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Index Backgammon

Backgammon is one of the oldest known board games. [1]

145 relations: Acey-deucey, Adriaen van Ostade, Akiko Yazawa, Alameda Times-Star, Alea iacta est, Alfonso X of Castile, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek, Aramaic language, Armenians, Artificial neural network, Azerbaijan, Backgammon chouette, Backgammon notation, Backgammon opening theory, Bill Robertie, Board game, Borzuya, Brownian motion, Byzantine Empire, Caravaggio, Casino, Chō-han, Chess, Club (organization), Coan ki, Computer science, Counter (board wargames), Counting, Dice, Draughts, Edmond Hoyle, Elizabethan era, Expected value, Ferdowsi, First Internet Backgammon Server, Free software, Fuzzy logic, Gambling, Game tree, Go (game), Greeks, Gul bara, Hans Berliner, Hieronymus Bosch, Horseshoe, Hugh Hefner, Hypergammon, IBM, Iceland, ..., Internet, Iran, Ivory, Jan Steen, Jiroft, John R. Crawford, Khosrow I, Kit Woolsey, Las Vegas, Las Vegas Valley, Levant, LexisNexis, Libro de los juegos, List of dice games, Louis IX of France, Lower East Side, Ludus duodecim scriptorum, Luigi Villa, Matvey Natanzon, Medieval Greek, Mental calculation, Mesopotamia, Middle East, Middle English, Middle Persian, Monte Carlo, Monte Carlo method, Name of Iran, Nard (game), Near East, Nevada, New York City, Nicosia, Nihon Ki-in, Northern Cyprus, Operations Research (journal), Oswald Jacoby, Ottoman Empire, Oxford English Dictionary, Paradise Island, PartyGaming, Paul Magriel, PDP-10, Persian language, Phoenician language, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Plakoto, Plateia, Play65, Playboy Mansion, Poker, Power of two, Prince Alexis Obolensky, Probability, Proposition bet, Proprietary software, Pseudorandom number generator, Race game, Raja, Random number generation, Rollout (backgammon), Royal Game of Ur, Senet, Shahnameh, Shahr-e Sukhteh, Shareware, Solved game, Song dynasty, Spain, Strategy game, Sugoroku, Sweden, Tables (board game), Tabletop game, Tabula (game), Tactic (method), Tapa (game), TD-Gammon, Teak, Temporal difference learning, The Bahamas, The Cardsharps (Caravaggio), The New York Times, The Triumph of Death, Tim Holland (backgammon), Touraj Daryaee, Tournament, Troy, Turkey, United States dollar, Vasa (ship), Whist, World Series of Backgammon, Xiangqi, Zeno (emperor). Expand index (95 more) »


Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon.

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Adriaen van Ostade

Adriaen van Ostade (baptized as Adriaen Jansz Hendricx 10 December 1610buried 2 May 1685) was a Dutch Golden Age painter of genre works.

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Akiko Yazawa

(née Abe, born 1980) is a professional backgammon player from Tokyo, Japan.

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Alameda Times-Star

The Alameda Times-Star was a newspaper in the town of Alameda, California.

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Alea iacta est

Alea iacta est ("The die is cast") is a Latin phrase attributed by Suetonius (as iacta alea est) to Julius Caesar on January 10, 49 B.C. as he led his army across the Rubicon river in Northern Italy.

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Alfonso X of Castile

Alfonso X (also occasionally Alphonso, Alphonse, or Alfons, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), called the Wise (el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Aramaic language

Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.

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Artificial neural network

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.

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No description.

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Backgammon chouette

The backgammon chouette is a variant of backgammon for three or more players.

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Backgammon notation

Backgammon notation is a means for recording backgammon games, developed by Paul Magriel in the 1970s.

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Backgammon opening theory

The first moves of a backgammon game are the opening moves, collectively referred to as the opening, and studied in the backgammon opening theory.

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Bill Robertie

Bill Robertie (born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States on July 9, 1946) is a backgammon, chess, and poker player and author.

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Board game

A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules.

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Borzuya (or Burzōē or Burzōy) was a Persian physician in the late Sassanid era, at the time of Khosrau I. He translated the Indian Panchatantra from Sanskrit into Pahlavi (Middle Persian).

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Brownian motion

Brownian motion or pedesis (from πήδησις "leaping") is the random motion of particles suspended in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) resulting from their collision with the fast-moving molecules in the fluid.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Michelangelo Merisi (Michele Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily from the early 1590s to 1610.

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A casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities.

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Chō-Han Bakuchi or simply is a traditional Japanese gambling game using dice.

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Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.

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Club (organization)

A club is an association of two or more people united by a common interest or goal.

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Coan ki

Çoan ki (also erectus ludus or "The Bottle Game") is a Chinese board game similar to backgammon.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Counter (board wargames)

Boardgame counters are usually small cardboard squares moved around on the map of a wargame to represent armies, military units, or individual military personnel.

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Counting is the action of finding the number of elements of a finite set of objects.

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Dice (singular die or dice; from Old French dé; from Latin datum "something which is given or played") are small throwable objects with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers.

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Draughts (British English) or checkers (American English) is a group of strategy board games for two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform game pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over opponent pieces.

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Edmond Hoyle

Edmond Hoyle (1672 – 29 August 1769) was a writer best known for his works on the rules and play of card games.

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Elizabethan era

The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603).

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Expected value

In probability theory, the expected value of a random variable, intuitively, is the long-run average value of repetitions of the experiment it represents.

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Abu ʾl-Qasim Firdowsi Tusi (c. 940–1020), or Ferdowsi (also transliterated as Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi) was a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh ("Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Greater Iran.

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First Internet Backgammon Server

The First Internet Backgammon Server (FIBS) began operating in July 19, 1992, allowing users to play backgammon in real-time against other people.

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Free software

Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.

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Fuzzy logic

Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the truth values of variables may be any real number between 0 and 1.

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Gambling is the wagering of money or something of value (referred to as "the stakes") on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning money or material goods.

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Game tree

In game theory, a game tree is a directed graph whose nodes are positions in a game and whose edges are moves.

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Go (game)

Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent.

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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Gul bara

Gul bara is a backgammon variant.

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Hans Berliner

Hans Jack Berliner (January 27, 1929 – January 13, 2017) was a Professor of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University, and was the World Correspondence Chess Champion, from 1965–1968.

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Hieronymus Bosch

Hieronymus Bosch (born Jheronimus van Aken; 1450 – 9 August 1516) was a Dutch/Netherlandish draughtsman and painter from Brabant.

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A horseshoe is a fabricated product, normally made of metal, although sometimes made partially or wholly of modern synthetic materials, designed to protect a horse's hoof from wear.

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Hugh Hefner

Hugh Marston Hefner (April 9, 1926 – September 27, 2017) was an American businessman, magazine publisher, and playboy.

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Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.

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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.

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Jan Steen

Jan Havickszoon Steen (c. 1626 – buried 3 February 1679) was a Dutch genre painter of the 17th century (also known as the Dutch Golden Age).

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Jiroft (جيرفت, also Romanized as Jīroft; formerly, Sabzāwārān, Sabzevārān, Sabzevārān-e Jiroft, and Sabzvārān) is a city and capital of Jiroft County, Kerman Province, Iran.

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John R. Crawford

John Yocum Randolph Crawford (August 4, 1915 – February 14, 1976) was an American bridge and backgammon player.

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Khosrow I

Khosrow I (also known as Chosroes I and Kisrā in classical sources; 501–579, most commonly known in Persian as Anushiruwān (انوشيروان, "the immortal soul"; also known as Anushiruwan the Just (انوشيروان دادگر, Anushiruwān-e Dādgar), was the King of Kings (Shahanshah) of the Sasanian Empire from 531 to 579. He was the successor of his father Kavadh I (488–531). Khosrow I was the twenty-second Sasanian Emperor of Persia, and one of its most celebrated emperors. He laid the foundations of many cities and opulent palaces, and oversaw the repair of trade roads as well as the building of numerous bridges and dams. His reign is furthermore marked by the numerous wars fought against the Sassanid's neighboring archrivals, the Roman-Byzantine Empire, as part of the already centuries-long lasting Roman-Persian Wars. The most important wars under his reign were the Lazic War which was fought over Colchis (western Georgia-Abkhazia) and the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591. During Khosrow's ambitious reign, art and science flourished in Persia and the Sasanian Empire reached its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule was preceded by his father's and succeeded by Hormizd IV. Khosrow Anushiruwan is one of the most popular emperors in Iranian culture and literature and, outside of Iran, his name became, like that of Caesar in the history of Rome, a designation of the Sasanian kings. He also introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. His army was in discipline decidedly superior to the Byzantines, and apparently was well paid. He was also interested in literature and philosophical discussions. Under his reign chess was introduced from India, and the famous book of Kalilah and Dimnah was translated. He thus became renowned as a wise king.

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Kit Woolsey

Kit Woolsey (born Christopher Robin Woolsey in 1943) is an American bridge and backgammon player.

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Las Vegas

Las Vegas (Spanish for "The Meadows"), officially the City of Las Vegas and often known simply as Vegas, is the 28th-most populated city in the United States, the most populated city in the state of Nevada, and the county seat of Clark County.

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Las Vegas Valley

The Las Vegas Valley is a major metropolitan area in the southern part of the U.S. state of Nevada.

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The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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LexisNexis Group is a corporation providing computer-assisted legal research as well as business research and risk management services.

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Libro de los juegos

The Libro de los Juegos, ("Book of games"), or Libro de axedrez, dados e tablas, ("Book of chess, dice and tables", in Old Spanish) was commissioned by Alfonso X of Castile, Galicia and León and completed in his scriptorium in Toledo in 1283,Sonja Musser Golladay, (PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2007), 31.

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List of dice games

Dice games are games that use or incorporate one or more dice as their sole or central component, usually as a random device.

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Louis IX of France

Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.

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Lower East Side

The Lower East Side, sometimes abbreviated as LES, is a neighborhood in the southeastern part of the New York City borough of Manhattan, roughly located between the Bowery and the East River, and Canal Street and Houston Street.

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Ludus duodecim scriptorum

Ludus duodecim scriptorum, or XII scripta, was a board game popular during the time of the Roman Empire.

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Luigi Villa

Luigi Villa is a backgammon player from Milan, Italy.

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Matvey Natanzon

Matvey Natanzon (better known by his pseudonym Falafel) is a backgammon player.

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Medieval Greek

Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

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Mental calculation

Mental calculation comprises arithmetical calculations using only the human brain, with no help from any supplies (such as pencil and paper) or devices such as a calculator.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Middle Persian

Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.

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Monte Carlo

Monte Carlo (Monte-Carlo, or colloquially Monte-Carl; Monégasque: Monte-Carlu) officially refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco, specifically the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located.

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Monte Carlo method

Monte Carlo methods (or Monte Carlo experiments) are a broad class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated random sampling to obtain numerical results.

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Name of Iran

In the Western world, Persia (or one of its cognates) was historically the common name for Iran.

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Nard (game)

Nard (نرد, also narde or nardshir; from nywʾlthšyl nēw-ardaxšīr) is a tables-style board game for two players in which the playing pieces are moved according to rolls of dice.

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Near East

The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nicosia (Λευκωσία; Lefkoşa) is the largest city on the island of Cyprus.

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Nihon Ki-in

The Nihon Ki-in (日本棋院), also known as the Japan Go Association, is the main organizational body for Go in Japan, overseeing Japan's professional system and issuing diplomas for amateur dan rankings.

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Northern Cyprus

Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a partially recognised state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.

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Operations Research (journal)

Operations Research is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering operations research that is published by INFORMS.

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Oswald Jacoby

Oswald "Ozzie", "Jake" Jacoby (December 8, 1902 – June 27, 1984) was an American contract bridge player and author, considered one of the greatest bridge players of all time.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Paradise Island

Paradise Island is an island in the Bahamas formerly known as Hog Island.

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PartyGaming plc was founded in 1997 as a network of gambling sites operated by Ruth Parasol in the Caribbean.

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Paul Magriel

Paul David Magriel Jr. (pronounced Ma-grill) (July 1, 1946 – March 5, 2018) was an American professional backgammon player, poker player, and author based in Las Vegas, Nevada.

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The PDP-10 is a mainframe computer family manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1966 into the 1980s.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Phoenician language

Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language.

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder

Pieter Bruegel (also Brueghel) the Elder (c. 1525-1530 – 9 September 1569) was the most significant artist of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, a painter and printmaker from Brabant, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes (so called genre painting); he was a pioneer in making both types of subject the focus in large paintings.

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Plakoto is a tables game popular in Greece.

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Plateia or platia (πλατεία) is the Greek word for town square.

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Play65 is an online backgammon operator established in 2004 by an Israeli-based company, SkillEmpire, that hosts real-time backgammon games and tournaments.

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Playboy Mansion

The Playboy Mansion, also known as the Playboy Mansion West, is the former home of Playboy magazine founder Hugh Hefner, who lived there from 1974 until his death in 2017.

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Poker is a family of card games that combines gambling, strategy, and skill.

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Power of two

In mathematics, a power of two is a number of the form where is an integer, i.e. the result of exponentiation with number two as the base and integer as the exponent.

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Prince Alexis Obolensky

Prince Alexis Obolensky (1915–1986), socialite and sometimes called the "father of modern backgammon," was a member of the princely Obolensky family of the Rurik Dynasty.

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Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

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Proposition bet

In gambling, a "proposition bet" (prop bet, prop, novelty, or a side bet) is a bet made regarding the occurrence or non-occurrence during a game (usually a gambling game) of an event not directly affecting the game's final outcome.

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Proprietary software

Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.

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Pseudorandom number generator

A pseudorandom number generator (PRNG), also known as a deterministic random bit generator (DRBG), is an algorithm for generating a sequence of numbers whose properties approximate the properties of sequences of random numbers.

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Race game

Race game is a large category of board games, in which the object is to be the first to move all one's pieces to the end of a track.

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Raja (also spelled rajah, from Sanskrit राजन्), is a title for a monarch or princely ruler in South and Southeast Asia.

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Random number generation

Random number generation is the generation of a sequence of numbers or symbols that cannot be reasonably predicted better than by a random chance, usually through a hardware random-number generator (RNG).

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Rollout (backgammon)

A rollout is an analysis technique for backgammon positions and moves.

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Royal Game of Ur

The Royal Game of Ur, also known as the Game of Twenty Squares or simply the Game of Ur, is a two-player strategy race board game that was first played in ancient Mesopotamia during the early third millennium BC.

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Senet (or Senat) is a board game from ancient Egypt whose original rules are the subject of conjecture.

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The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.

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Shahr-e Sukhteh

Shahr-e Sūkhté (شهرِ سوخته, meaning " Burnt City"), also spelled as Shahr-e Sukhteh and Shahr-i Shōkhta, is an archaeological site of a sizable Bronze Age urban settlement, associated with the Jiroft culture.

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Shareware is a type of proprietary software which is initially provided free of charge to users, who are allowed and encouraged to make and share copies of the program.

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Solved game

A solved game is a game whose outcome (win, lose or draw) can be correctly predicted from any position, assuming that both players play perfectly.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Strategy game

A strategy game or strategic game is a game (e.g. video or board game) in which the players' uncoerced, and often autonomous decision-making skills have a high significance in determining the outcome.

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(literally 'double six') refers to two different forms of a Japanese board game: ban-sugoroku (盤双六, 'board-sugoroku') which is similar to western backgammon, and e-sugoroku (絵双六, 'picture-sugoroku') which is similar to western Snakes and Ladders.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Tables (board game)

Tables is a general name given to a class of board games similar to backgammon, played on a board with two rows of 12 vertical markings called "points".

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Tabletop game

Tabletop games are games that are normally played on a table or other flat surface, such as board games, card games, dice games, miniatures wargames or tile-based games.

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Tabula (game)

Tabula (Byzantine Greek: τάβλι), meaning a plank or board, was a Greco-Roman board game, and is generally thought to be the direct ancestor of modern backgammon.

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Tactic (method)

A tactic (from the Ancient Greek τακτική taktike meaning "art of arrangement") is a conceptual action aiming at the achievement of a goal.

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Tapa (game)

Tapa (Тапа) is a version of Backgammon played in Bulgaria and Macedonia.

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TD-Gammon is a computer backgammon program developed in 1992 by Gerald Tesauro at IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center.

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Teak (Tectona grandis) is a tropical hardwood tree species placed in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae.

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Temporal difference learning

Temporal difference (TD) learning refers to a class of model-free reinforcement learning methods which learn by bootstrapping from the current estimate of the value function.

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The Bahamas

The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.

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The Cardsharps (Caravaggio)

The Cardsharps (painted around 1594) is a painting by the Italian Baroque artist Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Triumph of Death

The Triumph of Death is an oil panel painting by Pieter Bruegel the Elder painted c. 1562.

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Tim Holland (backgammon)

Tim Holland (March 3, 1931 – March 10, 2010) was a world-champion backgammon player, highly paid teacher of the game, author of three backgammon books and successful gambler who has won more major backgammon tournaments than anyone in history.

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Touraj Daryaee

Touraj Daryaee (تورج دریایی) (born 1967 in Tehran, Iran) is a contemporary Persian Iranologist and historian, now the Maseeh Chair in Persian Studies and Culture and the director of the Dr.

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A tournament is a competition involving a relatively large number of competitors, all participating in a sport or game.

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Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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Vasa (ship)

Vasa (or Wasa) is a retired Swedish warship built between 1626 and 1628.

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Whist is a classic English trick-taking card game which was widely played in the 18th and 19th centuries.

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World Series of Backgammon

World Series of Backgammon (WSOB) is a major televised live tour.

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Xiangqi, also called Chinese chess, is a strategy board game for two players.

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Zeno (emperor)

Zeno the Isaurian (Flavius Zeno Augustus; Ζήνων; c. 425 – 9 April 491), originally named Tarasis Kodisa RousombladadiotesThe sources call him "Tarasicodissa Rousombladadiotes", and for this reason it was thought his name was Tarasicodissa. However, it has been demonstrated that this name actually means "Tarasis, son of Kodisa, Rusumblada", and that "Tarasis" was a common name in Isauria (R.M. Harrison, "The Emperor Zeno's Real Name", Byzantinische Zeitschrift 74 (1981) 27–28)., was Eastern Roman Emperor from 474 to 475 and again from 476 to 491. Domestic revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign, which nevertheless succeeded to some extent in foreign issues. His reign saw the end of the Western Roman Empire following the deposition of Romulus Augustus and the death of Julius Nepos, but he contributed much to stabilising the eastern Empire. In ecclesiastical history, Zeno is associated with the Henotikon or "instrument of union", promulgated by him and signed by all the Eastern bishops, with the design of solving the monophysite controversy.

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Backgamon, Blackgammon, Crawford rule, Doubling (backgammon), Doubling cube, Longgammon, Nackgammon, Nardshir, Portes (game), Russian Backgammon, Shesh besh.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backgammon

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