia-aš in royal inscriptions and letters, and meaning servant or protégé of the Lord of the lands in the Kassite language, where Buriaš is a Kassite storm god possibly corresponding to the Greek Boreas, was a king in the Kassite dynasty of Babylon, in a kingdom contemporarily called Karduniaš, ruling ca.
Burna-Buriyåš I,For example, inscribed Bur-na-Bu-ra-ri-ia-aš in a votive inscription of Ula-Burariaš or restored as m – in tablet A.117.
A buttress is an architectural structure built against or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cambyses II (𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 Kambūjiya כנבוזי Kanbūzī; Καμβύσης Kambúsēs; Latin Cambyses; Medieval Hebrew, Kambisha) (d. 522 BC) son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC), was emperor of the Achaemenid Empire.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
Carchemish, also spelled Karkemish (Hittite: Karkamiš; Turkish: Karkamış; Greek: Εὔρωπος; Latin: Europus), was an important ancient capital in the northern part of the region of Syria.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chaldea or Chaldaea was a Semitic-speaking nation that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia.
Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".
The chronology of the ancient Near East provides a framework of dates for various events, rulers and dynasties.
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).
In classical deductive logic, a consistent theory is one that does not contain a contradiction.
A cream is a preparation usually for application to the skin.
In anthropology and geography, a cultural region, cultural sphere, cultural area or culture area refers to a geographical area with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities (culture).
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
A curse (also called an imprecation, malediction, execration, malison, anathema, or commination) is any expressed wish that some form of adversity or misfortune will befall or attach to some other entity: one or more persons, a place, or an object.
Cyaxares (Κυαξάρης; 𐎢𐎺𐎧𐏁𐎫𐎼; translit; Avestan: Huxšaθra "Good Ruler"; Akkadian: Umakištar; Old Phrygian: ksuwaksaros; r. 625–585 BC) was the third and most capable king of Media, according to Herodotus, with a far greater military reputation than his father Phraortes or grandfather Deioces.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Tell Sheikh Hamad (Arabic: تل الشيخ حمد) is an archeological site in eastern Syria on the lower Khabur River,.
Der (Sumerian: ALUDi-e-ir, 𒌷𒂦𒀭𒆠 uruBAD3.ANki) was a Sumerian city-state at the site of modern Tell Aqar near al-Badra in Iraq's Wasit Governorate.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.
The Dialogue of Pessimism is an ancient Mesopotamian dialogue between a master and his servant that expresses the futility of human action.
Dilmun, or Telmun, (Arabic: دلمون, Sumerian: 𒆠, ni.tukki.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
In mathematics, a divisor of an integer n, also called a factor of n, is an integer m that may be multiplied by some integer to produce n. In this case, one also says that n is a multiple of m. An integer n is divisible by another integer m if m is a divisor of n; this implies dividing n by m leaves no remainder.
The Diyala River, is a river and tributary of the Tigris.
DjVu (like English "déjà vu") is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned documents, especially those containing a combination of text, line drawings, indexed color images, and photographs.
Dohuk (دهۆک,; ܢܘܗܕܪܐ.; دهوك) is the capital of Dohuk Governorate in Iraq, it is a city with a population of approximately 300 000 inhabitants, consisting mostly of Kurds and then Assyrians.
Dur-Kurigalzu (modern عقرقوف in Baghdad Governorate, Iraq) was a city in southern Mesopotamia near the confluence of the Tigris and Diyala rivers about west of the center of Baghdad.
Dur-Sharrukin ("Fortress of Sargon"; دور شروكين), present day Khorsabad, was the Assyrian capital in the time of Sargon II of Assyria.
The early Kassite rulers are the sequence of eight, or possibly nine, names which appear on the Babylonian and Assyrian King Lists purporting to represent the first or ancestral monarchs of the dynasty that was to become the Kassite or 3rd Dynasty of Babylon which governed for 576 years, 9 months, 36 kings, according to the King List A.King List A, BM 33332.
Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis.
The East Semitic languages are one of six current divisions of the Semitic languages, the others being Northwest Semitic, Arabian, Old South Arabian (also known as Sayhadic), Modern South Arabian, and Ethio-Semitic.
The East Syrian Rite or East Syriac Rite, also called Assyrian Rite, Persian Rite, Chaldean Rite, or Syro-Oriental Rite is an Eastern Christian liturgical rite that uses East Syriac dialect as liturgical language.
Eastern Aramaic languages have developed from the varieties of Aramaic that developed in and around Mesopotamia (Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria and northwest and southwest Iran), as opposed to western varieties of the Levant (modern Levantine Syria and Lebanon).
Ecbatana (𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 Hagmatāna or Haŋmatāna, literally "the place of gathering", אַחְמְתָא, Ἀγβάτανα in Aeschylus and Herodotus,Ἐκβάτανα, Akkadian: kura-gam-ta-nu in the Nabonidus Chronicle) was an ancient city in Media in western Iran.
An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many details of the chronology of Ancient Egypt.
Ekallatum was an ancient Assyrian city of upper Mesopotamia.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
Enlil, later known as Elil, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of wind, air, earth, and storms.
Enlil-kudurrī-uṣur, mdEnlil(be)-ku-dúr-uṣur, (Enlil protect the eldest son), was the 81st king of Assyria.
Enlil-nādin-apli, "Enlil (is) giver of an heir," ca.
Enlil-nādin-šumi, inscribed mdEN.LĺL-MU-MUKinglist A, BM 33332, ii 8.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler by the Kurdish people (ھەولێر Hewlêr; أربيل, Arbīl; ܐܲܪܒܝܠ, Arbela), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and the largest city in northern Iraq.
Erība-Marduk, inscribed mri-ba,Kinglist A, tablet BM 33332, iv 1.
Eridu (Sumerian:, NUN.KI/eridugki; Akkadian: irîtu; modern Arabic: Tell Abu Shahrain) is an archaeological site in southern Mesopotamia (modern Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq).
Erishum I or Erišu(m) I (inscribed me-ri-šu, or mAPIN-ìš in later texts but always with an initial i in his own seal, inscriptions, and those of his immediate successors, “he has desired,”) c. 1905 BC — c. 1866 BC (short chronology) or c. 1974 BC — c. 1935 BC (middle chronology),Some historians quote ca.
Esagil-kin-apli was the ummânū, or chief scholar, of Babylonian king Adad-apla-iddina, 1067–1046 BC, as he appears on the Uruk List of Sages and ScholarsW 20030,7 the Seleucid List of Sages and Scholars,” obverse line 16, recovered from Anu’s Bīt Rēš temple during the 1959/60 excavation.
The Ésagila (𒂍𒊕𒅍𒆷, "temple whose top is lofty") was a temple dedicated to Marduk, the protector god of Babylon.
Esarhaddon (Akkadian: Aššur-aḥa-iddina "Ashur has given a brother";; Ασαρχαδδων; Asor Haddan) was a king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire who reigned 681 – 669 BC.
Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar in Diyala Province, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian (and later Akkadian) city and city-state in central Mesopotamia.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.
Exorcism (from Greek εξορκισμός, exorkismós "binding by oath") is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that are believed to be possessed.
The chronology of the first dynasty of Babylonia (also First Babylonian Empire) is debated as there is a Babylonian King List A and a Babylonian King List B. In this chronology, the regnal years of List A are used due to their wide usage.
Floruit, abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
George Alfred Leon Sarton (31 August 1884 – 22 March 1956), was a Belgian-born American chemist and historian.
Gilgamesh was a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology, and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late second millennium BC.
Giovanni Morelli (Verona 25 February 1816 – 28 February 1891 Milan) was an Italian art critic and political figure.
A gnomon (from Greek γνώμων, gnōmōn, literally: "one that knows or examines") is the part of a sundial that casts a shadow.
Gobryas (Γοβρύας; 𐎥𐎢𐎲𐎽𐎢𐎺 g-u-b-ru-u-v, reads as Gaub(a)ruva?; Elamite: Kambarma) was a common name of several Persian noblemen.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts and advances written in Greek, developed from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Guti or Quti, also known by the derived exonyms Gutians or Guteans, were a nomadic people of the Zagros Mountains (on the border of modern Iran and Iraq) during ancient times.
Hamazi or Khamazi (Sumerian: Ḫa-ma-zi2ki) was an ancient kingdom or city-state of some importance that reached its peak c. 2500–2400 BC.
Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC (according to the Middle Chronology).
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World as listed by Hellenic culture, described as a remarkable feat of engineering with an ascending series of tiered gardens containing a wide variety of trees, shrubs, and vines, resembling a large green mountain constructed of mud bricks, and said to have been built in the ancient city of Babylon, near present-day Hillah, Babil province, in Iraq.
Harran (حران,Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.
Hatra الحضر was an ancient city in the Ninawa Governorate and al-Jazira region of Iraq.
The Hattians were an ancient people who inhabited the land of Hatti in central Anatolia.
Hīt, also spelled Heet (هيت), ancient name Is, is an Iraqi city in Al-Anbar province.
The heliacal rising or star rise of a star, star cluster, or galaxy occurs annually when it becomes visible above the eastern horizon for a moment before sunrise, after a period of less than a year when it had not been visible.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with the beginning of Neoplatonism.
Hellenistic religion is any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the people who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE).
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
The Hippocratic Corpus (Latin: Corpus Hippocraticum), or Hippocratic Collection, is a collection of around 60 early Ancient Greek medical works strongly associated with the physician Hippocrates and his teachings.
Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, cosmological, calendrical, and astrological beliefs and practices of prehistory: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a few centuries ago in the Western World (see astrology and astronomy).
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.
The Hurro-Urartian languages are an extinct language family of the Ancient Near East, comprising only two known languages: Hurrian and Urartian, both of which were spoken in the Taurus mountains area.
The Hyksos (or; Egyptian heqa khasut, "ruler(s) of the foreign countries"; Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς) were a people of mixed origins, possibly from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta some time before 1650 BC.
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.
Ikunum (I-ku-nu) was a king of Assyria between 1867 BC – 1860 BC and the son of Ilushuma.
Ilu-shuma or Ilu-šūma, inscribed DINGIR-šum-ma,Khorsabad copy of the Assyrian King List i 24, 26.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
Indian astronomy has a long history stretching from pre-historic to modern times.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Intercalation or embolism in timekeeping is the insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Ishme-Dagan (Akkadian: Išme-Dagān; fl. c. 1889 BC — c. 1871 BC by the short chronology of the ancient near east) was the 4th king of the First Dynasty of Isin, according to the "Sumerian King List" (SKL).
Isin (Sumerian: I3-si-inki, modern Arabic: Ishan al-Bahriyat) is an archaeological site in Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq.
Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Itti-Marduk-balāṭu may refer to.
Jean-Jacques de Morgan (3 June 1857, Huisseau-sur-Cosson, Loir-et-Cher – 14 June 1924) was a French mining engineer, geologist, and archaeologist.
Father Jean-Vincent Scheil (born 10 June 1858, Koenigsmacker – died 21 September 1940, Paris) was a French Dominican scholar and Assyriologist.
Jehoiakim (pronounced; Yəhōyāqîm "he whom Yahweh has set up", also sometimes spelled Jehoikim (Ιωακιμ; Joakim)) was a king of Judah from 608 to 598 BC.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Kadašman-Buriaš, meaning “my trust is in the (Kassite storm-god) Buriaš,” was the governor of the Babylonian province of Dūr-Kurigalzu possibly late in the reign of Marduk-šāpik-zēri, who ruled ca.
Kadašman-Enlil I, typically rendered mka-dáš-man-dEN.LÍL in contemporary inscriptions (with the archaic masculine determinative preceding his name), was a Kassite King of Babylon from ca.
Kadašman-Enlil II, typically rendered dka-dáš-man-dEN.LÍLThe replacement of the masculine determinative m by the divine one d is a distinction of Kassite monarchs after Nazi-Maruttaš.
Kadašman-Ḫarbe II, inscribed dKa-dáš-man-Ḫar-be, Kad-aš-man-Ḫar-be or variants and meaning I believe in Ḫarbe, the lord of the Kassite pantheon corresponding to Enlil, succeeded Enlil-nādin-šumi, as the 30th Kassite or 3rd dynasty king of Babylon.
Kadašman-Turgu, inscribed Ka-da-aš-ma-an Túr-gu and meaning he believes in Turgu, a Kassite deity, (1281–1264 BC short chronology) was the 24th king of the Kassite or 3rd dynasty of Babylon.
Kandalānu, king of Babylonia, from 648 BC to 627 BC.
Karaindaš was one of the more prominent rulers of the Kassite dynasty and reigned towards the end of the 15th century, BC.
Karduniaš, also transcribed Karduniash, Karaduniyaš or Karaduniše), is a Kassite term used for the kingdom centered on Babylonia and founded by the Kassite dynasty. It is used in the 1350-1335 BC Amarna letters correspondence, and is also used frequently in Middle-Assyrian and Neo-Assyrian texts to refer to the kingdom of Babylon. The name Karaduniyaš is mainly used in the letters written between Kadashman-Enlil I, or Burna-Buriash, the Kings of Babylon, and the Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt-(called: Mizri), letters EA 1-EA 11, a subcorpus of letters, (EA for 'el Amarna'). Much later, a version of the name was used in the Babylonian Talmud as Kardunya referring to similar locations. There are two additional letters in the 382–letter Amarna corpus that reference Karaduniyaš. The first is a damaged, and partial letter, EA 200, (with no author), regarding "Ahlameans", (similar to the Suteans); the title is: "About Ahlameans". The second letter is complete and undamaged, a letter from one of the sons of Labaya, namely Mutbaal-(Mut-Bahli, or Mut-Ba'lu), letter EA 255.
Kaštiliašu III, inscribed phonetically in cuneiform as mKaš-til-ia-šu, is a possible Kassite king of Babylonia in the 15th century BC (Short Chronology).
Kaštiliašu IV was the twenty-eighth Kassite king of Babylon and the kingdom contemporarily known as Kar-Duniaš, c. 1232–1225 BC (short chronology).
The Kassites, the ancient Near Eastern people who seized power in Babylonia following the fall of the first Babylonian Dynasty and subsequently went on to rule it for some three hundred and fifty years during the late bronze age, possessed a pantheon of gods but few are known beyond the laconic mention in the theophoric element of a name.
The Kassites were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology).
Kazalla or Kazallu is the name given in Akkadian sources to a city in the ancient Near East.
Kültepe (Turkish: "Ash Hill") is an archaeological site in Kayseri Province, Turkey.
The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.
Kirkuk (كركوك; کەرکووک; Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad.
Kish (Sumerian: Kiš; transliteration: Kiški; cuneiform:; Akkadian: kiššatu) was an ancient tell (hill city) of Sumer in Mesopotamia, considered to have been located near the modern Tell al-Uhaymir in the Babil Governorate of Iraq, east of Babylon and 80 km south of Baghdad.
Kudur-Enlil, Ku-dur dEN.LÍL (c. 1254–1246 BC short chronology), “son of Enlil,” was the 26th king of the 3rd or Kassite dynasty of Babylon.
Kurigalzu I (died c. 1375 BC), usually inscribed ku-ri-gal-zu but also sometimes with the m or d determinative, the 17th king of the Kassite or 3rd dynasty that ruled over Babylon, was responsible for one of the most extensive and widespread building programs for which evidence has survived in Babylonia.
Kurigalzu II (c. 1332–1308 BC short chronology) was the 22nd king of the Kassite or 3rd dynasty that ruled over Babylon.
Labashi-Marduk, ("May I not come to shame, O Marduk") son of Neriglissar and his wife, the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar, became king of Babylon while still a child.
Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian: Lagaš) is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
Larsa (Sumerian logogram: UD.UNUGKI, read Larsamki) was an important city of ancient Sumer, the center of the cult of the sun god Utu.
The Late Bronze Age collapse involved a dark-age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, a transition which historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive.
A lathe is a tool that rotates the workpiece about an axis of rotation to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, deformation, facing, and turning, with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object with symmetry about that axis.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead glass, commonly called crystal, is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The list of Assyrian kings are compiled from the Assyrian King List, which begins approximately 2500 BC and continues to the 8th century BC.
The following is a list of the kings of Babylonia (ancient southern-central Iraq), compiled from the traditional Babylonian king lists and modern archaeological findings.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
The Lullubi or Lulubi were a group of Pre-Iranian tribes during the 3rd millennium BC, from a region known as Lulubum, now the Sharazor plain of the Zagros Mountains of modern Iraqi Kurdistan.
Lyrics are words that make up a song usually consisting of verses and choruses.
Mandaeans (aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion.
Mār-bīti-apla-uṣur, inscribed dDUMU-É-A-PAB on (presumably) contemporary inscriptions on Lorestān bronze arrowheads or dA-É-AxA-ŠEŠ in the Dynastic Chronicle and meaning “O Mar-bīti (a deity associated with Dēr with a sanctuary in Borsippa), protect the heir,” reigned 984–979 BC and was the sole king of Babylon’s short-lived 7th or Elamite Dynasty.
Marduk (cuneiform: dAMAR.UTU; Sumerian: amar utu.k "calf of the sun; solar calf"; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios) was a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon.
Marduk-aḫḫē-erība, inscribed in cuneiform contemporarily as mdAMAR.UTU-ŠEŠ-MEŠ-SU, meaning: “Marduk has replaced the brothers for me,” a designation given to younger sons whose older siblings have typically predeceased them, ca.
Marduk-apla-iddina I, contemporarily written in cuneiform as dAMAR.UTU-IBILA-SUM-na and meaning in Akkadian: "Marduk has given an heir", was the 34th Kassite king of Babylon ca.
Marduk-apla-iddina II (cuneiform spelling ᴰMES.A.SUM-na; in the Bible Merodach-Baladan, also called Marduk-Baladan, Baladan and Berodach-Baladan, lit. Marduk has given me an heir) was a Chaldean prince who usurped the Babylonian throne in 721 BC and reigned in 722 BC--710 BC, and 703 BC--702 BC.
Marduk-apla-uṣur, inscribed dAMAR.UTU-A-ŠE,Dynastic Chronicle (ADD 888) vi 3’-5’.
Marduk-balāssu-iqbi, inscribed mdAMAR.UTU-TI-su-iq-biKudurru AO 6684 in the Louvre, published as RA 16 (1919) 126 iv 17.
Marduk-bēl-zēri, inscribed in cuneiform as dAMAR.UTU.EN.NUMUNTablet YBC 11546 in the Yale Babylonian Collection.
Marduk-kabit-aḫḫēšu, "Marduk is the most important among his brothers", ca.
Marduk-nādin-aḫḫē, inscribed mdAMAR.UTU-na-din-MU, ca.
Marduk-šāpik-zēri, inscribed in cuneiform dAMAR.UTU-DUB-NUMUN or phonetically -ša-pi-ik-ze-ri, and meaning “Marduk (is) the outpourer of seed”, ca.
Marduk-zâkir-šumi, inscribed mdPA-za-kir-MU in a reconstruction of two kinglists,Synchronistic Kinglist KAV 10 (VAT 11261) ii 9.
Marduk-zâkir-šumi II was a Babylonian nobleman who served briefly as King of Babylon for a few months in 703 BC, following a revolt against the rule of the Assyrian king Sennacherib.
Marduk-zer-X (ca. 1046–1033 BC) was the 10th and penultimate king of the 2nd Dynasty of Isin, the 4th Dynasty of Babylon.
Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Meli-Šipak II, or alternatively MelišiḫuMe-li-dŠI-ḪU or mMe-li-ŠI-ḪU, where the reading of ḪU is uncertain, -ḫu or -pak.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Mesopotamia was the name of two distinct Roman provinces, the one a short-lived creation of the Roman Emperor Trajan in 116–117 and the other established by Emperor Septimius Severus in ca.
The Middle Assyrian Empire is the period in the history of Assyria between the fall of the Old Assyrian Empire in the 14th century BC and the establishment of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 10th century BC.
The Milesian school was a school of thought founded in the 6th century BC.
Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC.
Mithridates or Mithradates I (Parthian: Mihrdat, مهرداد, Mehrdād), (ca. 195 BC – 132 BC) was king of the Parthian Empire from 165 BC to 132 BC, succeeding his brother Phraates I. His father was King Phriapatius of Parthia, who died ca.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.
MUL.APIN is the conventional title given to a Babylonian compendium that deals with many diverse aspects of Babylonian astronomy and astrology.
Mursili I (sometimes transcribed as Murshili) was a king of the Hittites c. 1556–1526 BC (short chronology), and was likely a grandson of his predecessor, Hattusili I. His sister was Ḫarapšili and his wife was queen Kali.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
Mut-Ashkur was the king of Assyria from 1730 BC to 1720 BC.
Nabû-mukin-apli, typically inscribed dAG-DU-A, “Nabû (is) establisher of a legitimate heir,” 978 – 943 BC, founded Babylon’s 8th dynasty, the so-called Dynasty of E, and ruled for 36 years.
Nabû-nāṣir, inscribed in cuneiform as dAG-PAB or dAG-ŠEŠ-ir, Greek: Ναβονάσσαρος, whence "Nabonassar", and meaning "Nabû (is) protector", was the king of Babylon 747–734 BC.
Nabonidus (𒀭𒀝𒉎𒌇, "Nabu is praised") was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, reigning from 556–539 BC.
Nabopolassar (cuneiform: dAG.IBILA.URU3 Akkadian: Nabû-apla-uṣur; 658 BC – 605 BC) was a Chaldean king of Babylonia and a central figure in the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
Nabû-apla-iddina, inscribed mdNábû-ápla-iddinanaSynchronistic History, tablet K4401a (ABC 21), iii 22–26.
Nabû-mukin-zēri, inscribed mdAG-DU-NUMUN, also known as Mukin-zēri,Kinglist A, BM 33332, iv 7.
Nabû-nādin-zēri, inscribed mbû-nādìn-zēri in the King List A,Kinglist A, BM 33332 iv.
Nabû-šumu-libūr, inscribed dAG.MU-li-burTablet BM 33332 Kinglist A, iii 4'.
Nabû-šuma-iškun, inscribed mdNabû-šuma-iškunun,Kinglist A, BM 33332, iv 2.
Nabû-šuma-ukin I, inscribed mdNābû-šuma-ú-kin,Synchronistic King List iii 16 and variant fragments KAV 10 ii 7, KAV 182 iii 10.
Nabû-šuma-ukîn II, inscribed mNabû-šuma-úkînKinglist A, BM 33332, iv 5.
Nazi-Maruttaš, typically inscribed Na-zi-Ma-ru-ut-ta-aš or mNa-zi-Múru-taš, Maruttaš (a Kassite god synonymous with Ninurta) protects him, was a Kassite king of Babylon c. 1307–1282 BC (short chronology) and self-proclaimed šar kiššati, or “King of the World,” according to the votive inscription pictured.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
Nebuchadnezzar I, r. c. 1125–1104 BC, was the fourth king of the Second Dynasty of Isin and Fourth Dynasty of Babylon.
Nebuchadnezzar II (from Akkadian dNabû-kudurri-uṣur), meaning "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son") was king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC, the longest and most powerful reign of any monarch in the Neo-Babylonian empire.
Nebuchadnezzar III ruled over Babylon (c. 522 BC).
Nebuchadnezzar IV (fl. 520s BC), also known as Arakha, was a self-proclaimed King of Babylon.
Necho II (sometimes Nekau, Neku, Nechoh, or Nikuu; Greek: Νεχώς Β' or Νεχώ Β') of Egypt was a king of the 26th Dynasty (610–595 BC).
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
Nergal-ushezib, originally Shuzub, was a Babylonian nobleman who was installed as King of Babylon by the Elamites in 694 BC, after their capture of Babylon and deposition and murder of the previous king Ashur-nadin-shumi, son of King Sennacherib of Assyria.
Nergal-sharezer or Neriglissar (in Akkadian 𒈬𒀭𒄊𒀕𒃲𒊬𒋀 m dNergal-šar-uṣur, "Oh god Nergal, preserve/defend the king"; the common form of his name is Neriglissar) was King of Babylon from 560 to 556 BC.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nimrud (النمرود) is the name that Carsten NiebuhrNiebuhr wrote on:: "Bei Nimrud, einem verfallenen Castell etwa 8 Stunden von Mosul, findet man ein merkwürdigeres Werk.
Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.
Ninurta, also known as Ningirsu, was a Mesopotamian god of farming, healing, hunting, law, scribes, and war who was first worshipped in early Sumer.
Ninurta-apla-X, speculatively ca.
Ninurta-kudurrῑ-uṣur II, a name meaning “O Ninurta protect my offspring”, inscribed in cuneiform as mdMAŠ-NÍG.DU-PAP,Synchronistic King List fragments VAT 11261 (KAV 10) ii 4’ and VAT 11261 (KAV 182) iii 7’.
Ninurta-nādin-šumi,Ninurta-nādin-šumāti in the Chronicle of Aššur-reš-iši.
Nippur (Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as, EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;": Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. Akkadian: Nibbur) was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Northwest Semitic is a division of the Semitic language family comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
Nuzi (or Nuzu; Akkadian Gasur; modern Yorghan Tepe, Iraq) was an ancient Assyrian Mesopotamian city southwest of the major Assyrian city of Arrapha (Karka modern Kirkuk in modern Al Ta'amim Governorate of Iraq), located near the Tigris river.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
The Old Assyrian Empire is one of four periods in which the history of Assyria is divided, the other three being the Early Assyrian Period, the Middle Assyrian Period, and the New Assyrian Period.
Opis (Akkadian Upî or Upija; Ὦπις) was an ancient Babylonian city near the Tigris, not far from modern Baghdad.
Osroene, also spelled Osroëne and Osrhoene (مملكة الرها; ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܒܝܬ ܐܘܪܗܝ "Kingdom of Urhay"; Ὀσροηνή) and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (now Şanlıurfa, Turkey), was a historical kingdom in Upper Mesopotamia, which was ruled by a dynasty of Arab origin.
Otto Eduard Neugebauer (May 26, 1899 – February 19, 1990) was an Austrian American mathematician and historian of science who became known for his research on the history of astronomy and the other exact sciences in antiquity and into the Middle Ages.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
A patient is any recipient of health care services.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
The Phrygians (gr. Φρύγες, Phruges or Phryges) were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phryges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
The pilaster is an architectural element in classical architecture used to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.
A proverb (from proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying, popularly known and repeated, that expresses a truth based on common sense or experience.
Puzur-Ashur III was the king of Assyria from 1503 BC to 1479 BC.
Puzur-Sin was an Assyrian vice regent who was responsible for driving out Asinum the Amorite vassal king of the Babylonians from Assyria, and allowing the native Ashur-dugul to seize the throne.
In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle.
Rapiqum was a city of Ancient Mesopotamia during the second millennium BC.
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Sabium (also Sabum) was an Amorite King in the First Dynasty of Babylon, the Amorite Dynasty.
The Sagartians (Sagartii; Σαγάρτιοι Sagártioi; Old Persian: Asagartiya "Sagartian"; Elamite: Aš-ša-kar-ti-ia, Babylonian: KURSa-ga-ar-ta-a-a) were an ancient Iranian tribe, dwelling in the Iranian plateau.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
Samaria (שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard, Tiberian Šōmərôn; السامرة, – also known as, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of ancient Land of Israel, also known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south.
Samsu-ditāna, inscribed phonetically in cuneiform sa-am-su-di-ta-na in the seals of his servants, the 11th and last king of the Amorite or First Dynasty of Babylon, reigned for 31 years,BM 33332 Babylonian King List A i 2.
Samsu-iluna (Amorite: Shamshu; c. 1750–1712 BC) was the seventh king of the founding Amorite dynasty of Babylon, ruling from 1750 BC to 1712 BC (middle chronology), or from 1686 to 1648 BC (short chronology).
Sargon I (also transcribed as Šarru-kīn I and Sharru-ken I) was the king (Išši’ak Aššur, "Steward of Assur") of the Old Assyrian Empire from c. 1920 BC — c. 1881 BC.
Sargon II (Assyrian Šarru-ukīn (LUGAL-GI.NA 𒈗𒄀𒈾).; Aramaic סרגן; reigned 722–705 BC) was an Assyrian king.
Sargon of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn, also known as Sargon the Great) was the first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Sealand Dynasty, (URU.KÙKIWhere ŠEŠ-ḪA of King List A and ŠEŠ-KÙ-KI of King List B are read as URU.KÙ.KI) or the 2nd Dynasty of Babylon (although it was independent of Amorite ruled Babylon), very speculatively c. 1732–1460 BC (short chronology), is an enigmatic series of kings attested to primarily in laconic references in the king lists A and B, and as contemporaries recorded on the Assyrian Synchronistic king list A.117.
Seleucia, also known as or, was a major Mesopotamian city of the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Seleucus of Seleucia (Σέλευκος Seleukos; born c. 190 BC; fl. c. 150 BC) was a Hellenistic astronomer and philosopher.
Semiramis (Assyrian;ܫܲܡܝܼܪܵܡ Shamiram,; Σεμίραμις, Շամիրամ Shamiram) was the legendary Lydian-Babylonian wife of Onnes and Ninus, succeeding the latter to the throne of Assyria.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Sennacherib was the king of Assyria from 705 BCE to 681 BCE.
Sexagesimal (base 60) is a numeral system with sixty as its base.
Šagarakti-Šuriaš, written phonetically ša-ga-ra-ak-ti-šur-ia-aš or dša-garak-ti-šu-ri-ia-aš in cuneiform or in a variety of other forms, Šuriaš (a Kassite sun god corresponding to Babylonian Šamaš, and possibly to Vedic Surya) gives me life, (1245–1233 BC short chronology) was the twenty seventh king of the Third or Kassite dynasty of Babylon.
Shalmaneser III (Šulmānu-ašurēdu, "the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent" Sulmanu being an asuredu or divinity) was king of Assyria (859–824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II.
Shalmaneser V was king of Assyria from 727 to 722 BC.
Šamaš-mudammiq, inscribed mdŠamaš-mumudammiq (mdUTU-mu-SIG5),Synchronistic King List fragment, KAV 182, Ass 13956dh, iii 9.
Shamash-shum-ukin (Assyrian: Šamaš-šuma-ukin "Shamash has established an heir") was the Assyrian king of Babylon from 667–648 BC.
Sammurāmat or Sammuramāt was an empress regent of Assyria between 811 and 808 BCE.
Shamshi-Adad I (Šamši-Adad I; Amorite: Shamshi-Addu I; fl. c. 1809 BC – c. 1776 BC by the middle chronology) was an Amorite who had conquered lands across much of Syria, Anatolia, and Upper Mesopotamia for the Old Assyrian Empire.
Shamshi-Adad V was the King of Assyria from 824 to 811 BC.
Sherlock Holmes is a fictional private detective created by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
The short chronology is one of the chronologies of the Near Eastern Bronze and Early Iron Age, which fixes the reign of Hammurabi to 1728–1686 BC and the sack of Babylon to 1531 BC.
Shuqamuna (Kassite God), a God symbolized by a bird on a perch, one of two associated with the investiture of kings.
Šutruk-Nakhunte was king of Elam from about 1185 to 1155 BC (middle chronology), and the second king of the Shutrukid Dynasty.
Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Simbar-Šipak, or perhaps Simbar-Šiḫu,Earlier readings render his name as Simmash-Shipak.
In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.
Sin-Muballit was the father of Hammurabi and the fifth Amorite king of the first dynasty (the Amorite Dynasty) of Babylonia, reigning c. 1748 to 1729 BC.
Sin-shumu-lishir (or Sin-shum-lishir, Sîn-šumu-līšir), was a usurper king of a part of the Assyrian empire during 626 BC.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
Sinsharishkun (Sin-shar-ishkun; Sîn-šarru-iškun, c. 627 – 612 BC), who seems to have been the Saràkos (Saracus) of Berossus, was one of the last kings of the Assyrian empire, followed only by Ashur-uballit II.
Sippar (Sumerian:,Zimbir) was an ancient Near Eastern Sumerian and later Babylonian tell (hill city) on the east bank of the Euphrates river, located at the site of modern Tell Abu Habbah in Iraq's Babil Governorate, some 60 km north of Babylon and 30 km southwest of Baghdad.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
The Socratic method, also can be known as maieutics, method of elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate, is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presumptions.
A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.
A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
The square root of 2, or the (1/2)th power of 2, written in mathematics as or, is the positive algebraic number that, when multiplied by itself, gives the number 2.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Approximately twenty-seven statues of Gudea, a ruler (ensi) of the state of Lagash have been found in southern Mesopotamia.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Sumu-Abum (also Su-abu) was an Amorite, and the first King of the First Dynasty of Babylon (the Amorite Dynasty).
Sumu-la-El (also Sumulael or Sumu-la-ilu) was a King in the First Dynasty of Babylon.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.
The Suteans were a Semitic people who lived throughout the Levant and Canaan c. 1350 BC, and later also lived in Babylonia.
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syriac Christianity (ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ / mšiḥāiūṯā suryāiṯā) refers to Eastern Christian traditions that employs Syriac language in their liturgical rites.
The states that are called Neo-Hittite or, more recently, Syro-Hittite were Luwian-, Aramaic- and Phoenician-speaking political entities of the Iron Age in northern Syria and southern Anatolia that arose following the collapse of the Hittite Empire in around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC.
A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.
Tammuz was a month in the Babylonian calendar, named for one of the main Babylonian gods, Tammuz (Sumerian: Dumuzid, "son of life").
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tell Halaf (تل حلف) is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border, just opposite Ceylanpınar.
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
Theophilus Goldridge Pinches M.R.A.S. (1856 – 6 June 1934 Muswell Hill, London), was a pioneer British assyriologist.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
The terms "Third Dynasty of Ur" and "Neo-Sumerian Empire" refer to both a 22nd to 21st century BC (middle chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state which some historians consider to have been a nascent empire.
Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning "Thoth is born") was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
Tiglath-Pileser I (from the Hebraic form of 𒆪𒋾𒀀𒂍𒊹𒊏 Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of Ešarra") was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian period (1114–1076 BC).
Tiglath-Pileser III (cuneiform: TUKUL.TI.A.É.ŠÁR.RA; Akkadian: Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of the Ešarra") was a prominent king of Assyria in the eighth century BCE (ruled 745–727 BCE) who introduced advanced civil, military, and political systems into the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops.
The timeline of the Assyrian Empire lists the kings, their successors and the major events that occurred in the Assyrian history.
The Tower of Babel (מִגְדַּל בָּבֶל, Migdal Bāḇēl) as told in Genesis 11:1-9 is an origin myth meant to explain why the world's peoples speak different languages.
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
Tukulti-Ninurta I (meaning: "my trust is in Ninurta"; reigned 1243–1207 BC) was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian Empire (1366 - 1050 BC).
Tukulti-Ninurta II was King of Assyria from 891 BC to 884 BC.
Tushhan (also Tushan, or Tušhan) is a Kurdish village known as (Behramki) or (Tepe-i Barava) by residents and It was an ancient city that Assyrian have ruled for some time in Mesopotamia.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Ulam-Buriaš, contemporarily inscribed as Ú-la-Bu-ra-ra-ia-ašMace head VA Bab.
Umma (𒄑𒆵𒆠; modern Umm al-Aqarib, Dhi Qar Province in Iraq) was an ancient city in Sumer.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of Georgia, also referred to as UGA or simply Georgia, is an American public comprehensive research university.
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
Uruk (Cuneiform: URUUNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء,; Aramaic/Hebrew:; Orḥoē, Ὀρέχ Oreḥ, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.
A water clock or clepsydra (Greek κλεψύδρα from κλέπτειν kleptein, 'to steal'; ὕδωρ hydor, 'water') is any timepiece in which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into (inflow type) or out from (outflow type) a vessel where the amount is then measured.
The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of ancient Semitic languages.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Whore of Babylon or Babylon the Great is a mythological female figure and also place of evil mentioned in the Book of Revelation in the Bible.
Wisdom literature is a genre of literature common in the ancient Near East.
Yamhad was an ancient Semitic kingdom centered on Ḥalab (Aleppo), Syria.
YBC 7289 is a Babylonian clay tablet in the Yale Babylonian Collection, notable for containing an accurate sexagesimal approximation to the square root of 2, the length of the diagonal of a unit square.
Zababa-šuma-iddinaWritten as mdZa-ba4-ba4-MU-AŠ.
The Zagros Mountains (کوههای زاگرس; چیاکانی زاگرۆس) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC.
Achaemenid Babylonia, Ancient Babylonians, Babylon Empire, Babylon civilization, Babylonia (Persian province), Babylonian Empire, Babylonian Medicine, Babylonian empire, Babylonian medicine, Babylonians, Leb Kamai, Persian Babylonia, Sack of Babylon, Sumer and Akkad, Sumeri u Akkadi, Sumero-Akkadian, The Babylonian Empire.