159 relations: Abas I of Armenia, Abbasid Caliphate, Abkhazia, Abu'l-Aswar Shavur ibn Fadl, Agriculture, Al-Mu'tamid, Aleppo, Alexander Kazhdan, Anatolia, Ani, Arab–Byzantine wars, Arabs, Aram Ter-Ghevondyan, Aras (river), Architecture, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian cochineal, Armenian language, Armenian National Academy of Sciences, Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, Armenians, Armour, Artsruni dynasty, Arzanene, Ashot I of Armenia, Ashot II of Armenia, Ashot III of Armenia, Ashot IV, Azerbaijan (Iran), İspir, Bagaran (ancient city), Bagrationi dynasty, Bagratuni dynasty, Basil I, Basil II, Black Sea, Buffer state, Bugha al-Kabir, Byzantine Empire, California State University, Fresno, Cappadocia, Catholicos, Caucasian Albania, Central Asia, Chalcedonian Christianity, Circa, Classical Armenian, Constantine IX Monomachos, Constantinople, Cyril Toumanoff, ..., Daylamites, Dinar, Divine right of kings, Domestic of the Schools, Dvin (ancient city), Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Emir, Emirate, Encyclopædia Iranica, Epithet, Euphrates, Feudalism, Fur, Gagik I of Armenia, Gagik II of Armenia, Ganja, Azerbaijan, George Bournoutian, Georgia (country), Greater Armenia, Gregory of Narek, Gregory Taronites, Grigor Magistros, Haghpat, Hamdanid dynasty, Historian, Historiography, Holy See, Hovhannes-Smbat III of Armenia, Hyperpyron, Iberia (theme), Ibn Hawqal, Illuminated manuscript, Investiture, Iran, Iranian peoples, Islam, Jewellery, John I Tzimiskes, John Kourkouas, Kamsarakan, Karen Yuzbashyan, Kars, Kievan Rus', Kingdom of Abkhazia, Kingdom of Artsakh, Kingdom of Syunik, Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget, Kingdom of Vaspurakan, Kiurike I, Kouropalates, Kurds, Leo Phokas the Elder, Literature, Livestock, Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri, Lumber, Mamikonian, Mercantilism, Metalworking, Middle East, Miniature (illuminated manuscript), Mosul, Muhammad ibn Abi'l-Saj, Nakharar, Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Nicholas Mystikos, Nobility, Ostikan, Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, Principality, Principality of Khachen, René Grousset, Richard G. Hovannisian, Romanos I Lekapenos, Rshtuni, Sanahin, Sasanian Empire, Sason, Seljuq dynasty, Sempad the Constable, Senekerim-Hovhannes Artsruni, Shaddadids, Shah, Shirakavan (ancient city), Sivas, Skirmisher, Smbat I of Armenia, Smbat II of Armenia, Sparapet, Stepan Malkhasyants, Stepanos Asoghik, Subuk, Syria, Syunik Province, Taron (historic Armenia), Tayk, Textile, Theme (Byzantine district), Theodore Rshtuni, Tondrakians, Trabzon, Turkic peoples, Turkmens, Umayyad Caliphate, Vaspurakan, Yusuf ibn Abi'l-Saj, Zoe Karbonopsina. Expand index (109 more) » « Shrink index
Abas I of Armenia was king of Armenia from 928 to 953.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abkhazia (Аҧсны́; აფხაზეთი; p) is a territory on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, south of the Greater Caucasus mountains, in northwestern Georgia.
Abu'l-Aswar or Abu'l-Asvar Shavur ibn Fadl ibn Muhammad ibn Shaddad was a member of the Shaddadid dynasty.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Jaʿfar (ca. 842 – died 15 October 892), better known by his regnal name al-Muʿtamid ʿAlā ’llāh ("Dependent on God"), was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 870 to 892.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Alexander Petrovich Kazhdan (Алекса́ндр Петро́вич Кажда́н; 3 September 1922 – 29 May 1997) was a Soviet-American Byzantinist.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ani (Անի; Ἄνιον, Ánion; Abnicum; ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi; Ani) is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia.
The Arab–Byzantine wars were a series of wars between the mostly Arab Muslims and the East Roman or Byzantine Empire between the 7th and 11th centuries AD, started during the initial Muslim conquests under the expansionist Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs in the 7th century and continued by their successors until the mid-11th century.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aram Ter-Ghevondyan (Արամ Նահապետի Տեր-Ղևոնդյան; Aрaм Наaпетович Теp-Гeвoндян, also often seen written in Western sources as Ter-Ghewondyan or Ter-Łewondyan; July 24, 1928 – February 10, 1988) was a preeminent Armenian historian and scholar who specialized in the study of historical sources and medieval Armenia's relations with the Islamic world and Oriental studies.
The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
The Armenian cochineal (Porphyrophora hamelii (Brandt)), also known as the Ararat cochineal or Ararat scale, is a scale insect indigenous to the Ararat plain and Aras (Araks) River valley in the Armenian Highlands.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
The National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA) (Հայաստանի Հանրապետության գիտությունների ազգային ակադեմիա, ՀՀ ԳԱԱ, Hayastani Hanrapetut’yan gitut’yunneri azgayin akademia) is the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Armenia.
The Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia (Հայկական սովետական հանրագիտարան, Haykakan sovetakan hanragitaran; ASE) publishing house was established in 1967 as a department of the Institute of History of the Armenian Academy of Sciences under the presidency of Viktor Hambardzumyan (1908–1996), co-edited by Abel Simonyan (1922–1994) and Makich Arzumanyan (1919–1988).
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Armour (British English or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.
The Artsruni (Արծրունի; also transliterated as Ardzruni) were an ancient noble (princely) family of Armenia.
Arzanene (Ἀρζανηνή), in Armenian Aghdznik or Altzniq (Ałjnikʿ), was a historical region in southwestern Greater Armenia.
Ashot I (Աշոտ Ա; c. 820 – 890) was an Armenian king who oversaw the beginning of Armenia's second golden age (862 – 977).
Ashot II (Աշոտ Բ; r. 914–29) was an Armenian monarch and the third king of the royal Bagratuni line.
Ashot III (Աշոտ Գ) was a king of Armenia, ruling the medieval kingdom of Armenia from 952/53–77.
Ashot IV (Աշոտ Դ, died c. 1040-41), surnamed Kaj, i.e. "the Brave, the Valiant", was the younger son of King Gagik I of Armenia.
Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (آذربایجان Āzarbāijān; آذربایجان Azərbaycan), also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, Turkey, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
İspir (სპერი, Speri) is a town and district of Erzurum Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey, on the Çoruh River.
Bagaran (Բագարան), was a city in Ancient Armenia founded during the reign of the Orontid Dynasty.
The Bagrationi dynasty (bagrat’ioni) is a royal family that reigned in Georgia from the Middle Ages until the early 19th century, being among the oldest extant Christian ruling dynasties in the world. In modern usage, this royal line is often referred to as the Georgian Bagratids (a Hellenized form of their dynastic name), also known in English as the Bagrations. The common origin with the Armenian Bagratuni dynasty has been accepted by several scholars Toumanoff, Cyril, "Armenia and Georgia", in The Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge, 1966, vol. IV, p. 609. Accessible online at (Although, other sources claim, that dynasty had Georgian roots). Early Georgian Bagratids through dynastic marriage gained the Principality of Iberia after succeeding Chosroid dynasty at the end of the 8th century. In 888, the Georgian monarchy was restored and united various native polities into the Kingdom of Georgia, which prospered from the 11th to the 13th century. This period of time, particularly the reigns of David IV the Builder (1089–1125) and his great granddaughter Tamar the Great (1184–1213) inaugurated the Georgian Golden Age in the history of Georgia.Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh. "Burke’s Royal Families of the World: Volume II Africa & the Middle East, 1980, pp. 56-67 After fragmentation of the unified Kingdom of Georgia in the late 15th century, the branches of the Bagrationi dynasty ruled the three breakaway Georgian kingdoms, Kingdom of Kartli, Kingdom of Kakheti, and Kingdom of Imereti, until Russian annexation in the early 19th century. While the Treaty of Georgievsk's 3rd Article guaranteed continued sovereignty for the Bagrationi dynasty and their continued presence on the Georgian Throne, the Russian Imperial Crown later broke the terms of the treaty, and their treaty became an illegal annexation. The dynasty persisted within the Russian Empire as an Imperial Russian noble family until the 1917 February Revolution. The establishment of Soviet rule in Georgia in 1921 forced some members of the family to accept demoted status and loss of property in Georgia, others relocated to Western Europe, although some repatriated after Georgian independence in 1991.
The Bagratuni or Bagratid (Բագրատունի) royal dynasty was a royal family of Armenia that ruled many regional polities of the medieval Kingdom of Armenia, such as Syunik, Lori, Vaspurakan, Vanand, Taron, and Tayk.
Basil I, called the Macedonian (Βασίλειος ὁ Μακεδών, Basíleios ō Makedṓn; 811 – August 29, 886) was a Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 867 to 886.
Basil II (Βασίλειος Β΄, Basileios II; 958 – 15 December 1025) was a Byzantine Emperor from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers.
Bugha al-Kabir or Bugha the Great, also known as Bugha al-Turki ("Bugha the Turk"), was a 9th-century Turkic general who served the Abbasids.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
California State University, Fresno (commonly referred to as Fresno State) is a public research university in Fresno, California.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
Catholicos, plural Catholicoi, is a title used for the head of certain churches in some Eastern Christian traditions.
Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chalcedonian Christianity is the Christian denominations adhering to christological definitions and ecclesiological resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, the Fourth Ecumenical Council held in 451.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
Classical Armenian (grabar, Western Armenian krapar, meaning "literary "; also Old Armenian or Liturgical Armenian) is the oldest attested form of the Armenian language.
Constantine IX Monomachos, Latinized as Constantine IX Monomachus (translit; c. 1000 – 11 January 1055), reigned as Byzantine emperor from June 11, 1042 to January 11, 1055.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Cyril Leo Heraclius, Prince Toumanoff (Кирилл Львович Туманов; 13 October 1913 – 4 February 1997) was a Russian-born American historian and genealogist who mostly specialized in the history and genealogies of medieval Georgia, Armenia, Iran and the Byzantine Empire.
The Daylamites or Dailamites (Middle Persian: Daylamīgān; دیلمیان Deylamiyān) were an Iranian people inhabiting the Daylam—the mountainous regions of northern Iran on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea.
The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries which were formerly territories of the Ottoman Empire, and was used historically in several more.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
The office of the Domestic of the Schools (δομέστικος τῶν σχολῶν, domestikos tōn scholōn) was a senior military post of the Byzantine Empire, extant from the 8th century until at least the early 14th century.
Dvin (label, reformed; Δούβιος, or Τίβιον,;; also Duin or Dwin in ancient sources) was a large commercial city and the capital of early medieval Armenia.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Arabic or Islamic monarch styled emir.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.
Gagik I (Գագիկ Ա) was the king of Armenia who reigned between 989 and c. 1017/20, under whom Bagratid Armenia reached its height, and "enjoyed the accustomed experience of unbroken peace and prosperity.".
Gagik II (Գագիկ Բ; c. 1025 - May 5/November 24, 1079) was the last Armenian king of Bagratuni dynasty.
Ganja (Gəncə) is Azerbaijan's second largest city, with a population of around 331,400.
George A. Bournoutian (جورج بورنوتیان., 25 September 1943, Isfahan, Iran) is an Iranian-American professor, historian, and author of Armenian descent.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք, Mets Hayk') is the name given to the state of Armenia that emerged on the Armenian Highlands under the reign of King Artaxias I at the turn of the second century BC.
Gregory of Narek (Գրիգոր Նարեկացի Grigor Narekatsi, Western Armenian: Krikor Naregatsi; 9511003) was an Armenian monk, poet, mystical philosopher, theologian, and composer who is venerated as a Saint by both the Armenian Apostolic and Roman Catholic Churches.
Gregory Taronites (Γρηγόριος Ταρωνίτης, Grēgorios Tarōnitēs) was an Armenian prince of Taron, who went over to Byzantine service and held senior commands and governorships under Emperor Basil II.
Grigor Magistros (Գրիգոր Մագիստրոս; "Gregory the magistros"; ca. 990–1058) was an Armenian prince, linguist, scholar and public functionary.
Haghpat (Հաղպատ) is a village in the Lori Province of Armenia, located near the city of Alaverdi and the state border with Georgia.
The Hamdanid dynasty (حمدانيون Ḥamdānyūn) was a Shi'a Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (al-Jazirah) and Syria (890-1004).
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Hovhannes-Smbat III was King of Ani (1020–1040).
The hyperpyron was a Byzantine coin in use during the late Middle Ages, replacing the solidus as the Byzantine Empire's gold coinage.
The theme of Iberia (θέμα Ἰβηρίας) was an administrative and military unit – theme – within the Byzantine Empire carved by the Byzantine Emperors out of several Georgian lands in the 11th century.
Muḥammad Abū’l-Qāsim Ibn Ḥawqal (محمد أبو القاسم بن حوقل, born in Nisibis, Upper Mesopotamia; travelled 943-969 CE) was a 10th-century Arab Muslim writer, geographer, and chronicler.
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, "dress" from vestis "robe"), is the formal installation of an incumbent.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
John I Tzimiskes (Iōánnēs I Tzimiskēs; c. 925 – 10 January 976) was the senior Byzantine Emperor from 11 December 969 to 10 January 976.
John Kourkouas (Ἰωάννης Κουρκούας, fl. circa 915–946), also transliterated as Kurkuas or Curcuas, was one of the most important generals of the Byzantine Empire.
Kamsarakan (Կամսարական) was an Armenian noble family that was an offshoot of the House of Karen, also known as the Karen-Pahlav.
Karen Yuzbashyan (Կարեն Նիկիտի Յուզբաշյան,; Карен Никитич Юзбашян; January 6, 1927 – March 5, 2009) was an Armenian historian-orientalist and expert on medieval Byzantine-Armenian relations.
Kars (Armenian: Կարս, less commonly known as Ղարս Ghars) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kingdom of Abkhazia (აფხაზთა სამეფო) was a medieval feudal state in the Caucasus which lasted from the 780s until being united, through dynastic succession, with the Kingdom of Georgia in 1008.
The Kingdom of Artsakh (Արցախի թագավորություն), was a medieval dependent Armenian kingdom on the territory of Syunik, Artsakh (present-day Nagorno-Karabakh), Gardman and Gegharkunik.
Kingdom of Syunik (Սյունիքի թագավորություն), also known as the Kingdom of Baghk and sometimes as the Kingdom of Kapan, was a medieval dependent Armenian kingdom // Encyclopædia Iranica "In 1162, eastern Armenia was attacked by the atabeg Īldegoz of Azerbaijan.
Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget (Տաշիր-Ձորագետի Թագավորություն Tashir-Dzorageti t'agavorut'yun), alternatively known as the Kingdom of Lori or Kiurikian Kingdom, was a medieval Armenian kingdom formed in the year 979 by the Kiurikian dynasty under the protectorate of the Bagratid kings of Armenia.
Vaspurakan (also transliterated as Vasbouragan in Western Armenian;, (Vaspowrakan) meaning the "noble land" or "land of princes") was the first and biggest province of Greater Armenia, which later became an independent kingdom during the Middle Ages, centered on Lake Van.
Kiurike I (alternatively spelled Gorige, Korike or Gurgen; Գուրգեն Ա Կյուրիկե) was the first king of the Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget.
Kouropalatēs, Latinized as curopalates or curopalata (κουροπαλάτης, from cura palatii " charge of the palace").
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Leo Phokas (Λέων Φωκᾶς) was an early 10th-century Byzantine general of the noble Phokas clan.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri (Լրաբեր հասարակական գիտությունների "Bulletin/Review of Social Sciences") is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal published by the Armenian Academy of Sciences covering Armenian studies.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
Mamikonian or Mamikonean (Classical reformed orthography: Մամիկոնյան; Western Armenian pronunciation: Mamigonian) was an aristocratic dynasty which dominated Armenian politics between the 4th and 8th century.
Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The word miniature, derived from the Latin minium, red lead, is a small illustration used to decorate an ancient or medieval illuminated manuscript; the simple illustrations of the early codices having been miniated or delineated with that pigment.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
Muhammad ibn Abi'l-Saj, also known as Muhammad al-Afshin (died 901), an Iranian appointed general of al-Mu'tadid, was the first Sajid amir of Azerbaijan, from 889 or 890 until his death.
Nakharar (նախարար naxarar, from Parthian naxvadār "holder of the primacy") was a hereditary title of the highest order given to houses of the ancient and medieval Armenian nobility.
The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası) is a landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Nicholas I Mystikos or Nicholas I Mysticus (Νικόλαος Α΄ Μυστικός, Nikolaos I Mystikos; 852 – 11 May 925) was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from March 901 to February 907 and from May 912 to his death in 925.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Ostikan (ոստիկան) was the title used by Armenians for the governors of the early Caliphates.
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
The Principality of Khachen (Խաչենի իշխանություն) was a medieval Armenian principality on the territory of historical Artsakh (present-day Nagorno-Karabakh).
René Grousset (5 September 1885 – 12 September 1952) was a French historian, curator of both the Cernuschi and Guimet Museums in Paris, and a member of the prestigious Académie française.
Richard Gable Hovannisian (Ռիչարդ Հովհաննիսյան, born November 9, 1932) is an Armenian American historian and professor emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Romanos I Lekapenos or Lakapenos (Ρωμανός Α΄ Λακαπηνός, Rōmanos I Lakapēnos; c. 870 – June 15, 948), Latinized as Romanus I Lecapenus, was an Armenian who became a Byzantine naval commander and reigned as Byzantine Emperor from 920 until his deposition on December 16, 944.
Rshtuni (Ռշտունի, aka. Rshdouni. Reshdouni, Rashdouni, Rachdouni, Rachdoni) was an old Armenian noble house which ruled the region of Rshtuniq who were purportedly descendants of Rusas I of Urartu.
Sanahin is a village in the northern province of Lori in Armenia, now considered part of the city of Alaverdi (a cable car connects it with Alaverdi).
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Sason (Սասուն Sasun; Qabilcewz from قبل جوز; formerly known as Sasun or Sassoun) is a district in the Batman Province of Turkey.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Sempad the Constable (translit) (1208–1276) (also Smpad and Smbat) was a noble in Cilician Armenia, an older brother of King Hetoum I. He was an important figure in Cilicia, acting as a diplomat, judge, and military officer, holding the title of Constable or Sparapet, supreme commander of the Armenian armed forces.
Senekerim-Hovhannes Artsruni (Սենեքերիմ-Հովհաննես Արծրունի), also known variously as Senekerim-John, Sennecherim or Sennacherib-John, known in Byzantine sources simply as Senachereim (Σεναχηρείμ), was the sixth and last King of Vaspurakan, from the Artsruni dynasty.
The Shaddadids were a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin who ruled in various parts of Armenia and Arran from 951 to 1174 AD.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
Shirakavan (Շիրակավան); founded as Yerazgavors and later Yerazgavork, was a medieval Armenian city and one of the 13 historic capitals of Armenia, serving as a capital city between 890 and 929 during the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia.
Sivas (Latin and Greek: Sebastia, Sebastea, Sebasteia, Sebaste, Σεβάστεια, Σεβαστή) is a city in central Turkey and the seat of Sivas Province.
Skirmishers are light infantry or cavalry soldiers in the role of skirmishing—stationed to act as a vanguard, flank guard, or rearguard, screening a tactical position or a larger body of friendly troops from enemy advances.
Smbat I (850–912/14) was the second king of the medieval Kingdom of Armenia of the Bagratuni dynasty, and son of Ashot I. He is the father of Ashot II (known as Ashot Yerkat) and Abas I.
Smbat II (Սմբատ Բ Տիեզերակալ, Smbat II Master of the Universe) reigned as King of Armenia from 977 to 989.
Sparapet (սպարապետ) was a hereditary title of supreme commander of the armed forces in ancient and medieval Armenia.
Stepanos Sargsi Malkhasyants (Ստեփան Սարգսի Մալխասյանց; – July 21, 1947) was an Armenian academician, philologist, linguist, and lexicographer.
Stepanos Asoghik (Ստեփանոս Ասողիկ), also known as Stepanos Taronetsi (Ստեփանոս Տարոնեցի), was an Armenian historian of the 11th century.
Subuk (died 922?) was a ghulam who gained the governorship of Azerbaijan in 919 and held it for three years.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syunik (Սյունիք), is the southernmost province of Armenia.
Taron (Տարոն; Western Armenian pronunciation: Daron; Ταρών, Tarōn; Taraunitis) was a canton of the Turuberan province of Greater Armenia, roughly corresponding to the Muş Province of modern Turkey.
Tayk (tajkʰ Taykʿ), was a historical province of the Greater Armenia, one of its 15 ashkars (worlds).
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The themes or themata (θέματα, thémata, singular: θέμα, théma) were the main administrative divisions of the middle Eastern Roman Empire.
Theodore Rshtuni (also spelled Theodoros Ṛštuni; 590 - 654/655 AD), equated with the patrikios Pasagnathes (Πασαγνάθης) of Theophanes the Confessor, was an Armenian nakharar, famous for resisting the first Arab invasions of Armenia.
Tondrakians (Թոնդրակեաններ) were members of an anti-feudal, heretical Christian sect that flourished in medieval Armenia between the early 9th century and 11th century and centered on the city of Tondrak, north of Lake Van in Western Armenia.
Trabzon, historically known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Vaspurakan (also transliterated as Vasbouragan in Western Armenian;, (Vaspourakan) meaning the "noble land" or "land of princes") was the eighth province of Greater Armenia, which later became an independent kingdom during the Middle Ages, centered on Lake Van.
Yusuf ibn Abi'l Saj (died 928) was the Sajid amir of Azerbaijan from 901 until his death.
Zoe Karbonopsina, also Karvounopsina or Carbonopsina, i.e., "with the Coal-Black Eyes" (Ζωή Καρβωνοψίνα, Zōē Karbōnopsina), was an empress consort and regent of the Byzantine empire.
Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia, Bagratuni Armenia, Bagratuni Kingdom, Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia, Bagratuni kingdom of armenia, Kingdom of Ani, Kingdom of Armenia (Bagratid), Kingdom of Armenia (Middle Ages), Kingdom of Armenia (medieval), Pakraduni kingdom of armenia.