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Bahá'í Faith

Index Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people. [1]

196 relations: Abdülaziz, Abjad numerals, Acre, Israel, Addis Ababa, Alcoholic drink, Apostasy, Apostasy in Islam, Arabic, Arranged marriage, Asceticism, Ashgabat, Attar of Nishapur, Ayyám-i-Há, Backbiting, Baghdad, Bahá'í administration, Bahá'í calendar, Bahá'í divisions, Bahá'í Faith and auxiliary language, Bahá'í Faith and education, Bahá'í Faith and gender equality, Bahá'í Faith and science, Bahá'í Faith and the unity of humanity, Bahá'í Faith and the unity of religion, Bahá'í Faith in Afghanistan, Bahá'í Faith in Egypt, Bahá'í Faith in fiction, Bahá'í Faith in Iran, Bahá'í Holy Days, Bahá'í International Community, Bahá'í laws, Bahá'í literature, Bahá'í Naw-Rúz, Bahá'í orthography, Bahá'í pilgrimage, Bahá'í statistics, Bahá'í study circle, Bahá'í symbols, Bahá'í teachings, Bahá'í timeline, Bahá'í World Centre, Bahá'u'lláh, Bangkok, Báb, Bábism, Begging, Chastity, Collective punishment, Collective security, Covenant-breaker, ..., Criticism of the Bahá'í Faith, Dispensationalism, Edirne, Egyptian identification card controversy, Encyclopædia Britannica, Enneagram (geometry), Eschatology, Evin Prison, Excommunication, Existence of God, Fatwa, Gautama Buddha, Gems of Divine Mysteries, Geneva, God in the Bahá'í Faith, Gohardasht Prison, Growth of religion, Haifa, He whom God shall make manifest, Hidden Words, History of the Bahá'í Faith, Homosexuality and the Bahá'í Faith, Human, Huqúqu'lláh, Identity document, India, Indonesia, Institution of the Counsellors, International relations, Interracial marriage, Introspection, Iran, Iranian Revolution, Iraq, Israel, Istanbul, Jesus, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Kitáb-i-Íqán, League of Nations, List of Bahá'ís, List of former Bahá'ís, List of monarchs of Persia, Mahdi, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Maid of Heaven, Manifestation of God, Mansion of Bahjí, March equinox, Middle East, Millennium Development Goals, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Monasticism, Monotheism, Morocco, Moses, Muhammad, Muhammad in the Bahá'í Faith, Nairobi, Napoleon III, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, Nationalism, New world order (Bahá'í), Nineteen Day Feast, Nineteen-Day Fast, Obligatory Bahá'í prayers, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Syria, Outline of the Bahá'í Faith, Oxford University Press, Paris Talks, Partisan (political), Persecution of Bahá'ís, Persian language, Persian people, Pioneering (Bahá'í), Political objections to the Bahá'í Faith, Pope Pius IX, Prayer in the Bahá'í Faith, Prejudice, Prophet, Qajar dynasty, Qiblih, Queen Victoria, Racism, Religion, Revelation, Ridván, Santiago, Síyáh-Chál, Selections from the Writings of the Báb, Sexual intercourse, Shia Islam, Shiraz, Shoghi Effendi, Shrine of the Báb, Society, Socioeconomic development and the Bahá'í Faith, Socioeconomics, Some Answered Questions, Soul, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Spiritual Assembly, Sub-Saharan Africa, Subh-i-Azal, Sufism, Sunni Islam, Superstition, Syncretism, Tablet to Dr. Forel, Tehran, Ten Year Crusade, Terraces (Bahá'í), The Dawn-Breakers, The Economist, The Four Valleys, The Jews of Islam, The New York Times, The Secret of Divine Civilization, The Seven Valleys, Tropical year, UNICEF, United Nations, United Nations Commission on Human Rights, United Nations Development Fund for Women, United Nations Economic and Social Council, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations special rapporteur, United States Department of State, Unity in diversity, Universal House of Justice, Universe, Vienna, Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá, World Almanac, World government, World Health Organization, World peace, Worship, Yemen, Young Turk Revolution, Zionism, `Abdu'l-Bahá, `Abdu'l-Bahá's journeys to the West. Expand index (146 more) »


Abdülaziz (Ottoman Turkish: عبد العزيز / `Abdü’l-`Azīz, Abdülaziz; 8 February 18304 June 1876) was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876.

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Abjad numerals

The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system in which the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet are assigned numerical values.

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Acre, Israel

Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.

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Addis Ababa

Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Finfinne "natural spring") is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.

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Apostasy in Islam

Apostasy in Islam (ردة or ارتداد) is commonly defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam by a Muslim in word or through deed.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arranged marriage

Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by individuals other than the couple themselves, particularly family members, such as the parents.

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Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.

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Ashgabat (Aşgabat,; ɐʂxɐˈbat) — named Poltoratsk (p) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan in Central Asia, situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range.

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Attar of Nishapur

Abū Ḥamīd bin Abū Bakr Ibrāhīm (c. 1145 – c. 1221; ابو حامد بن ابوبکر ابراهیم), better known by his pen-names Farīd ud-Dīn (فرید الدین) and ʿAṭṭār (عطار, Attar means apothecary), was a 12th-century PersianFarīd al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār, in Encyclopædia Britannica, online edition - accessed December 2012.

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Ayyám-i-Há refers to a period of intercalary days in the Bahá'í calendar, when Bahá'ís celebrate the Festival of Ayyám-i-Há.

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Backbiting, backstabbing, or tale-bearing is to slander someone in their absence — to bite them behind their back.

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Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Bahá'í administration

The Bahá'í administration or Bahá'í administrative order is the administrative system of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Bahá'í calendar

The Bahá'í calendar, also called the Badíʿ calendar (Badíʿ means wondrous or unique), is a solar calendar with years composed of 19 months of 19 days each (361 days) plus an extra period of "Intercalary Days".

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Bahá'í divisions

The Bahá'í Faith has had challenges to its leadership, usually at the death of the head of the religion.

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Bahá'í Faith and auxiliary language

The Bahá'í Faith teaches that the world should adopt an international auxiliary language, which people would use in addition to their mother tongue.

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Bahá'í Faith and education

The theme of education in the Bahá'í Faith is given emphasis.

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Bahá'í Faith and gender equality

One of the fundamental teachings of the Bahá'í Faith is that men and women are equal, and that equality of the sexes is a spiritual and moral standard that is essential for the unification of the planet and the unfoldment of peace.

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Bahá'í Faith and science

A fundamental principle of the Bahá'í Faith is the stated harmony of religion and science.

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Bahá'í Faith and the unity of humanity

Unity of humanity is one of the central teachings of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Bahá'í Faith and the unity of religion

Unity of religion is a core teaching of the Bahá'í Faith which states that there is a fundamental unity in many of the world's religions.

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Bahá'í Faith in Afghanistan

The Bahá'í Faith in Afghanistan was introduced in 1880s when some Baha'is visited Afghanistan.

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Bahá'í Faith in Egypt

The Bahá'í Faith in Egypt has existed for over 100 years.

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Bahá'í Faith in fiction

The Bahá'í Faith and related topics have appeared in fiction in multiple forms.

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Bahá'í Faith in Iran

The Bahá'í Faith in Iran is the country's second-largest religion after Islam and the birthplace of the three central figures of the religion – The Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá.

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Bahá'í Holy Days

The Bahá'í Faith has eleven holy days, which are important anniversaries in the history of the religion.

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Bahá'í International Community

The Bahá'í International Community, or the BIC, is an international non-governmental organization (NGO) representing the members of the Bahá'í Faith; it was first chartered in March 1948 with the United Nations, and currently has affiliates in over 180 countries and territories.

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Bahá'í laws

Bahá'í laws are laws and ordinances used in the Bahá'í Faith and are a fundamental part of Bahá'í practice.

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Bahá'í literature

Bahá'í literature, like the literature of many religions, covers a variety of topics and forms, including scripture and inspiration, interpretation, history and biography, introduction and study materials, and apologia.

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Bahá'í Naw-Rúz

Naw-Rúz (Nowruz; نور) is the first day of the Bahá'í calendar year and one of nine holy days for adherents of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Bahá'í orthography

Bahá'í orthography refers to the standardized system of Romanization of the Persian or Arabic words and names contained in the literature of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Bahá'í pilgrimage

A Bahá'í pilgrimage currently consists of visiting the holy places in Haifa, Acre, and Bahjí at the Bahá'í World Centre in Northwest Israel.

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Bahá'í statistics

The Bahá'í World News Service reports a Bahá'í membership of more than 5 million worldwide, in "virtually every country" and many territories.

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Bahá'í study circle

The term study circle has become common terminology in the Bahá'í Faith to describe a specific type of gathering for the study of the Bahá'í teachings, with an emphasis on "promoting the well-being of humanity." Study circles are a form of distance learning designed to systematically bring education about spiritual concepts to the grassroots level.

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Bahá'í symbols

Bahá'í symbols are symbols that have been used, or are used, to express identification with the Bahá'í Faith.

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Bahá'í teachings

The Bahá'í teachings represent a considerable number of theological, social, and spiritual ideas that were established in the Bahá'í Faith by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the religion, and clarified by successive leaders including `Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'u'lláh's son, and Shoghi Effendi, `Abdu'l-Bahá's grandson.

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Bahá'í timeline

The following is a basic timeline of the Bábí and Bahá'í religions emphasizing dates that are relatively well known.

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Bahá'í World Centre

The Bahá'í World Centre is the name given to the spiritual and administrative centre of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Bahá'u'lláh (بهاء الله, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (میرزا حسین‌علی نوری), was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.

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The Báb, born Siyyid `Alí Muhammad Shírází (سيد علی ‌محمد شیرازی; October 20, 1819 – July 9, 1850) was the founder of Bábism, and one of the central figures of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Bábism (بابیه, Babiyye), also known as the Bayání Faith (Persian:, Bayání), is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is one incorporeal, unknown, and incomprehensible GodBrowne, E.G., p. 15 who manifests his will in an unending series of theophanies, called Manifestations of God (Arabic). It has no more than a few thousand adherents according to current estimates, most of whom are concentrated in Iran.

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Begging (also panhandling or mendicancy) is the practice of imploring others to grant a favor, often a gift of money, with little or no expectation of reciprocation.

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Chastity is sexual conduct of a person deemed praiseworthy and virtuous according to the moral standards and guidelines of their culture, civilization or religion.

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Collective punishment

Collective punishment is a form of retaliation whereby a suspected perpetrator's family members, friends, acquaintances, sect, neighbors or entire ethnic group is targeted.

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Collective security

Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement, political, regional, or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and therefore commits to a collective response to threats to, and breaches to peace.

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Covenant-breaker is a term used by Bahá'ís to refer to a person who has been excommunicated from the Bahá'í community for the act of covenant-breaking, roughly defined as active opposition to the Bahá'í Faith from a current member.

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Criticism of the Bahá'í Faith

As a religion with its own doctrines and history, the Bahá'í Faith has had countless critics, who have from time to time found fault with many of its teachings and precepts, discovered apparent contradictions and inconsistencies in its history, and even raised controversial questions about specific policies and actions of past and existing administrative bodies.

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Dispensationalism is a religious interpretive system for the Bible.

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Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.

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Egyptian identification card controversy

The Egyptian identification card controversy is a series of events, beginning in the 1990s, that created a de facto state of disenfranchisement for Egyptian Bahá'ís, atheists, agnostics, and other Egyptians who did not identify themselves as Muslim, Christian, or Jewish on government identity documents.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Enneagram (geometry)

In geometry, an enneagram is a nine-pointed plane figure.

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Eschatology is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.

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Evin Prison

Evin Prison (Zendān-e-Evin) is a prison located in the Evin neighborhood of Tehran, Iran.

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Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.

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Existence of God

The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.

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A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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Gems of Divine Mysteries

Gems of Divine Mysteries (Javáhiru’l-Asrár, جواهر الاسرار) is a lengthy Arabic epistle by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

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God in the Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í view of God is essentially monotheistic.

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Gohardasht Prison

Gohardasht Prison (زندان گوهردشت) is a prison in Gohardasht, a town in the northern outskirt of Karaj, approximately 20 km west of Tehran.

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Growth of religion

Growth of religion is the spread of religions and the increase of religious adherents around the world.

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Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.

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He whom God shall make manifest

He whom God shall make manifest (من يظهر الله, مظهر کلّیه الهی.) is a messianic figure in the religion of Bábism.

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Hidden Words

Hidden Words (Kalimát-i-Maknúnih, کلمات مكنونة) is a book written in Baghdad around 1857 by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.

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History of the Bahá'í Faith

Bahá'í history is often traced through a sequence of leaders, beginning with the Báb's declaration in Shiraz on the evening of May 22, 1844, and ultimately resting on an Administrative Order established by the central figures of the religion.

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Homosexuality and the Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith teaches that the only acceptable form of sexual expression is within marriage, and Bahá'í marriage is defined as exclusively between one man and one woman.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Huqúqu'lláh (ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ, "Right of God"), sometimes called the Law of Huqúq is a socio-economic and spiritual law of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, a charter document of the Bahá'í Faith, written by Bahá'u'lláh.

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Identity document

An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any document which may be used to prove a person's identity.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Institution of the Counsellors

The Counsellors are part of the administrative order of the Bahá'í Faith, and are part of a greater administrative branch called the Institution of the Counsellors, established by the Universal House of Justice in 1968.

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International relations

International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.

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Interracial marriage

Interracial marriage is a form of marriage outside a specific social group (exogamy) involving spouses who belong to different socially-defined races or racialized ethnicities.

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Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian Revolution

The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion

The Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion (J Sci Study Relig, also sometimes abbreviated as JSSR) is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell in the United States of America under the auspices of the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, dedicated to publishing scholarly articles in the social sciences, including psychology, sociology and anthropology, devoted to the study of religion.

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The Kitáb-i-Aqdas or Aqdas is the central book of the Bahá'í Faith written by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the religion, in 1873.

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The Kitáb-i-Íqán (كتاب ايقان, كتاب الإيقان "The Book of Certitude") is one of many books held sacred by followers of the Bahá'í Faith; it is their primary theological work.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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List of Bahá'ís

The following list sets down the name of each member of the Bahá'í Faith who is the subject of a Wikipedia article.

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List of former Bahá'ís

Ex-Bahá'ís or former Bahá'ís are people who have been a member of the Bahá'í Faith at some time in their lives and later left it.

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List of monarchs of Persia

This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.

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The Mahdi (مهدي, ISO 233:, literally "guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations)Martin 2004: 421 before the Day of Judgment (literally "the Day of Resurrection") and will rid the world of evil.

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Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.

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Maid of Heaven

Maid of Heaven (حورية, ḥúrí) refers to a vision that Bahá’u’lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith was said to have had of a maiden from God, through whom he received his mission as a Manifestation of God.

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Manifestation of God

The Manifestation of God is a concept in the Bahá'í Faith that refers to what are commonly called prophets.

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Mansion of Bahjí

The Mansion of Bahjí (قصر بهجي, Qasr Bahjī, mansion of delight) is a summer house in Acre, Israel where Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, died in 1892.

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March equinox

The March equinox or Northward equinox is the equinox on the Earth when the subsolar point appears to leave the southern hemisphere and cross the celestial equator, heading northward as seen from Earth.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.

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Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.

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Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.

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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.

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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Muhammad in the Bahá'í Faith

Bahá'ís venerate Muhammad as one of a number of prophets or "Manifestations of God", but consider his teachings (as with the teachings of Jesus and Moses) to have been superseded by those of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya.

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Napoleon III

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.

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Naser al-Din Shah Qajar

Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (16 July 1831 – 1 May 1896) (ناصرالدین شاه قاجار), also Nassereddin Shah Qajar, was the King of Persia from 5 September 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated.

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Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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New world order (Bahá'í)

The phrase "New world order" in the Bahá'í Faith refers to the replacement of the collective political norms and values of the 19th century with a new system of worldwide governance that incorporates the Bahá'í ideals of unity and justice for all nations, races, creeds, and classes.

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Nineteen Day Feast

Nineteen Day Feasts are regular community gatherings, occurring on the first day of each month of the Bahá'í calendar (and are often nineteen days apart from each other).

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Nineteen-Day Fast

The Nineteen-Day Fast is a nineteen-day period of the year, during which members of the Bahá'í Faith adhere to a sunrise-to-sunset fast.

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Obligatory Bahá'í prayers

Obligatory Bahá'í prayers are prayers which are to be said daily by Bahá'ís according to a fixed form decreed by Bahá'u'lláh.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Syria

Ottoman Syria refers to the parts of modern-day Syria or of Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule, anytime between the Ottoman conquests on the Mamluk Sultanate in the early 16th century and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.

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Outline of the Bahá'í Faith

The following outline is provided as an overview of and a topical guide to the Bahá'í Faith.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Paris Talks

Paris Talks is a book transcribed from talks given by `Abdu'l-Bahá while in Paris in the first stages of his journeys to the West.

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Partisan (political)

In politics, a partisan is a committed member of a political party or political coalitions.

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Persecution of Bahá'ís

Persecution of Bahá'ís occurs in various countries, especially in Iran, where the Bahá'í Faith originated and the location of one of the largest Bahá'í populations in the world.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Persian people

The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.

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Pioneering (Bahá'í)

A pioneer is a volunteer Bahá'í who leaves his or her home to journey to another place (often another country) for the purpose of teaching the Bahá'í Faith.

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Political objections to the Bahá'í Faith

Opponents of the Bahá'í Faith have accused the faith's followers of various "political crimes", such as dual loyalty and being involved with foreign or hostile powers.

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Pope Pius IX

Pope Pius IX (Pio; 13 May 1792 – 7 February 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was head of the Catholic Church from 16 June 1846 to his death on 7 February 1878.

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Prayer in the Bahá'í Faith

Prayer in the Bahá'í Faith refers to two distinct concepts: obligatory prayer and general or devotional prayer.

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Prejudice is an affective feeling towards a person or group member based solely on that person's group membership.

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In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.

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Qajar dynasty

The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.

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In the Bahá'í Faith the Qiblih (قبلة, "direction") is the location that Bahá'ís should face when saying their daily obligatory prayers, and is fixed at the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, near Acre, in present-day Israel; approximately at.

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Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.

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Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

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Riḍván (رضوان; Persian transliteration: Riḍván) is a twelve-day festival in the Bahá'í Faith, commemorating Bahá'u'lláh's declaration that he was a Manifestation of God.

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Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.

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Síyáh-Chál (سیاه چال literally "black pit") is the common word in Persian language for "dungeon".

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Selections from the Writings of the Báb

Selections from the Writings of the Báb is a book of excerpts from notable works of the Báb, the forerunner-Prophet of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Sexual intercourse

Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).

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Shoghi Effendi

Shoghí Effendí Rabbání (1 March 1897 – 4 November 1957), better known as Shoghi Effendi, was the Guardian and appointed head of the Bahá'í Faith from 1921 until his death in 1957.

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Shrine of the Báb

The Shrine of the Báb is a structure in Haifa, Israel where the remains of the Báb, founder of the Bábí Faith and forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh in the Bahá'í Faith, have been buried; it is considered to be the second holiest place on Earth for Bahá'ís, after the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh in Acre.

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A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

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Socioeconomic development and the Bahá'í Faith

Since its inception the Bahá'í Faith has had involvement in socioeconomic development beginning by giving greater freedom to women, promulgating the promotion of female education as a priority concern, and that involvement was given practical expression by creating schools, agricultural coops, and clinics.

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Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.

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Some Answered Questions

Some Answered Questions is a book that was first published in 1908.

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In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Spiritual Assembly

Spiritual Assembly is a term given by `Abdu'l-Bahá to refer to elected councils that govern the Bahá'í Faith.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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Ṣubḥ-i-Azal (یحیی صبح ازل)(Morning of Eternity) (1831–1912, born Mírzá Yaḥyá Núrí) was a Persian religious leader of Azali Bábism also known as the Bayání Faith.

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Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown.

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Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.

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Tablet to Dr. Forel

The Tablet to Dr.

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Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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Ten Year Crusade

The Ten Year World Crusade (10 Year World Crusade) (1953–1963) was launched by Shoghi Effendi in an effort to facilitate an organized expansion of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Terraces (Bahá'í)

The Terraces of the Bahá'í Faith, also known as the Hanging Gardens of Haifa, are garden terraces around the Shrine of the Báb on Mount Carmel in Haifa, Israel.

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The Dawn-Breakers

The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl’s Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá’í Revelation or Nabíl's Narrative (Táríkh-i-Nabíl) is a historical account of the early Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths penned by Nabíl-i-A`zam in 1887–88.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Four Valleys

The Four Valleys (چهار وادی Chahár Vádí) is a book written in Persian by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.

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The Jews of Islam

The Jews of Islam (1984) is a book written by Middle-East historian and scholar Bernard Lewis.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Secret of Divine Civilization

The Secret of Divine Civilization is a book written anonymously by `Abdu'l-Bahá in 1875, addressed to the rulers and the people of Persia, but can be applied to developmental reform in any society.

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The Seven Valleys

The Seven Valleys (هفت وادی Haft-Vádí) is a book written in Persian by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Tropical year

A tropical year (also known as a solar year) is the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice.

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The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Commission on Human Rights

The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.

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United Nations Development Fund for Women

The United Nations Development Fund for Women, commonly known as UNIFEM (from the French "Fonds de développement des Nations unies pour la femme") was established in December 1976 originally as the Voluntary Fund for the United Nations Decade for Women in the International Women's Year.

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United Nations Economic and Social Council

The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, CESNU) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic, social, and related work of 15 UN specialized agencies, their functional commissions and five regional commissions.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

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United Nations special rapporteur

The titles Special Rapporteur, Independent Expert, and Working Group Member are given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations (UN) within the scope of "special procedure" mechanisms who have a specific country or thematic mandate from the United Nations Human Rights Council.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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Unity in diversity

Unity in diversity is a concept of "unity without uniformity and diversity without fragmentation" that shifts focus from unity based on a mere tolerance of physical, cultural, linguistic, social, religious, political, ideological and/or psychological differences towards a more complex unity based on an understanding that difference enriches human interactions.

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Universal House of Justice

The Universal House of Justice (بیت‌العدل اعظم) is the nine-member supreme ruling body of the Bahá'í Faith.

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The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá

A seminal document, written in three stages by `Abdu'l-Bahá.

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World Almanac

The World Almanac and Book of Facts is a US-published reference work and is a bestselling retrieved 2007-12-25 almanac conveying information about such subjects as world changes, tragedies, sports feats, etc.

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World government

World government or global government is the notion of a common political authority for all of humanity, yielding a global government and a single state that exercises authority over the entire Earth.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World peace

World peace, or peace on Earth, is the concept of an ideal state of happiness, freedom and peace within and among all people and nations on earth.

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Worship is an act of religious devotion usually directed towards a deity.

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Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Young Turk Revolution

The Young Turk Revolution (July 1908) of the Ottoman Empire was when the Young Turks movement restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and ushered in multi-party politics in a two stage electoral system (electoral law) under the Ottoman parliament.

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Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).

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`Abdu’l-Bahá' (Persian: عبد البهاء‎, 23 May 1844 – 28 November 1921), born `Abbás (عباس), was the eldest son of Bahá'u'lláh and served as head of the Bahá'í Faith from 1892 until 1921.

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`Abdu'l-Bahá's journeys to the West

`Abdu'l-Bahá's journeys to the West were a series of trips `Abdu'l-Bahá undertook starting at the age of 67 from Palestine to the West from 1910 to 1913.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahá'í_Faith

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