156 relations: Adenosine triphosphate, Alfred Hershey, Ampullaviridae, Anthrax, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial resistance, Archaea, Bacillus phage phi29, Bacteria, Bacteriology, Bacteriophage MS2, Bacteriophage Mu, Bacteriophage P2, Bacteriophage Qβ, Bacteriophage T12, Bacteriophage T5, Bacterivore, Base pair, Belgium, Bicaudaviridae, Biofilm, Biological life cycle, Biosphere, Botulism, Capsid, Caudovirales, Cholera, Clavaviridae, Corticovirus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, CrAssphage, CRISPR, Cystic fibrosis, Cystovirus, Cytoplasm, Diphtheria, DNA, DNA virus, Dye, Dysentery, Ecology, Endogeny (biology), Enterobacteria phage G4, Enterobacteria phage P4, Enterobacteria phage T2, Enterobacteria phage T4, Enzyme, Ernest Hanbury Hankin, Escherichia coli, Evolution, ..., Félix d'Herelle, Filamentous bacteriophage, Flagellum, Food and Drug Administration, Frederick Twort, French Canadians, Fuselloviridae, Gammalipothrixvirus, Ganges, Gene, Generally recognized as safe, Genome, George Eliava, Georgia (country), Ghent University, Globuloviridae, Greek language, Groundwater, Guttaviridae, HK97, Horizontal gene transfer, Hydrology, India, Inoviridae, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Lactoferrin, Lambda phage, Leviviridae, Ligamenvirales, Lipopolysaccharide, Lipothrixviridae, Listeria monocytogenes, Lysin, Lysis, Lysogenic cycle, Lytic cycle, M13 bacteriophage, Max Delbrück, Metagenomics, Methicillin, Micreos, Microbial mat, Microbiology, Microviridae, Model organism, Mosaic (genetics), Multiple drug resistance, Mycobacteriophage, Mycobacterium, Mycoplasma, Myoviridae, Nanometre, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Otitis, P1 phage, Paris, Pasteur Institute, Peptidoglycan, Phage display, Phage ecology, Phage monographs, Phage therapy, Phage-ligand technology, Phi X 174, Plasmaviridae, Plasmid, Pneumonia, Podoviridae, Polyphage, Prophage, Protein, Protein–protein interaction, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas phage Φ6, Ribosome, River, RNA, RNA polymerase, RNA virus, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, Rudivirus, Salvador Luria, Sensing of phage-triggered ion cascades, Siphoviridae, Site-specific recombination, Soviet Union, Staphylococcus aureus, Syringe, T3 phage, T7 phage, Tectivirus, Teichoic acid, Temperateness (virology), Transduction (genetics), Transformation (genetics), United Kingdom, United States, United States Department of Agriculture, Vibrio cholerae, Viral envelope, Viriome, Virome, Virus, Walter Fiers, World War I, Yamuna. Expand index (106 more) » « Shrink index
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Alfred Day Hershey (December 4, 1908 – May 22, 1997) was an American Nobel Prize–winning bacteriologist and geneticist.
Ampullaviridae is a family of viruses that infect archaea of the genus Acidianus.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Bacillus phage phi29 (Φ29 phage) belongs to a family of related Bacteriophages which includes, in addition to Φ29, phages PZA, Φ15, BS32, B103, M2Y (M2), Nf and GA-1.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them.
The bacteriophage MS2 is an icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae.
Bacteriophage Mu, also known as mu phage or mu bacteriophage, is a mulikevirus (the first of its kind to be identified) of the family Myoviridae which has been shown to cause genetic transposition.
Bacteriophage P2 is a temperate phage that infects E. coli.
Bacteriophage Qβ is an icosahedral virus with a diameter of 25 nm.
Bacteriophage T12 is a bacteriophage that infects the bacterial species Streptococcus pyogenes, and converts a harmless strain of bacteria into a virulent strain.
Bacteriophage T5 is a caudal virus within the family Siphoviridae.
Bacterivores are free-living, generally heterotrophic organisms, exclusively microscopic, which obtain energy and nutrients primarily or entirely from the consumption of bacteria.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bicaudaviridae is a family of hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
The Caudovirales are an order of viruses also known as the tailed bacteriophages (cauda is Latin for "tail").
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Clavaviridae is a family of double-stranded viruses that infect archaea.
Corticovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Corticoviridae.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria.
CrAssphage (cross-assembly Phage) is a bacteriophage (virus that infects bacteria) that was discovered in 2014 by computational analysis of publicly accessible scientific data.
CRISPR is a family of DNA sequences in bacteria and archaea.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
Cystovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Cystoviridae.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Enterobacteria phage G4 is a bacteriophage that infects ''E. Coli''.
Enterobacteria phage P4 (also known as satellite phage P4) is a temperate bacteriophage of the family Myoviridae.
Enterobacteria phage T2 is a virus that infects and kills E. coli.
Enterobacteria phage T4 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ernest Hanbury Hankin (4 February 1865 – 29 March 1939), was an English bacteriologist, aeronautical theorist and naturalist.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Félix d'Hérelle (April 25, 1873 – February 22, 1949) was a French-Canadian microbiologist.
A filamentous bacteriophage is a type of bacteriophage, or virus of bacteria, defined by its filament-like or rod-like shape.
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Frederick William Twort FRS (22 October 1877 – 20 March 1950) was an English bacteriologist and was the original discoverer in 1915 of bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).
French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.
Fuselloviridae is a family of viruses.
Gammalipothrixvirus is a genus of viruses in the order Ligamenvirales, in the family Lipothrixviridae.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
George Eliava (Georgian — გიორგი ელიავა; January 13, 1892 – July 10, 1937) was a Georgian microbiologist who worked with bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Ghent University (Universiteit Gent, abbreviated as UGent) is a public research university located in Ghent, Belgium.
Globuloviridae is a family of viruses.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Guttaviridae is a family of viruses.
HK97 is a bacterial virus, bacteriophage, known to infect Escherichia coli and related bacteria.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Inoviridae is a family of viruses.
The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of and the nomenclatures for viruses.
Lactoferrin (LF), also known as lactotransferrin (LTF), is a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family.
Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage, coliphage λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli (E. coli).
Leviviridae is a family of viruses.
Ligamenvirales is an order of linear viruses that infect archaea of the kingdom Crenarchaeota and have double-stranded DNA genomes.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Lipothrixviridae is a family of viruses in the order Ligamenvirales.
Listeria monocytogenes is the species of pathogenic bacteria that causes the infection listeriosis.
Lysins, also known as endolysins or murein hydrolases, are hydrolytic enzymes produced by bacteriophages in order to cleave the host's cell wall during the final stage of the lytic cycle.
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle being the other).
The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction (referring to bacterial viruses or bacteriophages), the other being the lysogenic cycle.
M13 is a virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli.
Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück (September 4, 1906 – March 9, 1981), a German–American biophysicist, helped launch the molecular biology research program in the late 1930s.
Metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples.
Methicillin, also known as meticillin, is a narrow-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class.
Micreos is a Netherlands-based phage- and endolysin technology development company.
A microbial mat is a multi-layered sheet of microorganisms, mainly bacteria and archaea.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
Microviridae is a family of bacteriophages with a single-stranded DNA genome.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
In genetics, a mosaic, or mosaicism, involves the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual, who has developed from a single fertilized egg.
Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs.
A mycobacteriophage is a member of a group of bacteriophages known to have mycobacteria as host bacterial species.
Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.
Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membrane.
The Myoviridae is a family of bacteriophages in the order Caudovirales.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Otitis is a general term for inflammation or infection of the ear, in both humans and other animals.
P1 is a temperate bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli and some other bacteria.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Pasteur Institute (Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines.
Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.
Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein–protein, protein–peptide, and protein–DNA interactions that uses bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to connect proteins with the genetic information that encodes them.
Bacteriophages (phages), potentially the most numerous "organisms" on Earth, are the viruses of bacteria (more generally, of prokaryotesThe term "prokaryotes" is useful to mean the sum of the bacteria and archaea but otherwise can be controversial, as discussed by; see also pp. 103–4 of provides a history.). Phage ecology is the study of the interaction of bacteriophages with their environments.
Bacteriophage (phage) are viruses of bacteria and arguably are the most numerous "organisms" on Earth.
Phage therapy or viral phage therapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections.
The Phage-ligand technology is a technology to detect, bind and remove bacteria and bacterial toxins by using highly specific bacteriophage derived proteins.
The phi X 174 (or ΦX174) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus and the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced.
Plasmaviridae is a family of bacteria-infecting viruses.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Podoviridae is a family of viruses in the order Caudovirales.
Polyphage are genomic multimers of bacteriophage in which multiple viral particles are all encapsulated, one after the other, within the same set of coat proteins.
A prophage is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome or existing as an extrachromosomal plasmid.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.
Φ6 (Phi 6) is the best-studied bacteriophage of the virus family Cystoviridae.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.
An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material.
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), (RDR), or RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the replication of RNA from an RNA template.
Rudivirus is a genus of viruses in the order Ligamenvirales; it is the only genus in the family Rudiviridae.
Salvador Edward Luria (August 13, 1912 – February 6, 1991) was an Italian microbiologist, later a naturalized U.S. citizen.
Sensing of phage-triggered ion cascades (SEPTIC) is a prompt bacterium identification method based on fluctuation-enhanced sensing in fluid medium.
Siphoviridae is a family of double-stranded DNA viruses in the order Caudovirales.
Site-specific recombination, also known as conservative site-specific recombination, is a type of genetic recombination in which DNA strand exchange takes place between segments possessing at least a certain degree of sequence homology.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
A syringe is a simple reciprocating pump consisting of a plunger (though in modern syringes it's actually a piston) that fits tightly within a cylindrical tube called a barrel.
Bacteriophage T3, or T3 phage, is a bacteriophage capable of infecting susceptible bacterial cells, including strains of Escherichia coli.
Bacteriophage T7 (or the T7 phage) is a bacteriophage, a virus that infects susceptible bacterial cells, that is composed of DNA and infects most strains of Escherichia coli.
Tectiviridae is a family of viruses with three genera.
Teichoic acids (cf. Greek τεῖχος, teīkhos, "wall", to be specific a fortification wall, as opposed to τοῖχος, toīkhos, a regular wall) are bacterial copolymers of glycerol phosphate or ribitol phosphate and carbohydrates linked via phosphodiester bonds.
In virology, temperate refers to the ability of some bacteriophages (notably coliphage λ) to display a lysogenic life cycle.
Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.
Some viruses (e.g. HIV and many animal viruses) have viral envelopes covering their protective protein capsids.
The viriome of a habitat or environment is the total virus content within it.
Virome refers to the collection of nucleic acids, both RNA and DNA, that make up the viral community associated with a particular ecosystem or holobiont.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Walter Fiers (born 1931 in Ypres, West Flanders) is a Belgian molecular biologist.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Yamuna (Hindustani: /jəmʊnaː/), also known as the Jumna, (not to be mistaken with the Jamuna of Bangladesh) is the longest and the second largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India.