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The abaya "cloak" (colloquially and more commonly, عباية, especially in Literary Arabic: عباءة; plural عبايات, عباءات), sometimes also called an aba, is a simple, loose over-garment, essentially a robe-like dress, worn by some women in parts of the Muslim world including in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (شاه عباس بزرگ; 27 January 157119 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s.
An Accession Day is usually the anniversary of the date on which a monarch or executive takes office.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Kevin Adam Curtis (born 26 May 1955) is a British documentary film-maker.
Sheikh Adel Al Mouwda was the second deputy chairman of Bahrain's parliament of 2002, the Chamber of Deputies, and the former leader of salafist party, Asalah.
The AFC Asian Cup is an international association football tournament run by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).
The agal (عِقَال,: "bond" or "rope"), also spelled iqal, egal or igal, is an accessory worn usually by Arab men.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Ahlia University (AU) is a private university situated in the heart of Manama, Bahrain.
Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Khalifa (أحمد بن محمد بن خليفة), was the progenitor of the ruling Al Khalifa family of Bahrain and the first monarch or hakim of Bahrain.
Ajam of Bahrain or Iranian Bahrainis (ایرانیان بحرین; عجم البحرین) are an ethnic group in Bahrain composed of Shia Bahraini citizens of non-Arab Iranian national background (mainly Persian and Lur Persians). There is also a substantial community of Sunni citizens of Persian descent, although they do not self-identify as Ajam. The Ajam are mostly bilingual in Persian and Arabic, though speak Persian as their first tongue.
Al Areen Wildlife Park (محمية العرين; transliterated: Maḥmīyat al-ʿArīn) is a nature reserve and zoo, located in Sakhir, Bahrain.
The Al Asalah Islamic Society (جمعية الأصالة الإسلامية) is the main Salafist political party in Bahrain, with four MPs after 2006's general election (down from seven MPs elected in 2002).
Al Bin Ali (آل بن علي) is a Sunni Arab sub-tribal confederation based in the Arab states especially in Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, UAE, and the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.
Al Dair (الدير) is a village in Bahrain on the northern coast of Muharraq Island.
Al Hidd (الحد; transliterated: Al-Ḥidd) is a town in Bahrain, located on a sand spit on the southeastern extremity of Muharraq Island.
Al Jalahma (الجلاهمة) is an Arab clan, based primarily in the Arab States of the Persian Gulf.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al Jazeera English (AJE) is an international state-funded 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel owned and operated by Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar.
The expedition against the Banu Salim tribe, also known as the Al Kudr Invasion, occurred directly after the Battle of Badr in the year 2 A.H of the Islamic calendar.
Al-Wefaq National Islamic Society (جمعية الوفاق الوطني الإسلامية; transliterated: Jam'īyat al-Wifāq al-Waṭanī al-Islāmīyah), or Al-Wefaq for short, is a Bahraini political party.
Al-Ahram (الأهرام; The Pyramids), founded on 5 August 1875, is the most widely circulating Egyptian daily newspaper, and the second oldest after al-Waqa'i`al-Masriya (The Egyptian Events, founded 1828).
Al-ʿAlāʾu l-Haḍramī was a Haḍramī envoy sent by Muhammad in the 7th century CE to spread Islam to the region that extends from Kuwait to Ras al-Khaimah.
Al-Arab (العرب) was an Arabic-language news channel which vowed to practice objective journalism.
Al-Ahsa, Al-Hasa, or Hadjar (الأحساء al-Aḥsāʾ, locally al-Ahasā) is a traditional oasis historical region in eastern Saudi Arabia whose name is used by the Al-Ahsa Governorate, which makes up much of that country's Eastern Province.
Imam al-Haramayn Dhia' ul-Din Abd al-Malik ibn Yusuf al-Juwayni al-Shafi'i (امام الحرمین ضیاءالدین عبدالملک ابن یوسف جوینی شافعی, 17 February 1028— 19 August 1085; 419—478 AH) was a Persian Sunni Shafi'i jurist and mutakallim theologian.
The Al Sulaimi Flag (العلم السليمي) is an old heritage flag used historically by the Al Bin Ali tribe until the 1960s in Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, and the Eastern province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Al-Wasat, also "Alwasat", is an Arabic-language daily newspaper in Manama, Bahrain.
Alees Thomas Samaan (sometimes spelled as Alice) is a Bahraini politician and former ambassador to the United Kingdom.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Ali Abdullah Saleh (ʿAlī ʿAbdullāh Ṣāliḥ; 21 March 1947There is a dispute as to Saleh's date of birth, some saying that it was on 21 March 1942. See:. However, by Saleh's own confession, he was born in 1947. – 4 December 2017) was a Yemeni politician who served as the first President of Yemen, from Yemeni unification on 22 May 1990 to his resignation on 25 February 2012, following the Yemeni Revolution.
Ali Al Shargawi (علي الشرقاوي) is a leading Bahraini poet, lyricist and playwright whose work has been translated into English, German, Bulgarian, Russian, Kurdish, and French.
Ali Bahar رحمه الله(born 1960 - 3 July 2011) was a Bahraini singer, guitarist and organ player known for his music band Al Ekhwa (Arabic: الإخوة, literal translation: The Brothers).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
AMA International University (AMAIU) is a Bahrain branch of the Philippine-based AMA Computer University; Like its main branch, it follows a trimestral calendar where a typical four year collegiate education program under a semestral calendar is completed in 3 years and 3 months.
AMEinfo.com is a provider of online business information about the Middle East region.
The American Mission Hospital (known formerly as the Mason Memorial Hospital) is a private non-profit hospital located in Manama, Bahrain.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Andrea Bocelli, (born 22 September 1958) is an Italian singer, songwriter, and record producer.
The Arab Capital of Culture is an initiative taken by the Arab League under the UNESCO Cultural Capitals Program to promote and celebrate Arab culture and encourage cooperation in the Arab region.
Arab Christians (مسيحيون عرب Masīḥiyyūn ʿArab) are Arabs of the Christian faith.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab Nations Cup (كأس الأمم العربية Kaʾs al-ʾUmam al-ʿArabiyya) is a football competition held between Arab countries.
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Arabian Gulf University is a university in the city of Manama, in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
The Arabian oryx or white oryx (Oryx leucoryx) is a medium-sized antelope with a distinct shoulder bump, long, straight horns, and a tufted tail.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arad Fort (قلعة عراد, Qal'at 'Arad) is a 15th-century fort in Arad, Bahrain.
Arad (عراد) is a town in Bahrain, located on Muharraq Island.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Ardashir I or Ardeshir I (Middle Persian:, New Persian: اردشیر بابکان, Ardashir-e Bābakān), also known as Ardashir the Unifier (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire.
Sir Arnold Talbot Wilson (18 July 1884 – 31 May 1940) was the British civil commissioner in Baghdad in 1918–20.
Ashura (عاشوراء, colloquially:; عاشورا; عاشورا; Azerbaijani and Turkish: Aşura Günü or Day of Remembrance), and in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago 'Hussay' or Hosay, is the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Awal (أوال) is an ancient name of Bahrain, an island country in the Persian Gulf.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The administrative reforms of the 1920s were a series of British-led reforms that have laid the foundations of modern Bahrain.
Bahrain's Bloody Thursday (خميس البحرين الدامي) is the name given by protesters in Bahrain to 17 February 2011, the fourth day of their national uprising.
The Military of Bahrain popularly known as Bahrain Defence Force (BDF) is under Bahrain's Ministry of Defence and a part of the government and is simply Bahrain Defence Force under a field marshal who is the commander-in-chief.
The Bahrain Grand Prix (جائزة البحرين الكبرى) is a Formula One Championship race in Bahrain sponsored by Gulf Air.
The Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry (BICI), also known locally in Bahrain as the Bassiouni Commission, was established by the King of Bahrain on 29 June 2011Bahrain News Agency,, 'International Reaction 'Bahrain News Agency, 29 June 2011 tasked with looking into the incidents that occurred during the period of unrest in Bahrain in February and March 2011 and the consequences of these events.
Bahrain International Airport (مطار البحرين الدولي, maṭār al-Baḥrayn al-dwalī) is the international airport of Bahrain, located in Muharraq, an island about northeast of the capital Manama.
The Bahrain International Circuit (Arabic: حلبة البحرين الدولية) is a motorsport venue opened in 2004 and used for drag racing, GP2 Series and the annual Bahrain Grand Prix.
Bahrain Island (جزيرة البحرين Jazīrah al-Baḥrayn), also known as al-Awal Island and formerly as Bahrein, is the largest island within the archipelago of Bahrain, and forms the bulk of the country's land mass while hosting the majority of its population.
The Bahrain national football team (منتخب البحرين لكرة القدم) is the national team of the Kingdom of Bahrain and is controlled by the Bahrain Football Association, which was founded in 1951 and joined FIFA in 1966.
The Bahrain National Museum (متحف البحرين الوطني, also referred to as National Museum of Bahrain) is the largest and one of the oldest public museums in Bahrain.
The Bahrain Petroleum Company (BAPCO) is an integrated national oil company of Bahrain.
Bahrain School is a United States Department of Defense school located in Juffair, Manama, Bahrain.
Bahrain: Shouting in the Dark is a television documentary film produced by Qatar-based news channel Al Jazeera English about the Bahraini uprising (2011–present).
Bahrain–European Union relations are the international relations between the Kingdom of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf and the European Union (EU).
Bahrain–Merida Pro Cycling Team is a UCI WorldTeam cycling team from Bahrain which was founded in 2017.
The United States–Bahrain Free Trade Agreement (USBFTA) is a free trade agreement (FTA) between the United States and Bahrain, signed on September 14, 2004.
Bahrain–United States relations are bilateral relations between Bahrain and the United States.
The dinar (دينار) (sign:.د.ب or BD; code: BHD) is the currency of Bahrain.
General elections were held in Bahrain for the first time on 12 December 1973.
General elections were held in Bahrain on 24 October 2002.
General elections were held in Bahrain on 25 November 2006 for the 40-seat Council of Representatives alongside municipal elections.
General elections were held in Bahrain with the first-round on 23 October 2010, and the second round on 30 October.
An independence survey was held in the Persian Gulf island nation of Bahrain during 1970.
The Bahraini opposition refers to a group of political groups who are opposed to the Cabinet of Bahrain government and the ruling monarch of House of Khalifa.
A parliamentary by-election was held in Bahrain on 24 September 2011 following the withdrawal of 18 members of the largest political party in parliament, al Wefaq, in protest at governmental actions during the Bahraini uprising.
The Bahraini Premier League is the main football competition in Bahrain.
The Bahraini uprising of 2011 was a series of anti-government protests in Bahrain led by the Shia-dominant Bahraini Opposition from 2011 until 2014.
Bahrainona (بحريننا; "Our Bahrain"; also known as rtl "the national anthem of Bahrain") is the national anthem of Bahrain.
Bahrani Arabic (also known as Bahrani and Baharna Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken in Eastern Arabia and Oman.
The Baharna (بحراني ، بحارنة) are a Shia Muslim ethnoreligious group who mainly inhabit the historical region of Eastern Arabia.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
The Bani Utbah (بني عتبة) is a tribal confederation of Arab clans, which originated from Najd.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
The Banu Abdul Qays (بنوعبدالقيس) is an ancient Arabian tribe from the Rabi`ah branch of the North Arabian tribes.
The Barbar Temple is an archaeological site located in the village of Barbar, Bahrain, and considered to be part of the Dilmun culture.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Beit Al Qur'an (بيت القرآن, meaning: the House of Qur'an) is a multi-purpose complex dedicated to the Islamic arts and is located in Hoora, Bahrain.
Bentley University is a private co-educational university in Waltham, Massachusetts, west of Boston, focused on business.
A berth is a designated location in a port or harbour used for mooring vessels when they are not at sea.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Bilateralism is the conduct of political, economic, or cultural relations between two sovereign states.
A bilingual sign (or, by extension, a multilingual sign) is the representation on a panel (sign, usually a traffic sign, a safety sign, an informational sign) of texts in more than one language.
A biotope is an area of uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants and animals.
Bird migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a flyway, between breeding and wintering grounds.
Birdwatching, or birding, is a form of wildlife observation in which the observation of birds is a recreational activity or citizen science.
Birla Institute of Technology International Centre (BITIC), Bahrain (مركز معهد بيرلا العالمي للتكنولوجيا، البحرين) is the first international centre of Birla Institute of Technology, located in Budaiya, Bahrain.
The Black Stone (ٱلْحَجَرُ ٱلْأَسْوَد,, "Black Stone") is a rock set into the eastern corner of the Kaaba, the ancient building located in the center of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
The bombing of Bahrain in World War II was part of an effort by the Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) to strike at the British interests wherever possible in the Middle East.
Brave Combat Federation is the largest mixed martial arts (MMA) promotion in Bahrain.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Al Budaiya (البديع) is a coastal town located in the northwestern region of Bahrain Island, in the Northern Governorate of the Kingdom of Bahrain.
It is estimated that in the Middle East around 900,000 people, perhaps more, profess Buddhism as their religion.
Bushehr, or Bushire (بوشهر; also Romanised as Būshehr, Bouchehr, Buschir and Busehr; also Bandar Bushehr (بندر بوشهر), also Romanised as Bandar Būshehr and Bandar-e Būshehr; previously known as Beh Ardasher, Antiochia in Persis (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Περσίδος) and Bukht Ardashir), is the capital city of Bushehr Province, Iran.
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Cabinet of Bahrain is the chief executive body of the Kingdom of Bahrain.
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The Capital Governorate (transliterated: Muḥāfaẓat al-ʿĀṣimah) is one of the four governorates of Bahrain.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
As of 15 March 2013, the Bahraini uprising of 2011 and its aftermath resulted in 122 deaths.
In modern usage, a causeway is a road or railway on top of an embankment usually across a broad body of water or wetland.
The Central Governorate was one of the five governorates of Bahrain until September 2014.
Central Region (Al-Minṭaqat al-Wusṭā) was a municipality of Bahrain in the northern part of the country.
Sir Charles Dalrymple Belgrave KBE (9 December 1894 – 28 February 1969) was a British citizen and advisor to the rulers of Bahrain from 1926 until 1957, as "Chief Administrator" or "adviserate".
Christians in Bahrain make up about 14.5% of the population.
City Centre Bahrain is a shopping mall in Manama, Bahrain.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
The College of Health Sciences is a publicly run higher education institution in Bahrain.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the two countries.
The Consultative Council (Majlis al-shura) is the name given to the upper house of the National Assembly, the main legislative body of Bahrain.
Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the late 20th century or in the 21st century.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
The Council of Representatives (Majlis an-nuwab), sometimes translated as the "Chamber of Deputies", is the name given to the lower house of the Bahraini National Assembly, the main legislative body of Bahrain.
Crossing Continents is a half-hour BBC Radio 4 documentary strand focusing on foreign affairs issues.
Al Dawasir (الدواسر, sing. Al Dosari الدوسري) is an Arabian bedouin tribal confederation primarily composed of Azdite, Adnanite, and Hamdanite clans originating from central Arabia.
The Day of Arafah (Yawm ‘Arafah) is an Islamic holiday that falls on the 9th day of Dhu al-Hijjah of the lunar Islamic Calendar.
Day of Rage (يوم الغضب) is the name given by protesters in Bahrain to 14 February 2011, the first day of their national uprising.
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
DePaul University is a private university in Chicago, Illinois.
Dhahran (Arabic الظهران aẓ-Ẓahrān) is a city located in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.
Dhu'l-Hijjah or alternatively Zulhijja (ذو الحجة; properly transliterated, also called Zil-Hajj) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic calendar.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Dilmun, or Telmun, (Arabic: دلمون, Sumerian: 𒆠, ni.tukki.
The Dilmun Burial Mounds are a number of necropolis areas on the main island of Bahrain dating back to the Dilmun, the Umm an-Nar Culture and later eras.
A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
A dragstrip is a facility for conducting automobile and motorcycle acceleration events such as drag racing.
Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.
The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a medium-sized marine mammal.
Durham University (legally the University of Durham) is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, with a second campus in Stockton-on-Tees.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Eastern Arabia was historically known as Bahrain (البحرين) until the 18th century.
Bahrain has the oldest public education system in the Arabian Peninsula.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
The Ethnological Museum of Berlin (Ethnologisches Museum Berlin.) is one of the Berlin State Museums (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin.), the de facto national collection of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European University Institute (EUI) in Florence, Italy, is an international postgraduate and post-doctoral teaching and research institute established by European Union member states to contribute to cultural and scientific development in the social sciences, in a European perspective.
Expedition of Zayd ibn Harithah in Hisma took place in October, 628AD, 6th month of 7AH of the Islamic calendar.
Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.
The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA, English: International Automobile Federation) is an association established as the Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus (AIACR, English: 'International Association of Recognized Automobile Clubs') on 20 June 1904 to represent the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users.
Federal Laboratories (often FedLabs or Federal Labs) is a producer of tear gas and less-lethal riot guns, particularly the widespread Federal Riot Gun, based in New Jersey and established in the early part of the 20th century.
Fernando Alonso Díaz (born 29 July 1981) is a Spanish Formula One racing driver and two-time world champion who is currently racing for McLaren F1 team.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
The Foreign Affairs Select Committee is one of many select committees of the British House of Commons, which scrutinises the work of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.
Frederik Pleitgen (1976 in Cologne) is a German journalist and correspondent for CNN International.
Free verse is an open form of poetry.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
A fully qualified domain name (FQDN), sometimes also referred to as an absolute domain name,RFC 1035, Domain names: implementation and specification is a domain name that specifies its exact location in the tree hierarchy of the Domain Name System (DNS).
The Garden of Eden (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן, Gan ʿEḏen) or (often) Paradise, is the biblical "garden of God", described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel.
A gazelle is any of many antelope species in the genus Gazella or formerly considered to belong to it.
The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualification offered by the educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the educational authorities of British Crown dependencies to students completing secondary or pre-university education.
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).
The General Maritime Treaty of 1820 was a treaty initially signed between the rulers of Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Ajman and Umm al-Quwain and the United Kingdom in January 1820, with the nearby island state of Bahrain acceding to the treaty in the following February.
The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.
The following article gives a list of association football confederations, sub-confederations and associations around the world.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Ghada Jamshir (غادة جمشير) is a Bahraini women's rights activist and an ardent campaigner for the reform of Sharia courts in Bahrain and the Arab States of the Persian Gulf.
The Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) is a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres based on over 29,000 financial centre assessments from an online questionnaire together with over 100 indices from organisations such as the World Bank, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Economist Intelligence Unit.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
A governorate is an administrative division of a country.
The Great Mosque of Kufa, or Masjid al-Kūfa (مسجد الكوفة المعظم/الأعظم), or Masjid al-Mu'azam/al-A'azam located in Kūfa, Iraq, is one of the earliest mosques in the world.
The green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), also known as the green turtle, black (sea) turtle or Pacific green turtle, is a large sea turtle of the family Cheloniidae.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gross register tonnage (GRT, grt, g.r.t., gt) or gross registered tonnage, is a ship's total internal volume expressed in "register tons", each of which is equal to.
Gulf Air (طيران الخليج Ṭayarān al-Khalīj) is the flag carrier of Bahrain.
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.
Gulf News is a daily English language newspaper published from Dubai.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
The Gurkhas or Gorkhas with endonym Gorkhali (गोरखाली) are the soldiers of Nepalese nationality and ethnic Indian Gorkhas recruited in the British Army, Nepalese Army, Indian Army, Gurkha Contingent Singapore, Gurkha Reserve Unit Brunei, UN Peace Keeping force, and war zones around the world.
Ayatollah Sayed Hadi Almodarresi or al-Modarresi (هادي المدرسي; Hādī al-Mudarrisī) (1957–) is an Iraqi Shi'a scholar and leader.
Hamad bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (حمد بن عيسى بن سلمان آل خليفة; born 28 January 1950) is the first King of Bahrain (since 14 February 2002), having previously been its second Emir (from 6 March 1999).
Madinat Hamad or Hamad Town (مدينة حمد; transliterated: Madīnat Ḥamad) is a primarily commuter city within northern Bahrain.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Handley Page H.P.42 and H.P.45 were British four-engine biplane airliners designed to a 1928 Imperial Airways specification by Handley Page of Radlett in Hertfordshire.
The Hawar Islands (جزر حوار; transliterated: Juzur Ḩawār) are an archipelago of desert islands owned by Bahrain, situated off the west coast of Qatar in the Gulf of Bahrain of the Persian Gulf.
Haya Rashed Al-Khalifa (born October 18, 1952) (هيا راشد آل خليفة) is a pioneering female lawyer and diplomat from Bahrain.
A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the eulipotyphlan family Erinaceidae.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Hermann Burchardt (November 18, 1857 – December 19, 1909) was a German explorer and photographer of Jewish descent, who is renowned for his black and white pictorial essays of scenes in Arabia in the early 20th century.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.
A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Millions of Indian diaspora, of different religions, reside and work in the Arab countries.
Bahraini Jews constitute one of the world's smallest Jewish communities.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Houla (هوله, sing. Houli هولي) is blanket term for the Arabs of the Banâdir littoral between Kangân and Bandar 'Abbas; and the Qawâsim of Qishm island and the mainland near Bandar Linga who began to infiltrate here about 1760 from the Arabian shore opposite.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
Hoora (الحورة) a district of Manama, the capital of Bahrain.
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys (or sometimes driven without riders) over a set distance for competition.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
The houbara bustard or North African houbara (Chlamydotis undulata) is a large bird in the bustard family.
Houda Ezra Ebrahim Nonoo (هدى عزرا نونو; born September 7, 1964) served as the Bahraini Ambassador to the United States from 2008 to 2013.
The House of Khalifa (آل خليفة Āl Khalīfah) is the ruling family of Bahrain.
The Houthis (الحوثيون al-Ḥūthiyyūn), officially called Ansar Allah (أنصار الله "Supporters of God"), are members of an Islamic religious-political-armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Hujjat al-Islam (from ḥujjatu l-Islām) (also Hojatoleslam) is an honorific title meaning "authority on Islam" or "proof of Islam".
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Bahrain's record on human rights has been described by Human Rights Watch as "dismal", and having "deteriorated sharply in the latter half of 2010".
Many human rights reports were published about the Bahraini uprising of 2011, a campaign of protests, and civil disobedience in the Persian Gulf state of Bahrain that is considered part of the revolutionary wave of protests dubbed the Arab Spring.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Human Rights Without Frontiers (HRWF) is a non-governmental organization, registered since 1989 as an association without lucrative purpose in Belgium, that «focuses on research, analysis and monitoring of a wide range of human rights concerns in many countries around the world».
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) is a two-year educational programme primarily aimed at 16 to 18 year olds.
The Ibāḍī movement, Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya, also known as the Ibadis (الاباضية, al-Ibāḍiyyah), is a school of Islam dominant in Oman.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Imperial Airways was the early British commercial long-range airline, operating from 1924 to 1939 and serving parts of Europe but principally the British Empire routes to South Africa, India and the Far East, including Malaya and Hong Kong.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
Bahrain Independence Day occurred on 14 August 1971, when the country declared independence from the British following a United Nations survey of the Bahraini population.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
The Indian School is a CBSE-affiliated school in Bahrain.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Inter Press Service (IPS) is a global news agency.
An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.
The International Baccalaureate (IB), formerly known as the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO), is an international educational foundation headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland and founded in 1968.
The, part of J. Reuben Clark Law School at Brigham Young University, was formally founded on January 1, 2000, to promote freedom of religion worldwide and to study the relations between governments and religious organizations.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".
The International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) is an international, non-profit organization founded in 1987.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Hospital of Bahrain (Abbreviation: IHB; Arabic: مستشفى البحرين الدولي) is one of the major hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain and the second private medical center in the kingdom after American Mission Hospital (est 1903 as Mason Memorial Hospial).
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA) is an international organization bringing together more than 750 LGBTI groups from around the world.
The International Mixed Martial Arts Federation (IMMAF) was founded on 29 February 2012 as the international governing body for amateur Mixed Martial Arts (MMA).
These are the international rankings of Bahrain.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (3 June 1933 – 6 March 1999) was the first emir of Bahrain from 1961 until his death.
Ayatollah Sheikh Isa Ahmed Qassim (Arabic: آية الله الشيخ عيسى أحمد قاسم) is Bahrain's leading Shia cleric and a politician.
Isa Town (مدينة عيسى, Madīnat ʿĪsā) is a middle class town located in Bahrain in the north central part of the country.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the state religion in Bahrain.
Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations.
Islamic banking or Islamic finance (مصرفية إسلامية) or sharia-compliant finance is banking or financing activity that complies with sharia (Islamic law) and its practical application through the development of Islamic economics.
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
The Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain (Arabic: الجبهة الإسلامية لتحرير البحرين) was a Shia islamist militant group that advocated theocratic rule in Bahrain from 1981 to the 1990s.
The Islamic New Year, also known as Arabic New Year or Hijri New Year (رأس السنة الهجرية) is the day that marks the beginning of a new Islamic calendar year, and is the day on which the year count is incremented.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Abu Nasr Isma'il ibn Hammad al-Jawhari also spelled al-Jauhari (died 1002 or 1008) was a Turkic lexicographer and the author of a notable Arabic dictionary.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Jabrids (الجبريون,الدولة الجبرية, or الجبور) were a dynasty that dominated eastern Arabia in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Jarwanid Dynasty was a dynasty that ruled the Province of Bahrain in the 14th century.
Jidhafs (جد حفص; transliterated: Jid Ḥafṣ) is a city in Bahrain.
The Judiciary of Bahrain is the court system of Bahrain.
Juffair (الجفير) is a suburban neighborhood of Manama, Bahrain.
Julio José Iglesias de la Cueva (born 23 September 1943) is a Spanish singer and songwriter.
Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (Mohammad Karīm Khān-e Zand), better known as Karim Khan Zand (کریم خان زند), was the founder of the Zand Dynasty and the Shah of Iran, ruling from 1751 to 1779.
K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve"), for kindergarten to 12th grade, indicates the sum of primary and secondary education in several nations, including India, the United States, Canada, Ecuador, South Korea, Turkey, Philippines, Egypt, Australia, Afghanistan, and Iran for publicly supported school grades prior to college.
The keffiyeh or kufiya (كُوفِيَّة, meaning "from the city of Kufa" (الْكُوفَة); plural كُوفِيَّات), also known as a ghutrah (غُترَة), shemagh (شُمَاغ), (حَطَّة), mashadah (مَشَدَة), chafiye (چفیه), dastmal yazdi (دستمال یزدی) or cemedanî (جه مه داني), is a traditional Middle Eastern headdress fashioned from a square scarf, usually made of cotton.
Khalid bin Hamad Al Khalifa (Sunday, 23 September 1989, coinciding with 22nd Safar, 1410 Hij) is a Bahraini military officer and a member of the Bahraini royal family, Al Khalifa.
Prince Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa (خليفة بن سلمان آل خليفة.) (born 24 November 1935) has been the Prime Minister of Bahrain from 1970, taking office nearly two years before Bahrain's independence on 15 August 1971.
Khaliji (also spelled Khaleeji; الموسيقى الخليجية meaning Gulf music) is a type of modern contemporary music characteristic of Central and Eastern Arabia (see Arab states of the Persian Gulf) and popular across the Arab world.
The Khamis Mosque (مسجد الخميس; transliterated: Masǧid al-ḫamīs) is believed to be the first mosque in Bahrain, built during the era of the Umayyad caliph Umar II.
King Abdulaziz University College of Health Sciences is a college of King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.
The King Fahd Causeway (جسر الملك فهد, Jisr al-Malik Fahd) is a series of bridges and causeways connecting Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.
The King of Bahrain (ملك البحرين) is the monarch and head of state of Bahrain.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
Labour Day (Labor Day in the United States) is an annual holiday to celebrate the achievements of workers.
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.
Lar or LAR may refer to.
Lateefa Al Gaood (Arabic: لطيفه القعود) is a Bahraini politician.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية – Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.
Lieutenant General Sir Lewis Pelly, (14 November 1825 – 22 April 1892) was Conservative Member of Parliament for Hackney North from 1885 to 1892 and an East India Company officer.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Succession to the Bahraini throne is determined by primogeniture amongst the male descendants of Sheikh Isa bin Ali Al Khalifa (1848 – 1932).
This is a list of cities and towns in Bahrain with listed governorates.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.
The following tables list all the tallest buildings and structures in Bahrain.
This is a list of tourist attractions in Bahrain, a small island country in the Persian Gulf.
The M60 Patton is a main battle tank (MBT) introduced in December 1960.
Majeed Mohsen Al Alawi is Bahrain’s former Minister of Labour Affairs.
Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to close allies that have strategic working relationships with the US Armed Forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Manama (المنامة Bahrani pronunciation) is the capital and largest city of Bahrain, with an approximate population of 157,000 people.
Manama Souq is the old bazaar (souq) of Bahrain's capital, Manama.
The March Intifada (انتفاضة مارس) was an uprising that broke out in Bahrain in March 1965.
The March of loyalty to martyrs (مسيرة الوفاء للشهداء masīra al-wafāʾ ash-shuhadāʾ) was a protest on 22 February 2011 in Manama, Bahrain.
Mawlid or Mawlid al-Nabi al-Sharif (مَولِد النَّبِي mawlidu n-nabiyyi, "Birth of the Prophet", sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد mawlid, mevlid, mevlit, mulud among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد mīlād) is the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad which is commemorated in Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
Migrant workers in the Persian Gulf region involves the prevalence of migrant workers in the Kingdom of Bahrain, the State of Kuwait, the Sultanate of Oman, the State of Qatar, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the State of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin ''mīllēnārius'' "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society, after which all things will be changed.
Mina Salman (Arabic: ميناء سلمان) is a seaport located in Manama, Bahrain.
The mirwās or marwas (مرواس), plural marāwīs (مراويس) is a small double-sided hand drum originally from the Middle East.
Mixed-sex education, also known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation (abbreviated to co-ed or coed), is a system of education where males and females are educated together.
Moment is an independent magazine which focuses on the life of the American Jewish community.
Mona Al-Alawi (ماربيا منى العلاوي), better known by her stage name Mona Louise Rey (born 19 August 2004 in Manila, Philippines), is a Filipina child actress and commercial model.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
The Mountain of Smoke (جبل الدخان) is a hill in the Southern Governorate of Bahrain.
Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muḥarram (مُحَرَّم) is the first month of the Islamic calendar.
Muharraq (المحرق; transliterated: Al-Muḥarraq) is Bahrain's third largest city and served as its capital until 1932 when it was replaced by Manama.
The Muharraq Governorate (محافظة المحرق; transliterated: Muḥāfaẓat al-Muḥarraq) is one of the four governorates of Bahrain.
Muharraq Island, formerly known as Moharek, is the second largest island in the archipelago of Bahrain after Bahrain Island.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi (المنذر بن ساوى التميمي) was the governor of the Persian Sasanid Empire in some parts of the Southern Persian Gulf.
Muqrin ibn Zamil (مقرن بن زامل Migrin ibin Zāmil), the ruler of eastern Arabia, including al-Hasa, al-Qatif, and Bahrain, and the last Jabrid ruler of Bahrain.
Nada Haffadh was Bahrain's first female cabinet minister when she was appointed Minister of Health in 2004, serving in the position until September 2007.
Sheikh Nasr Al-Madhkur (الشيخ نصر آل مذكور) was the 18th-century local governor of what was described by a contemporary account as an "independent state" in Bushire and Bahrain.
Sheikh Nasser bin Hamad Al Khalifa (Arabic: الامير ناصر بن حمد آل خليفة) (born: 8 May 1987) is a member of the Bahraini royal family and the commander of Bahrain's Royal Guard and president of the Bahrain Olympic Committee.
The National Action Charter of Bahrain is a document put forward by King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah of Bahrain in 2001 in order to end the popular 1990s Uprising and return the country to constitutional rule.
The National Assembly is the name of both chambers of the Bahraini parliament when sitting in joint session, as laid out in the Constitution of 2002.
A national day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country.
The National Union Committee (هيئة الاتحاد الوطني) was a nationalist reformist political organization formed in Bahrain in 1954 (originally named the Higher Executive Committee, الهيئة التنفيذية العليا).
Nearchus or Nearchos (Νέαρχος; – 300 BC) was one of the officers, a navarch, in the army of Alexander the Great.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
The term netizen is a portmanteau of the words Internet and citizen as in "citizen of the net".
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
New York Institute of Technology (also known as NYIT) is a private, independent, nonprofit, non-sectarian, coeducational research university founded in 1955.
Newcastle University (officially, the University of Newcastle upon Tyne) is a public research university in Newcastle upon Tyne in the North-East of England.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
The Northern Governorate (translit) is one of the four governorates of Bahrain.
Northern Region (Al-Minṭaqat aš-Šamālīyah) was an administrative region of Bahrain in the northern part of the country.
The Northrop F-5A and F-5B Freedom Fighter and the F-5E and F-5F Tiger II are part of a supersonic light fighter family, initially designed in the late 1950s by Northrop Corporation.
Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
The Oliver Hazard Perry class is a class of guided missile frigates named after the U.S. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, the hero of the naval Battle of Lake Erie.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
The Kingdom of Ormus (also known as Ohrmuzd, Hormuz, and Ohrmazd; Portuguese Ormuz) was a 10th- to 17th-century kingdom located within the Persian Gulf and extending as far as the Strait of Hormuz.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The oud (عود) is a short-neck lute-type, pear-shaped stringed instrument (a chordophone in the Hornbostel-Sachs classification of instruments) with 11 or 13 strings grouped in 5 or 6 courses, commonly used in Egyptian, Syrian, Palestinian, Lebanese, Iraqi, Arabian, Jewish, Persian, Greek, Armenian, Turkish, Azerbaijani, North African (Chaabi, Classical, and Spanish Andalusian), Somali, and various other forms of Middle Eastern and North African music.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Bahrain: Bahrain – Islamic sovereign island nation located in the Persian Gulf.
Pakistan Urdu School (PUS; پاکستان اردو اسکول بحرین) is a private school functioning in Isa Town, Bahrain and was founded in 1956 by Bahraini and Pakistani trustees as an alternative English medium school for the Pakistani community in Bahrain.
A paramedic is a healthcare professional who responds to medical emergencies outside of a hospital.
Pardes Hanna-Karkur (פַּרְדֵּס חַנָּה-כַּרְכּוּר, برديس حنه كركور) is a town in the Haifa District of Israel.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
Patrick Oliver Cockburn (born 5 March 1950) is an Irish journalist who has been a Middle East correspondent for the Financial Times since 1979 and, from 1990, The Independent.
Pearl hunting is the act of recovering pearls from wild mollusks, usually oysters or mussels, in the sea or fresh water.
Pearl Roundabout or Lulu Roundabout (Arabic:, "Roundabout of the pearl(s)") was a roundabout located near the financial district of Manama, Bahrain.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Pharmacists, also known as chemists (Commonwealth English) or druggists (North American and, archaically, Commonwealth English), are health professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) is a US-based not-for-profit human rights NGO that uses medicine and science to document and advocate against mass atrocities and severe human rights violations around the world.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
A press release, news release, media release, press statement or video release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something ostensibly newsworthy.
In Bahrain, the Prime Minister is the head of government of the country.
A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).
In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
The Qal'at al-Bahrain (in قلعة البحرين), also known as the Bahrain Fort or Fort of Bahrain is an archaeological site located in Bahrain, on the Arabian Peninsula.
The Qarmatians (قرامطة Qarāmita; also transliterated Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians) were a syncretic branch of Sevener Ismaili Shia Islam that combined elements of Zoroastrianism.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Qatari–Bahraini War also known as the Qatari War of Independence was an armed conflict that took place between 1867 and 1868 in the Persian Gulf.
Qatif or Al-Qatif (القطيف Al-Qaṭīf) is a governorate and urban area located in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Rabīʿ al-ʾawwal (ربيع الأوّل) is the third month in the Islamic calendar.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either 'ranked higher than', 'ranked lower than' or 'ranked equal to' the second.
The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland - Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain) formerly known as the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland - Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI-MUB; Irish: Coláiste Ríoga na Máinleá in Éirinn) is a constituent university of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, which was established in 1784.
A recording studio is a specialized facility for sound recording, mixing, and audio production of instrumental or vocal musical performances, spoken words, and other sounds.
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Rex Wayne Tillerson (born March 23, 1952) is an American former government official and former energy executive who served as the 69th United States Secretary of State from February 1, 2017 to March 31, 2018, under President Donald Trump.
Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
Rifa and Southern Region (الرفاع والمنطقة الجنوبية Ar-Rifāʿ wal-Minṭaqat al-Janūbīyah) was a municipality of Bahrain in the southern part of the country.
A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country.
Robert Bertram Serjeant (23 March 1915 – 29 April 1993) was a Scottish scholar, traveller, and one of the leading Arabists of his generation.
The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI; Coláiste Ríoga na Máinleá in Éirinn) is a professional association and educational institution that is responsible for the medical speciality of surgery throughout the island of Ireland.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Sabkha (Arabic: سبخة) is a phonetic translation of the Arabic word used to describe any form of salt flat.
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Sakhir is a desert area located in the Southern Governorate of the Kingdom of Bahrain, near Zallaq.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
Prince Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Deputy King, Crown Prince of Bahrain (سلمان بن حمد آل خليفة, born 21 October 1969) is the heir apparent and First Deputy Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Bahrain.
Salmaniya is a neighborhood of Manama, Bahrain that houses the largest hospital in Bahrain, Salmaniya Medical Complex, and the Psychiatric Hospital (Bahrain).
Salmaniya Medical Complex (مجمع السلمانية الطبي) is a public hospital situated in the Salmaniya district of Manama in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
Samaheej (سماهيج Samāhīj) is a village in Bahrain on the northern coast of Muharraq Island.
Sar or Saar is a residential area in Bahrain, to the west of the capital, Manama.
This is a family tree of the Sasanian emperors, their ancestors, and Sasanian princes/princesses.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Royal Saudi Land Forces (KSA) (القُوَّاتُ البَرِّيَّةُ المَلَكِيَّة السُّـعُودِيَّة), also called Saudi Arabian Army (الجَيْشُ العَرَبيّ السُّـعُودِيَّ Al-Jaysh Al-Araby al-Saudi), are the largest branch of the Saudi Arabia Armed Forces.
Saudi Telecom Company, (STC; STC Group; STC International) (شركة الاتصالات السعودية) is a Saudi Arabia-based telecommunications company that offers landline, mobile, internet services and Computer network.
Saudis (سعوديون Suʿūdiyyūn), or Saudi Arabians are a nation composed mainly of various regional ethnic groups who are native to the Arabian Peninsula including Hejazis, Najdis, Hassawis, Southern Arabs and others including non-Arabs, who share a common general Saudi culture and a Saudi nationality.
The Savoia-Marchetti SM.82 was an Italian bomber and transport aircraft of World War II.
Sawt (صوت / ALA-LC: Ṣawt; literally "voice"; also spelled sout or sowt) is a kind of popular music found in Kuwait and Bahrain.
Scoop.co.nz is a New Zealand internet news site run by Scoop Media Limited, part of the Scoop Media Cartel.
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.
Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.
Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.
Seef (السيف) is a suburban neighborhood in Manama, the capital city of Bahrain.
Seef Mall is the second largest mall in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own discourse.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
A shamal (شمال, 'north') is a northwesterly wind blowing over Iraq and the Persian Gulf states (including Saudi Arabia and Kuwait), often strong during the day, but decreasing at night.
Arvand Rud (اَروَندرود, Swift River) or Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.
Shawwāl (شوّال) is the tenth month of the lunar Islamic calendar.
Shia in Bahrain have formed 62 percent of population at Bahrain which is small but very strategic island.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.
The Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk is a four-bladed, twin-engine, medium-lift utility helicopter manufactured by Sikorsky Aircraft.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Sirenia, commonly referred to as sea cows or sirenians, are an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit swamps, rivers, estuaries, marine wetlands, and coastal marine waters.
Sitra (سترة or سِتْرَة, As-Sitra), also known as Sitrah (script) or Sitra Island (script), is an island in Bahrain.
Sky News is a 24-hour international multimedia news organisation based in the UK that started as a 24-hour television news channel.
A slaughterhouse or abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered for consumption as food.
The Socotra cormorant (Phalacrocorax nigrogularis) is a threatened species of cormorant that is endemic to the Persian Gulf and the south-east coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.
The Southern Governorate (transliterated: Al-Muḥāfaẓat al-Janūbīyah) has the largest area of the four governorates of Bahrain, and the smallest population (91,450).
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Standard Oil Co.
The State of Bahrain (دولة البحرين) was the name of Bahrain between 1971 and 2002.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
Following Bahrain’s independence from the British in 1971, the government of Bahrain embarked on an extended period of political suppression under a 1974 State Security Law shortly after the adoption of the country’s first formal Constitution in 1973.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز Tangeye Hormoz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supercars Championship (known as the Virgin Australia Supercars Championship for sponsorship purposes) is a touring car racing category based in Australia and run as an International Series under Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) regulations.
The Supreme Council for Women (SCW) is Bahrain’s advisory body to the government on women's issues.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace,"Mace" is a brand name for a tear gas spray is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
The Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of Bahrain (TRA) is a Bahrain governmental institution.
The Bahrain Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA) is a governmental institution which regularly updates and publishes reports on the country's national numbering plan.
Territorial waters or a territorial sea, as defined by the 2013 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most from the baseline (usually the mean low-water mark) of a coastal state.
A tertiary referral hospital (also called a tertiary hospital, tertiary referral center, or tertiary care center, or tertiary center) is a hospital that provides tertiary care, which is health care from specialists in a large hospital after referral from primary care and secondary care.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Thalassemias are inherited blood disorders characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production.
A thawb or thobe (ثَوْب / ALA-LC: thawb) is an ankle-length Arab garment, usually with long sleeves, similar to a robe, kaftan or tunic.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Straits Times is an English-language daily broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore currently owned by Singapore Press Holdings (SPH).
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
Thomson Reuters Corporation is a Canadian multinational mass media and information firm.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Torture during the Bahraini uprising (2011–present) has been described in many human rights reports as being widespread and systematic; 64% of detainees (1866 individuals) reported being tortured.
Torture in Bahrain refers to the violation of Bahrain's obligations as a state party to the United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Convention against Torture) and other international treaties and disregard for the prohibition of torture enshrined in Bahraini law.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
The Tree of Life (Shajarat-al-Hayat) in Bahrain is a 9.75 meters (32 feet) high Prosopis cineraria tree that is over 400 years old.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tubli Bay (خليج توبلي) (also known as the Gulf of Tubli) is a bay in the east of Bahrain, between Bahrain Island and Sitra island.
The two-state solution refers to a solution of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict which calls for "two states for two groups of people." The two-state solution envisages an independent State of Palestine alongside the State of Israel, west of the Jordan River.
Tylos was the name used by the Greeks to refer to Bahrain, as the centre of pearl trading, when Nearchus came to discover it serving under Alexander the Great.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
The U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets, also known as the Background Notes, are a series of works by the United States Department of State.
A UCI WorldTeam (2015–present), previously UCI ProTeam (2005–2014), is the term used by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) to name a cycling team of the highest category in professional road cycling, the UCI World Tour or UCI ProTour, respectively.
Umm an Nasan island (ام النعسان) is the fifth largest island in Bahrain.
Umm Qasr (أم قصر, also transliterated as Um-qasir, Um-qasser), is a port city in southern Iraq.
Unemployment benefits (depending on the jurisdiction also called unemployment insurance or unemployment compensation) are payments made by the state or other authorized bodies to unemployed people.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for West Asia (ESCWA):, headquartered in Beirut, Lebanon, is one of five regional commissions under the administrative direction of the United Nations Economic and Social Council.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 296, adopted unanimously on August 18, 1971, after examining the application of Bahrain for membership in the United Nations, the Council recommended to the General Assembly that Bahrain be admitted.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
United States Naval Forces Central Command (NAVCENT) is the United States Navy element of United States Central Command (USCENTCOM).
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
University College of Bahrain (UCB; كلية البحرين الجامعية) is a private university located in Bahrain established in 2002.
The University of Bahrain (جامعة البحرين, informally Bahrain University, abbreviated as UOB) is the largest public university in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The Usfurids (Al-Asfour, آل عصفور) were an Arab dynasty that in 1253 gained control of eastern Arabia, including the islands of Bahrain, They were a branch of the Banu Uqayl tribe of the Banu Amir group, and are named after the dynasty’s founder, Usfur ibn Rashid.
UTC+03:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +03.
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
The Uyunid dynasty, Al Uyuni, House of Uyunid (Arabic: العيوني و العيونيون), were an Arab dynasty that ruled Eastern Arabia for 163 years, from the 11th to the 13th centuries.
The violin, also known informally as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.
VIVA Bahrain - (VIVA) - (فيفا) is a telecommunications company based in Bahrain.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water.
Western literature, also known as European literature, is the literature written in the context of Western culture in the languages of Europe, including the ones belonging to the Indo-European language family as well as several geographically or historically related languages such as Basque and Hungarian.
Western Region (Arabic: المنطقة الغربية Al-Minṭaqat al-Ḡarbiyya) was a municipality (mintaqah) of Bahrain in the western part of the country.
A wildlife corridor, habitat corridor, or green corridor is an area of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities or structures (such as roads, development, or logging).
A windtower (wind catcher) (بادگیر bâdgir: bâd "wind" + gir "catcher") is a traditional Persian architectural element to create natural ventilation in buildings.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,236 or more in 2016, calculated using the Atlas method.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Zagros Mountains (کوههای زاگرس; چیاکانی زاگرۆس) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey.
Zain (زين) is a mobile telecommunications company founded in 1983 in Kuwait as MTC (Mobile Telecommunications Company), and later rebranded as Zain in 2007.
The Zand dynasty (سلسله زندیه) was an Iranian dynasty of Lak a branch of Lurs origin founded by Karim Khan Zand that initially ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Zubarah (الزبارة), also referred to as Al Zubarah or Az Zubarah, is a ruined and ancient fort located on the north western coast of the Qatar peninsula in the Al Shamal municipality, about 105 km from the Qatari capital of Doha.
.bh is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bahrain.
In the wake of the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, a riot against the Jewish community of Manama, in the British Protectorate of Bahrain, on December 5, 1947.
After Ayatollah Khomeini came to power in Iran in 1979, Tehran made clear its intention to spread its Islamic Revolution throughout the Muslim world One of the most dramatic manifestations of this strategy was the alleged failed coup d'état by militants in Bahrain in 1981.
The 1990s uprising in Bahrain (الانتفاضة التسعينية في البحرين) also known as the uprising of dignity (انتفاضة الكرامة) was an uprising in Bahrain between 1994 and 1999 in which leftists, liberals and Islamists joined forces to demand democratic reforms.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 2011 Bahrain Grand Prix (formally the 2011 Formula 1 Gulf Air Bahrain Grand Prix) was scheduled to be the opening round of the 2011 Formula One season.
The 2012 Bahrain Grand Prix (formally known as the 2012 Formula 1 Gulf Air Bahrain Grand Prix) was a Formula One motor race held on 22 April 2012 at the Bahrain International Circuit in Sakhir, Bahrain.
The 2012 Bahrain Grand Prix returned to Bahrain after the 2011 race was cancelled due to ongoing anti-government protests.
The 2017 Tour de France was the 104th edition of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tours.
1923 Sitrah Outrage, Al-Bahrayn, Al-Baḥrayn, Bahraih, Bahrain islands, Bahrain's, Bahrain/Geography, Bahrayn, Bahrein, Barhain, Dawlat al-Bahrain, Emirate of Bahrain, Etymology of Bahrain, ISO 3166-1:BH, Kingdom of Bahrain, Languages of Bahrain, Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn, Name of Bahrain, البحرين, مملكة البحرين.