53 relations: Agrobacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Antimicrobial resistance, Bacteria, Base pair, Cell membrane, Chromosome, Diatom, Diazotroph, Dicotyledon, Edward Tatum, Endosymbiont, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, Gene, Genetic engineering, Genome, Herbaceous plant, Hfr cell, Homologous recombination, Horizontal gene transfer, Isogamy, Joshua Lederberg, Kingdom (biology), Lambda phage, Locus (genetics), Mating, Metabolite, Mitochondrion, Monocotyledon, Nick (DNA), Opine, Origin of replication, Parasitism, Pilus, Plasmid, Protein, Relaxase, Relaxosome, Rhizobia, Rhizobium rhizogenes, Rolling circle replication, Sexual reproduction, Tobacco mosaic virus, Transduction (genetics), Transfection, Transfer gene, Transformation (genetics), Transposable element, Triparental mating, ..., Virulence, Xenobiotic, Zygotic induction. Expand index (3 more) » « Shrink index
Agrobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria established by H. J. Conn that uses horizontal gene transfer to cause tumors in plants.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium radiobacter) is the causal agent of crown gall disease (the formation of tumours) in over 140 species of eudicots.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
Diazotrophs are bacteria and archaea that fix atmospheric nitrogen gas into a more usable form such as ammonia.
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
Edward Lawrie Tatum (December 14, 1909 – November 5, 1975) was an American geneticist.
An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Herbaceous plants (in botanical use frequently simply herbs) are plants that have no persistent woody stem above ground.
A high-frequency recombination cell (Hfr cell) (also called an Hfr strain) is a bacterium with a conjugative plasmid (for example, the F-factor) integrated into its chromosomal DNA.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Isogamy is a form of sexual reproduction that involves gametes of similar morphology (similar shape and size), differing in general only in allele expression in one or more mating-type regions. Because both gametes look alike, they cannot be classified as "male" or "female". Instead, organisms undergoing isogamy are said to have different mating types, most commonly noted as "+" and "−" strains, although in some species of Basidiomycota there are more than two mating types (designated by numbers or letters). In all cases, fertilization occurs when gametes of two different mating types fuse to form a zygote.
Joshua Lederberg, ForMemRS (May 23, 1925 – February 2, 2008) was an American molecular biologist known for his work in microbial genetics, artificial intelligence, and the United States space program.
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage, coliphage λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli (E. coli).
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
A nick is a discontinuity in a double stranded DNA molecule where there is no phosphodiester bond between adjacent nucleotides of one strand typically through damage or enzyme action.
Opines are low molecular weight compounds found in plant crown gall tumors or hairy root tumors produced by parasitic bacteria of the genus Agrobacterium.
The origin of replication (also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
A pilus (Latin for 'hair'; plural: pili) is a hair-like appendage found on the surface of many bacteria.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A relaxase is a single-strand DNA transesterase enzyme produced by some prokaryotes and viruses.
'The Relaxosome is the complex of proteins that facilitates plasmid transfer during bacterial conjugation.
Rhizobia are bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophs) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae).
Rhizobium rhizogenes (formerly Agrobacterium rhizogenes) is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces hairy root disease in dicotyledonous plants.
Rolling circle replication describes a process of unidirectional nucleic acid replication that can rapidly synthesize multiple copies of circular molecules of DNA or RNA, such as plasmids, the genomes of bacteriophages, and the circular RNA genome of viroids.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus, genus tobamovirus that infects a wide range of plants, especially tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae.
Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector.
Transfection is the process of deliberately introducing naked or purified nucleic acids into eukaryotic cells.
Transfer operon, commonly called tra operon, or tra genes, are some genes necessary for non-sexual transfer of genetic material in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.
Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
A xenobiotic is a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced or expected to be present within the organism.
Zygotic induction occurs when a bacterial cell carrying the silenced DNA of a bacterial virus in its chromosome transfers the viral DNA along with its own DNA to another bacterial cell lacking the virus, causing the recipient of the DNA to break open.