481 relations: Abiogenesis, Acetogenesis, Acid-fastness, Acidobacteria, Actin, Actinobacteria, Active transport, Aerobic organism, Agar plate, Agriculture, Agrochemical, Algal bloom, Alphaproteobacteria, Amino acid, Ammonia, Anabolism, Anaerobacter, Anaerobic organism, Animalcule, Anthrax, Antibiotic, Antibody, Antigen, Antimicrobial resistance, Antioxidant, Antiseptic, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Aquificae, Archaea, Archean, Armatimonadetes, Asexual reproduction, Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Atmosphere of Earth, Autoinducer, Autotroph, Bacillus, Bacillus (shape), Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacteria, Bacterial capsule, Bacterial conjugation, Bacterial growth, Bacterial phyla, Bactericide, Bacteriology, Bacteriophage, Bacteriostatic agent, Bacteriotherapy, ..., Bacterium (genus), Bacteroidetes, Base pair, Beneficial insects, Biochemistry, Biofilm, Biological engineering, Biological pest control, Biological Resource Center, Bioluminescence, Biomass (ecology), Biopolymer, Bioremediation, Biotechnology, Biotin, Bleach, Blood, Body odor, Bonnie Bassler, Borrelia, Bubonic plague, Burkholderia cenocepacia, Business Insider, Butyric acid, Cadaver, Caldisericum, Campylobacter, Candidatus Carsonella ruddii, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon fixation, Carbon monoxide, Carboxysome, Carl Woese, Cell (biology), Cell division, Cell growth, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cell signaling, Cell theory, Cell wall, Cellulose, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cheese, Chemical industry, Chemotaxis, Chemotroph, Chitin, Chlamydia (genus), Chlamydiae, Chloramphenicol, Chloroflexi (phylum), Chloroplast, Chlorosome, Cholera, Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, Chromosome, Chrysiogenaceae, Circular bacterial chromosome, Clonal colony, Clostridium, Clostridium tetani, Coccus, Cold seep, Commensalism, Competitive exclusion principle, Coronary artery disease, CRISPR, Crust (geology), Cyanobacteria, Cystic fibrosis, Cytoplasm, Cytosine, Cytoskeleton, Decomposition, Deferribacteraceae, Deinococcus–Thermus, Denitrification, Desiccation, Detergent, Detritivore, Developed country, Diarrhea, Dictyoglomus thermophilum, Dietary supplement, Diffusion, Diffusion barrier, Dimethylmercury, Diphtheria, Disease, Disinfectant, DNA, DNA repair, DNA sequencing, Domain (biology), Earth, Electrochemical gradient, Electrochemical potential, Electron, Electron acceptor, Electron donor, Electron microscope, Electron transport chain, Elusimicrobia, Enantiomer, Endospore, Endosymbiont, Energy, Enterobacteriaceae, Environmentally friendly, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Enzyme kinetics, Epulopiscium fishelsoni, Escherichia coli, Ethanol, Eukaryote, Evolution, Exponential growth, Extracellular polymeric substance, Extremophile, Exxon Valdez oil spill, Facultative anaerobic organism, Fatty acid, Feces, Ferdinand Cohn, Fermentation, Fermentation in food processing, Fibrobacteres, Fimbria (bacteriology), Fire blight, Firmicutes, Fission (biology), Flagellum, Folate, Foodborne illness, Fossil, Fresh water, Fungus, Fusobacteria, Gamma ray, Gastrointestinal tract, GC-content, Gemmatimonadetes, Gene, Gene expression, Genetic recombination, Genetically modified bacterium, Genetics, Genome, Genus, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Germ theory of disease, Glycogen, Gram stain, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Greek language, Green sulfur bacteria, Growth factor, Growth medium, Guanine, Gut flora, Habitat, Haemophilus influenzae, Hans Christian Gram, Helicobacter pylori, Heliobacteria, Helix, Hemolysis (microbiology), Heterotroph, Holocene, Horizontal gene transfer, Host (biology), Hot spring, Human microbiota, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrogenophilaceae, Hydrogenosome, Hydrothermal vent, Hypha, Immune system, Immunology, Immunosuppression, Implant (medicine), Infection, Inflammation, Insecticide, Insulin, Intensive farming, International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, Intracellular parasite, Intron, Ion, Isolation (microbiology), Koch's postulates, Lactic acid, Lactobacillales, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Last universal common ancestor, Latin, Latinisation of names, Leaf spot, Lentisphaerae, Lepidoptera, Leprosy, Lipid bilayer, Lipopolysaccharide, Lipoprotein, List of bacterial orders, Listeria, Lithotroph, Live Science, Louis Pasteur, Lytic cycle, Macromolecule, Macrophage, Magnetotaxis, Mariana Trench, Mark Wheelis, Mastitis, Mathematical model, Medical device, Medicine, Meningitis, Mercury (element), Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Methane, Methanogen, Methanotroph, Methylmercury, Microbial mat, Microbiological culture, Microbiology, Microcolony, Micrometre, Microorganism, Microscope, Milk, Mitochondrion, Mold, Molecular biology, Molecular cloning, Molecular phylogenetics, Morphology (biology), Most recent common ancestor, Motility, Mutagen, Mutation, Mutualism (biology), Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycoplasma, Myxobacteria, Myxococcus xanthus, Natural competence, Nature Geoscience, Neisseria, New Latin, Nitrate, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogenase, Nitrospirae, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nose, Nucleoid, Nutrient cycle, Ocean, Oil spill, Opportunistic infection, Organelle, Organic acid, Organic compound, Organism, Organotroph, Otto Kandler, Oxygen, Panspermia, Parasitism, Paratuberculosis, Pathogen, Pathogenic bacteria, Paul Ehrlich, Penicillin, Peptide, Peptidoglycan, Periplasm, Perspiration, Pesticide, Petroleum, Pharmaceutical industry, Pheromone, Phospholipid, Photosynthesis, Phototaxis, Phototroph, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Pickling, Pilus, Planctomycetes, Plant, Plasmid, Pneumonia, Pollinator, Pollution, Polyhydroxyalkanoates, Polymerase chain reaction, Polyphosphate, Polysaccharide, Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria, Predation, Primary nutritional groups, Prince William Sound, Probiotic, Prokaryote, Prokaryotic cytoskeleton, Propionic acid, Protein, Proteobacteria, Protist, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psychrophile, Puromycin, Purple bacteria, Putrefaction, Quinone, Quorum sensing, R/K selection theory, Radioactive waste, Random walk, Redox, Reduced form, Respiratory tract infection, Restriction modification system, Rhizosphere, Ribosomal DNA, Ribosome, Rickettsia, RNA, RNA interference, Robert Koch, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Root, Royal Society, S-layer, Salmonellosis, Sauerkraut, Scanning electron microscope, Secretion, Sepsis, Sequencing, Serology, Sewage treatment, Sherwood Gorbach, Shigella, Shock (circulatory), Skin, Slime layer, Sorangium cellulosum, Soy sauce, Spiral bacteria, Spirochaete, Spontaneous generation, Sporohalobacter, Sputum, Staphylococcus, Stephen Jay Gould, Sterilization (microbiology), Stimulus (physiology), Streptococcus, Streptomyces, Stromatolite, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sulfate, Sulfate-reducing microorganisms, Sulfur, Symbiogenesis, Symbiosis, Synergistetes, Syntrophy, Syphilis, Taxis, Taxonomy (biology), Teichoic acid, Tenericutes, Tetanus, Thermodesulfobacteria, Thermophile, Thermotogae, Thiomargarita namibiensis, Three-domain system, Timeline of peptic ulcer disease and Helicobacter pylori, Toxic waste, Transduction (genetics), Transformation (genetics), Treponema pallidum, Tuberculosis, Typhoid fever, Typhus, Ultramicrobacteria, Ultraviolet, Urinary tract infection, Urine, Vacuum, Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, Vancomycin, Vasodilation, Verrucomicrobia, Viable but nonculturable, Vibrio, Vinegar, Virulence, Virus, Vitamin, Vitamin K, Wiki, Wildlife, Wilting, Wine, Yeast, Yogurt, Ziehl–Neelsen stain, 16S ribosomal RNA. Expand index (431 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
Acetogenesis is a process through which acetate is produced from CO2 and an electron source (e.g., H2, CO, formate, etc.) by anaerobic bacteria via the reductive acetyl-CoA or Wood-Ljungdahl pathway.
Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells, as well as some sub-cellular structures, specifically their resistance to decolorization by acids during laboratory staining procedures.
Acidobacteria is a phylum of bacteria.
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.
The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria.
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.
An agar plate is a Petri dish that contains a solid growth medium, typically agar plus nutrients, used to culture small organisms such as microorganisms.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a chemical product used in agriculture.
An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.
Alphaproteobacteria is a class of bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria (See also bacterial taxonomy).
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
Anaerobacter is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria related to Clostridium.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Animalcule ("little animal", from Latin animal + the diminutive suffix -culum) is an older term for a microscopic animal or protozoan.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.
The Aquificae phylum is a diverse collection of bacteria that live in harsh environmental settings.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
Armatimonadetes is a phylum of gram-negative bacteria.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology is a history of science by Isaac Asimov, written as the biographies of over 1500 scientists.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Autoinducers are signaling molecules that are produced in response to changes in cell-population density.
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes.
A bacillus (plural bacilli) or bacilliform bacterium is a rod-shaped bacterium or archaeon.
Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax—a common disease of livestock and, occasionally, of humans—and the only obligate pathogen within the genus Bacillus.
Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Some bacterial cells are surrounded by a viscous substance forming a covering layer or envelope around the cell wall.
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.
Growth is shown as ''L''.
The bacterial phyla are the major lineages, known as phyla or divisions, of the domain Bacteria.
A bactericide or bacteriocide, sometimes abbreviated Bcidal, is a substance that kills bacteria.
Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
A bacteriostatic agent or bacteriostat, abbreviated Bstatic, is a biological or chemical agent that stops bacteria from reproducing, while not necessarily killing them otherwise.
Bacteriotherapy is the purposeful use of bacteria or their products in treating an illness.
The genus Bacterium was a taxon described in 1828 by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg.
The phylum Bacteroidetes is composed of three large classes of Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, anaerobic or aerobic, and rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including in soil, sediments, and sea water, as well as in the guts and on the skin of animals.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Beneficial insects (sometimes called beneficial bugs) are any of a number of species of insects that perform valued services like pollination and pest control.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
Biological engineering or bio-engineering is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, tangible, economically viable products.
Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.
A Biological Resource Centre (BRC) is considered to be one of the key elements for sustainable international scientific infrastructure, which is necessary to underpin successful delivery of the benefits of biotechnology, whether within the health sector, the industrial sector or other sectors, and in turn ensure that these advances help drive growth.
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.
Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin, also called vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R. Biotin is composed of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Body odor (American English) or body odour (British English; see spelling differences) is present in animals and humans, and its intensity can be influenced by many factors (behavioral patterns, survival strategies).
Bonnie Lynn Bassler, Ph.D (born 1962) is an American molecular biologist known for her work in quorum sensing in bacteria.
Borrelia is a genus of bacteria of the spirochete phylum.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Burkholderia cenocepacia, also known as Helycobacter, is a species of Gram-negative bacteria that is common in the environment, can form a biofilm with itself, is resistant to many antibiotics and may cause disease in plants.
Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
Butyric acid (from βούτῡρον, meaning "butter"), also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, abbreviated BTA, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH.
A cadaver, also referred to as a corpse (singular) in medical, literary, and legal usage, or when intended for dissection, is a deceased body.
Caldisericum exile is a species of bacteria sufficiently distinct from other bacteria to be placed in its own family, order, class and phylum.
Campylobacter (meaning "curved bacteria") is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria.
Candidatus Carsonella ruddii is an obligate endosymbiotic Gamma Proteobacterium with one of the smallest genomes of any characterised bacteria.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation is the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carboxysomes are bacterial compartments consisting of polyhedral protein shells filled with the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) -the predominant enzyme in carbon fixation and the rate limiting enzyme in the Calvin Cycle-and a carbonic anhydrase.
Carl Richard Woese (July 15, 1928 – December 30, 2012) was an American microbiologist and biophysicist.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.
Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.
Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites.
The Chlamydiae are bacterial phylum and class whose members are a group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa.
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
The Chloroflexi or Chlorobacteria are a phylum of bacteria containing isolates with a diversity of phenotypes including members that are aerobic thermophiles, which use oxygen and grow well in high temperatures, anoxygenic phototrophs, which use light for photosynthesis (green non-sulfur bacteria), and anaerobic halorespirers, which uses halogenated organics (such as the toxic chlorinated ethenes and polychlorinated biphenyls) as electron acceptors.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
A Chlorosome is a photosynthetic antenna complex found in green sulfur bacteria (GSB) and some green filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAP) (Chloroflexaceae, Oscillochloridaceae).
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (19 April 1795 – 27 June 1876), German naturalist, zoologist, comparative anatomist, geologist, and microscopist, was one of the most famous and productive scientists of his time.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chrysiogenaceae is a bacterial family.
A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA.
A clonal colony or genet is a group of genetically identical individuals, such as plants, fungi, or bacteria, that have grown in a given location, all originating vegetatively, not sexually, from a single ancestor.
Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which includes several significant human pathogens, including the causative agent of botulism and an important cause of diarrhea, Clostridium difficile.
Clostridium tetani is a rod-shaped, anaerobic species of pathogenic bacteria, of the genus Clostridium.
A coccus (plural cocci) is any bacterium or archaeon that has a spherical, ovoid, or generally round shape.
A cold seep (sometimes called a cold vent) is an area of the ocean floor where hydrogen sulfide, methane and other hydrocarbon-rich fluid seepage occurs, often in the form of a brine pool.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
In ecology, the competitive exclusion principle, sometimes referred to as Gause's law, is a proposition named for Georgy Gause that two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot coexist at constant population values.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
CRISPR is a family of DNA sequences in bacteria and archaea.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.
The Deferribacteraceae are a family of gram-negative bacteria which make energy by anaerobic respiration.
Deinococcus–Thermus is a phylum of bacteria that are highly resistant to environmental hazards, also known as extremophiles.
Denitrification is a microbially facilitated process where nitrate is reduced and ultimately produces molecular nitrogen (N2) through a series of intermediate gaseous nitrogen oxide products.
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Detritivores, also known as detrivores, detritophages, detritus feeders, or detritus eaters, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Dictyoglomus is a genus of bacterium, given its own phylum, called the Dictyoglomi.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
A diffusion barrier is a thin layer (usually micrometres thick) of metal usually placed between two other metals.
Dimethylmercury ((CH3)2Hg) is an organomercury compound.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.
In electrochemistry, the electrochemical potential,, sometimes abbreviated to ECP, is a thermodynamic measure of chemical potential that does not omit the energy contribution of electrostatics.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound.
An electron donor is a chemical entity that donates electrons to another compound.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
The phylum Elusimicrobia, previously known as "Feluscia Gargantus", has been shown to be widespread in different ecosystems like marine environment, sewage sludge, contaminated sites and soils, and toxic wastes.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum.
An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of Gram-negative bacteria.
Environmentally friendly or environment-friendly, (also referred to as eco-friendly, nature-friendly, and green) are sustainability and marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that claim reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes.
Epulopiscium fishelsoni, or "epulo" for short, is a species of Gram-positive bacteria that have a symbiotic relationship with surgeonfish.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Exponential growth is exhibited when the rate of change—the change per instant or unit of time—of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its value at any time being an exponential function of time, i.e., a function in which the time value is the exponent.
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) are natural polymers of high molecular weight secreted by microorganisms into their environment.
An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.
The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 24, 1989, when Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker owned by Exxon Shipping Company, bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef at 12:04 am local time and spilled of crude oil over the next few days.
The title of this article should be "Facultative Aerobic Organism," as "facultative anaerobe" is a misnomer.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Ferdinand Julius Cohn (24 January 1828 – 25 June 1898) was a German biologist.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
Fibrobacteres is a small bacterial phylum which includes many of the major rumen bacteria, allowing for the degradation of plant-based cellulose in ruminant animals.
In bacteriology, a fimbria (plural fimbriae), also referred to as an "attachment pilus" by some scientists, is an appendage that can be found on many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria that is thinner and shorter than a flagellum.
Fire blight, also written fireblight, is a contagious disease affecting apples, pears, and some other members of the family Rosaceae.
The Firmicutes (Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure.
Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Fusobacteria are obligately anaerobic non-sporeforming Gram-negative bacilli.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In molecular biology and genetics, GC-content (or guanine-cytosine content) is the percentage of nitrogenous bases on a DNA or RNA molecule that are either guanine or cytosine (from a possibility of four different ones, also including adenine and thymine in DNA and adenine and uracil in RNA).
The Gemmatimonadetes are a phylum of bacteria created for the type species Gemmatimonas aurantiaca.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Genetically modified bacteria were the first organisms to be modified in the laboratory, due to their simple genetics.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Geobacillus stearothermophilus (basonym Bacillus stearothermophilus) is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacterium and a member of the division Firmicutes.
The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative).
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) are a family of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
Hans Christian Joachim Gram (September 13, 1853 – November 14, 1938) was a Danish bacteriologist noted for his development of the Gram stain.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
The heliobacteria are phototrophic: they convert light energy into chemical energy by photosynthesis and they use a type I reaction center.
A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.
Hemolysis (from Greek "αιμόλυση" which means blood breakdown) is the breakdown of red blood cells.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
The Hydrogenophilaceae are a family of the Hydrogenophilalia, with two genera – Hydrogenophilus and Tepidiphilus.
A hydrogenosome is a membrane-enclosed organelle of some anaerobic ciliates, trichomonads, fungi, and animals.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, "web") is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.
The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) formerly the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB) or Bacteriological Code (BC) governs the scientific names for Bacteria and Archaea.
The International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP), formerly the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology (ICSB), is the body that oversees the nomenclature of prokaryotes, determines the rules by which prokaryotes are named and whose Judicial Commission issues Opinions concerning taxonomic matters, revisions to the Bacteriological Code, etc.
Intracellular parasites are microparasites that are capable of growing and reproducing inside the cells of a host.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
In microbiology, the term isolation refers to the separation of a strain from a natural, mixed population of living microbes, as present in the environment, for example in water or soil flora, or from living beings with skin flora, oral flora or gut flora, in order to identify the microbe(s) of interest.
Koch's postulates are four criteria designed to establish a causative relationship between a microbe and a disease.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lactobacillales or lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an order of Gram-positive, low-GC, acid-tolerant, generally nonsporulating, nonrespiring, either rod- or coccus-shaped bacteria that share common metabolic and physiological characteristics. These bacteria, usually found in decomposing plants and milk products, produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end product of carbohydrate fermentation. This trait has, throughout history, linked LAB with food fermentations, as acidification inhibits the growth of spoilage agents. Proteinaceous bacteriocins are produced by several LAB strains and provide an additional hurdle for spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, lactic acid and other metabolic products contribute to the organoleptic and textural profile of a food item. The industrial importance of the LAB is further evidenced by their generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, due to their ubiquitous appearance in food and their contribution to the healthy microflora of human mucosal surfaces. The genera that comprise the LAB are at its core Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus, as well as the more peripheral Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Oenococcus, Sporolactobacillus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, and Weissella; these belong to the order Lactobacillales.
Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria.
Lactococcus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria that were formerly included in the genus Streptococcus Group N1.
The last universal common ancestor (LUCA), also called the last universal ancestor (LUA), cenancestor, or (incorrectlyThere is a common misconception that definitions of LUCA and progenote are the same; however, progenote is defined as an organism “still in the process of evolving the relationship between genotype and phenotype”, and it is only hypothesed that LUCA is a progenote.) progenote, is the most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
Leaf spots are round blemishes found on the leaves of many species of plants, mostly caused by parasitic fungi or bacteria.
Lentisphaerae is a phylum of bacteria closely related to Chlamydiae and Verrucomicrobia.
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid.
This article lists the orders of the Bacteria.
Listeria is a genus of bacteria that, until 1992, contained 10 known species, each containing two subspecies.
Lithotrophs are a diverse group of organisms using inorganic substrate (usually of mineral origin) to obtain reducing equivalents for use in biosynthesis (e.g., carbon dioxide fixation) or energy conservation (i.e., ATP production) via aerobic or anaerobic respiration.
Live Science is a science news website run by Purch, which it purchased from Imaginova in 2009.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction (referring to bacterial viruses or bacteriophages), the other being the lysogenic cycle.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Magnetotaxis is a process implemented by a diverse group of gram negative bacteria that involves orienting and coordinating movement in response to Earth's magnetic field.
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world's oceans.
Mark L. Wheelis is an American microbiologist.
Mastitis is inflammation of the breast or udder, usually associated with breastfeeding.
A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.
A medical device is any apparatus, appliance, software, material, or other article—whether used alone or in combination, including the software intended by its manufacturer to be used specifically for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes and necessary for its proper application—intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for the purpose of.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.
Methanotrophs (sometimes called methanophiles) are prokaryotes that metabolize methane as their only source of carbon and energy.
Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury) is an organometallic cation with the formula.
A microbial mat is a multi-layered sheet of microorganisms, mainly bacteria and archaea.
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.
Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.
In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.
Mycobacterium avium complex is a group of mycobacteria comprising Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium avium, and Mycobacterium chimaera that are commonly grouped together because they infect humans together; this group in turn is part of the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria.
Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membrane.
The myxobacteria ("slime bacteria") are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil and feed on insoluble organic substances.
Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative, rod-shaped species of myxobacteria that exhibits various forms of self-organizing behavior as a response to environmental cues.
In microbiology, genetics, cell biology, and molecular biology, competence is the ability of a cell to alter its genetics by taking up extracellular ("naked") DNA from its environment in the process called transformation.
Nature Geoscience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
Neisseria is a large genus of bacteria that colonize the mucosal surfaces of many animals.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
Nitrogenases are enzymes that are produced by certain bacteria, such as cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).
Nitrospirae is a phylum of bacteria.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
A nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which receive and expel air for respiration alongside the mouth.
The nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like) is an irregularly shaped region within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material, called genophore.
A nutrient cycle (or ecological recycling) is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of matter.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.
An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa) that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available, such as a host with a weakened immune system, an altered microbiota (such as a disrupted gut microbiota), or breached integumentary barriers.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
An organotroph is an organism that obtains hydrogen or electrons from organic substrates.
Otto Kandler (23 October 1920 in Deggendorf - 29 August 2017 in Munich, Bavaria) was a German botanist and microbiologist.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Panspermia is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by space dust, meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids, and also by spacecraft carrying unintended contamination by microorganisms.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease is a contagious, chronic and sometimes fatal infection that primarily affects the small intestine of ruminants.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
Paul Ehrlich (14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) was a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.
The periplasm is a concentrated gel-like matrix in the space between the inner cytoplasmic membrane and the bacterial outer membrane called the periplasmic space in gram-negative bacteria.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phototaxis is a kind of taxis, or locomotory movement, that occurs when a whole organism moves towards or away from stimulus of light.
Phototrophs (Gr: φῶς, φωτός.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
Pickling is the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar.
A pilus (Latin for 'hair'; plural: pili) is a hair-like appendage found on the surface of many bacteria.
Planctomycetes are a phylum of aquatic bacteria and are found in samples of brackish, and marine and fresh water.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHAs are polyesters produced in nature by numerous microorganisms, including through bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Polyphosphates are salts or esters of polymeric oxyanions formed from tetrahedral PO4 (phosphate) structural units linked together by sharing oxygen atoms.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria, frequently referred to simply as encapsulated bacteria and less precisely called encapsulated organisms, are a group of bacteria that have an outer covering, a bacterial capsule, made of polysaccharide.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Primary nutritional groups are groups of organisms, divided in relation to the nutrition mode according to the sources of energy and carbon, needed for living, growth and reproduction.
Prince William Sound (Чугацкий залив Čugatski zaliv) is a sound of the Gulf of Alaska on the south coast of the U.S. state of Alaska.
Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
The prokaryotic cytoskeleton is the collective name for all structural filaments in prokaryotes.
Propionic acid (from the Greek words protos, meaning "first", and pion, meaning "fat"; also known as propanoic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula C2H5COOH.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteobacteria is a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, Yersinia, Legionellales, and many other notable genera. Others are free-living (non-parasitic), and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. Carl Woese established this grouping in 1987, calling it informally the "purple bacteria and their relatives". Because of the great diversity of forms found in this group, it was named after Proteus, a Greek god of the sea capable of assuming many different shapes and is not named after the genus Proteus. Some Alphaproteobacteria can grow at very low levels of nutrients and have unusual morphology such as stalks and buds. Others include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants. The type order is the Caulobacterales, comprising stalk-forming bacteria such as Caulobacter. The Betaproteobacteria are highly metabolically diverse and contain chemolithoautotrophs, photoautotrophs, and generalist heterotrophs. The type order is the Burkholderiales, comprising an enormous range of metabolic diversity, including opportunistic pathogens. The Hydrogenophilalia are obligate thermophiles and include heterotrophs and autotrophs. The type order is the Hydrogenophilales. The Gammaproteobacteria are the largest class in terms of species with validly published names. The type order is the Pseudomonadales, which include the genera Pseudomonas and the nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter. The Acidithiobacillia contain only sulfur, iron and uranium-oxidising autotrophs. The type order is the Acidithiobacillales, which includes economically important organisms used in the mining industry such as Acidithiobacillus spp. The Deltaproteobacteria include bacteria that are predators on other bacteria and are important contributors to the anaerobic side of the sulfur cycle. The type order is the Myxococcales, which includes organisms with self-organising abilities such as Myxococcus spp. The Epsilonproteobacteria are often slender, Gram-negative rods that are helical or curved. The type order is the Campylobacterales, which includes important food pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. The Oligoflexia are filamentous aerobes. The type order is the Oligoflexales, which contains the genus Oligoflexus.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.
Psychrophiles or cryophiles (adj. psychrophilic or cryophilic) are extremophilic organisms that are capable of growth and reproduction in low temperatures, ranging from −20 °C to +10 °C.
Puromycin is an antibiotic protein synthesis inhibitor which causes premature chain termination during translation.
Purple bacteria or purple photosynthetic bacteria are proteobacteria that are phototrophic, that is, capable of producing their own food via photosynthesis.
Putrefaction is the fifth stage of death, following pallor mortis, algor mortis, rigor mortis, and livor mortis.
The quinones are a class of organic compounds that are formally "derived from aromatic compounds by conversion of an even number of –CH.
In biology, quorum sensing is the ability to detect and to respond to cell population density by gene regulation.
In ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
A random walk is a mathematical object, known as a stochastic or random process, that describes a path that consists of a succession of random steps on some mathematical space such as the integers.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
In statistics, and particularly in econometrics, the reduced form of a system of equations is the result of solving the system for the endogenous variables.
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract.
The restriction modification system (RM system) is found in bacteria and other prokaryotic organisms, and provides a defense against foreign DNA, such as that borne by bacteriophages.
The rhizosphere is the narrow region of soil that is directly influenced by root secretions and associated soil microorganisms.
Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a DNA sequence that codes for ribosomal RNA.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can be present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long), or thread-like (10 μm long).
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.
Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), also known as blue disease, is the most lethal and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
An S-layer (surface layer) is a part of the cell envelope found in almost all archaea, as well as in many types of bacteria.
Salmonellosis is a symptomatic infection caused by bacteria of the Salmonella type.
Sauerkraut is finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer.
Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
Sherwood Leslie Gorbach (born 1934) is an Emeritus Professor at Tufts University School of Medicine.
Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
A slime layer in bacteria is an easily removable (e.g. by centrifugation), unorganized layer of extracellular material that surrounds bacteria cells.
Sorangium cellulosum is a soil-dwelling Gram-negative bacterium of the group myxobacteria.
Soy sauce (also called soya sauce in British English) is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds.
Spiral bacteria, bacteria of spiral (helical) shape, form the third major morphological category of prokaryotes along with the rod-shaped bacilli and round cocci.
A spirochaete or spirochete is a member of the phylum Spirochaetes, which contains distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped or spiraled, hence the name) cells.
Spontaneous generation refers to an obsolete body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar organisms.
Sporohalobacter are a genus of anaerobic bacteria belonging to the family Haloanaerobiaceae.
Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi).
Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.
Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science.
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).
Streptomyces is the largest genus of Actinobacteria and the type genus of the family Streptomycetaceae.
Stromatolites or stromatoliths (from Greek στρῶμα strōma "layer, stratum" (GEN στρώματος strōmatos), and λίθος lithos "rock") are layered mounds, columns, and sheet-like sedimentary rocks that were originally formed by the growth of layer upon layer of cyanobacteria, a single-celled photosynthesizing microbe.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) or sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) are a group composed of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfate-reducing archaea (SRA), both of which can perform anaerobic respiration utilizing sulfate (SO42–) as terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to hydrogen sulfide (H2S).
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
The Synergistetes is a recently recognized phylum of anaerobic bacteria that show Gram-negative staining and have rod/vibrioid cell shape.
Syntrophy, synthrophy, cross-feeding, or cross feeding is the phenomenon that one species lives off the products of another species.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
A taxis (plural taxes) is the movement of an organism in response to a stimulus such as light or the presence of food.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Teichoic acids (cf. Greek τεῖχος, teīkhos, "wall", to be specific a fortification wall, as opposed to τοῖχος, toīkhos, a regular wall) are bacterial copolymers of glycerol phosphate or ribitol phosphate and carbohydrates linked via phosphodiester bonds.
Tenericutes (tener cutis: soft skin) is a phylum of bacteria that contains the class Mollicutes.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.
The Thermodesulfobacteria are a phylum of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria.
A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between.
The Thermotogae are a phylum of the domain Bacteria.
Thiomargarita namibiensis is a gram-negative coccoid Proteobacterium, found in the ocean sediments of the continental shelf of Namibia.
The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1977 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.
This is a timeline of the events relating to the discovery that peptic ulcer disease and some cancers are caused by H. pylori.
Toxic waste is any unwanted material in all forms that can cause harm (e.g. by being inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin).
Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause the diseases syphilis, bejel, and yaws.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Ultramicrobacteria are bacteria that are smaller than 0.1 μm3 under all growth conditions.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
Vampirovibrio chorellavorus is a 0.6 µm pleomorphic cocci with a gram negative cell wall,Esteve, I., R. Guerrero, E. Montesinos, and C. AbellÃ.
Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Verrucomicrobia is a phylum of bacteria.
Viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacteria refers to bacteria that are in a state of very low metabolic activity and do not divide, but are alive and have the ability to become culturable once resuscitated.
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod shape (comma shape), several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
A wiki is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser.
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.
Wilting is the loss of rigidity of non-woody parts of plants.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
The Ziehl–Neelsen stain, also known as the acid-fast stain, was first described by two German doctors: the bacteriologist Franz Ziehl (1859–1926) and the pathologist Friedrich Neelsen (1854–1898).
16S ribosomal RNA (or 16S rRNA) is the component of the 30S small subunit of a prokaryotic ribosome that binds to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence.
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