212 relations: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Aimery II of Narbonne, Almohad Caliphate, Almoravid dynasty, American Revolutionary War, Ancient Rome, Aragonese Crusade, Archipelago, Armand de Vignerot du Plessis, Austria, Autonomous communities of Spain, Baal, Balearic dialect, Balearic Sea, Banu Ghaniya, Barbary pirates, Battle of Ad Decimum, Battle of Llucmajor, Battle of Majorca, Belisarius, Berbers, Björn Ironside, Boeotia, Byzantine Empire, Cabrera Archipelago Maritime-Terrestrial National Park, Cabrera, Balearic Islands, Capture of Minorca (1798), Carlos Moyá, Cartagena, Spain, Carthage, Catalan cuisine, Catalan language, Central European Summer Time, Central European Time, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Coca (pastry), Congress of Deputies, Constantine I of Torres, Constantine the Great, Constitutional monarchy, Copa del Rey, Corsica, Costa Blanca, Costa del Azahar, Crown of Aragon, Crown of Castile, Dependent territory, Devolution, Diodorus Siculus, Disc jockey, ..., Dragonera, Emirate of Córdoba, Ensaïmada, Exarchate of Africa, Fault (geology), Ferdinand II of Aragon, Flaó, Flanders, Florence, Folk etymology, Formentera, Francina Armengol, French Revolutionary Wars, Gaius Julius Solinus, Genseric, Gibraltar, Grand Prix motorcycle racing, Grand Slam (tennis), Greek language, Gymnesian Islands, Hastein, Hayreddin Barbarossa, Hispania Balearica, Hispania Tarraconensis, House of Savoy, Hugh II, Count of Empúries, Iberian Peninsula, Ibiza, Ibiza (town), Ifriqiya, Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain), Invasion of Minorca (1781), Isabella I of Castile, ISO 3166-2:ES, James I of Aragon, James II of Majorca, James III of Majorca, John Tzetzes, Jorge Lorenzo, Juan Carlos I of Spain, Kingdom of Aragon, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Majorca, Kingdom of Portugal, La Balanguera, Languages of Spain, Latin, List of Aragonese monarchs, List of butterflies of Menorca, List of dragonflies of Menorca, List of municipalities in Balearic Islands, Livy, Lobster stew, Lucca, Lycophron, Mahón, Mahón cheese, Mallorca, Maritime republics, Marrakesh, Mayonnaise, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean cuisine, Mediterranean Sea, Menorca, Miguel Ángel Nadal, Montpellier, Mujāhid al-ʿĀmirī, Napoleonic Wars, Nationalities and regions of Spain, Nero, Nightclub, Notitia Dignitatum, Nudity, Occitania, Official language, Ottoman Empire, Palma de Mallorca, Parliament of the Balearic Islands, Pedanius Dioscorides, Peter I, Count of Urgell, Peter III of Aragon, Peter IV of Aragon, Philip III of France, Phoenicia, Pietro Moriconi, Pisa, Pistoia, Pityusic Islands, Pliny the Elder, Pollença, Pomponius Mela, Pope Martin IV, Pope Paschal II, Port de Sóller, Porto Torres, President of the Balearic Islands, Privateer, Provinces of Spain, Ptolemy, Punics, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Balearicus, Rafael Nadal, Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, Ranked lists of Spanish autonomous communities, RCD Mallorca, Reconquista, Republic of Pisa, Rhodes, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Pisa, Roman Empire, Roman province, Rome, Roussillon, Royal Palace of La Almudaina, Rudy Fernández (basketball), S'Espalmador, Sardinia, Segunda División B, Senate of Spain, Serra de Tramuntana, Seven Years' War, Sicily, Siege of Fort St Philip (1756), Siena, Sling (weapon), Sobrassada, Socialist Party of the Balearic Islands, Spain, Spanish cuisine, Spanish language, Statute of Autonomy, Stephanus of Byzantium, Strabo, Sweden, Taifa, Taifa of Dénia, Taifa of Majorca, Talaiot, Talaiotic culture, Tectonic uplift, Telephone numbers in Spain, Treaty of Amiens, Treaty of Anagni, Treaty of Paris (1783), Treaty of Utrecht, Trojan War, Turkish people, Ugo da Parlascio Ebriaco, Umayyad Caliphate, Valldemossa Charterhouse, Vandals, Vikings, Volterra, War of the Spanish Succession, Whale watching, William V of Montpellier, 1999 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final, 2003 Copa del Rey Final, 2010 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season, 2012 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season, 2015 MotoGP season. Expand index (162 more) » « Shrink index
Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET (translated from Spanish as the State Meteorological Agency) is Spain's meteorological agency operating under the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment.
Aimery II (or Aimeric II) (died 17 July 1134) was the Viscount of Narbonne from around 1106 until his death.
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Aragonese Crusade or Crusade of Aragon, a part of the larger War of the Sicilian Vespers, was declared by Pope Martin IV against the King of Aragon, Peter III the Great, in 1284 and 1285.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
Louis François Armand de Vignerot du Plessis, 3rd Duke of Richelieu (13 March 1696 – 8 August 1788), was a French soldier, diplomat and statesman.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidegoa, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma, comunautat autonòma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
Baal,Oxford English Dictionary (1885), "" properly Baʿal, was a title and honorific meaning "lord" in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity. From its use among people, it came to be applied to gods. Scholars previously associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was particularly associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations. The Hebrew Bible, compiled and curated over a span of centuries, includes early use of the term in reference to God (known to them as Yahweh), generic use in reference to various Levantine deities, and finally pointed application towards Hadad, who was decried as a false god. That use was taken over into Christianity and Islam, sometimes under the opprobrious form Beelzebub in demonology.
Balearic (balear) is the collective name for the dialects of Catalan spoken in the Balearic Islands: mallorquí in Majorca, eivissenc in Ibiza, and menorquí in Menorca.
The Balearic Sea (endotoponym: Mar Balear in Catalan and Spanish) is a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea near the Balearic Islands.
The Banu Ghaniya were an Almoravid Sanhaja Berber dynasty.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
The Battle of Ad Decimum took place on September 13, 533 between the armies of the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, and the Byzantine Empire, under the command of general Belisarius.
The Battle of Llucmajor (Batalla de Llucmajor) occurred in 1349 when Peter IV of Aragon's forces defeated and killed his cousin James III of Majorca in the town of Llucmajor on the Balearic Islands, resulting in the end of the independent Kingdom of Majorca.
The Battle of Majorca, also known as the Majorca Landings, was an amphibious landing of Republican forces early in the Spanish Civil War aimed at driving the Nationalists from Majorca and reclaiming the island for the Republic.
Flavius Belisarius (Φλάβιος Βελισάριος, c. 505 – 565) was a general of the Byzantine Empire.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Björn Ironside (Old Norse: Bjǫrn Járnsíða, Icelandic: Björn Járnsíða, Swedish: Björn Järnsida, Danish: Bjørn Jernside; Medieval Latin: Bier Costae ferreae) was a legendary king of Sweden who lived sometime in the 9th century.
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Cabrera Archipelago Maritime-Terrestrial National Park (Parc Nacional Maritimoterrestre de l'Arxipèlag de Cabrera, Parque Nacional Marítimo-Terrestre del Archipiélago de Cabrera) is a national park that includes the whole of the Cabrera Archipelago in the Balearic Islands (Illes Balears, Islas Baleares), an autonomous community that is part of Spain.
Cabrera (Capraia) is an uninhabited islet in the Balearic Islands, Spain, located in the Mediterranean Sea off the southern coast of Majorca.
In November 1798 a British expedition captured the island of Menorca (historically called "Minorca" by the British) from Spain.
Carlos Moyá Llompart (born 27 August 1976) is a retired world no. 1 tennis player from Spain.
Cartagena (Carthago Nova) is a Spanish city and a major naval station located in the Region of Murcia, by the Mediterranean coast, south-eastern Spain.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Catalan cuisine is the cuisine from the autonomous community of Catalonia.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
The coca is a pastry typically made and consumed in eastern Spain.
The Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados; Diputatuen Kongresua; Congrés dels Diputats; Congreso dos Deputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch.
Constantine I (c. 1064 – 1128) was the giudice of Logudoro.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Copa del Rey (King's Cup) is an annual football cup competition for Spanish football teams.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
The Costa Blanca (literally meaning "White Coast") is over of Mediterranean coastline in the Alicante province, on the southeastern coast of Spain.
Costa del Azahar (literally in English "Orange Blossom Coast") or Costa dels Tarongers (literally in English: Orange Tree Coast) is the name for the coast of the province of Castellón in Spain, from Vinaròs to Almenara.
The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside the controlling state's integral area.
Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
A disc jockey, often abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience.
Sa Dragonera is an uninhabited islet in the Balearic Islands, Spain, located just off the west coast of Majorca.
The Emirate of Córdoba (إمارة قرطبة, Imārat Qurṭuba) was an independent emirate in the Iberian Peninsula ruled by the Umayyad dynasty with Córdoba as its capital.
The ensaïmada (pl. ensaïmades) is a pastry product from Mallorca.
The Exarchate of Africa was a division of the Byzantine Empire centered at Carthage, Tunisia, which encompassed its possessions on the Western Mediterranean.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Ferdinand II (Ferrando, Ferran, Errando, Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
Flaó (plural flaons is a type of pastry made in different locations of the Catalan-speaking regions of Spain, like Morella, Ibiza, Formentera, Menorca and Olot. Traditionally flaons were part of Easter family celebrations in Menorca, but now they are available all-year-round. The flaons have different shapes, semicircular or circular, and fillings usually based on some type of cheese, varying according to the location. Sweet flaons are usually sweetened with sugar, but traditionally honey was used more often. Historically the first recorded mention of these cakes is from 1252 and they are mentioned as well in Ramon Llull's book Blanquerna, written in 1283. There is a similar pastry in Cyprus known as flaounes.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
Formentera is the smaller and more southerly island of the Pityusic Islands group (comprising Ibiza and Formentera, as well as various small islets), which belongs to the Balearic Islands autonomous community (Spain).
Francesca Lluc Armengol Socías, known as Francina Armengol (born 11 August 1971 in Inca), is a Spanish politician from the Socialist Party of the Balearic Islands.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
Gaius Julius Solinus, Latin grammarian and compiler, probably flourished in the early 3rd century.
Genseric (c. 400 – 25 January 477), also known as Gaiseric or Geiseric (Gaisericus; reconstructed Vandalic: *Gaisarīks), was King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) who established the Vandal Kingdom and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Grand Prix motorcycle racing refers to the premier class of motorcycle racing events held on road circuits sanctioned by FIM.
The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Gymnesians (Illes Gimnèsies, Gimnesias), or Gymnesic Islands (Illes Gimnèsiques), is a collective name given to the two largest (and easternmost) Balearic islands, Majorca and Menorca, distinguishing them from the Pityuses (Catalan: Illes Pitiüses; Spanish: Pitiusas), or Pine Islands, Ibiza and Formentera.
Hastein (Icelandic: Hásteinn) (also recorded as Anstign, Haesten, Hæsten, Hæstenn or Hæsting and alias AlstingJones, Aled (2003). Transactions of the Royal Historical Society: Sixth Series Cambridge University Press p24) was a notable Viking chieftain of the late 9th century who made several raiding voyages.
Hayreddin Barbarossa (Arabic: Khayr ad-Din Barbarus خير الدين بربروس), (Ariadenus Barbarussa), or Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Barbaros Hayreddin (Hayrettin) Paşa or Hızır Hayreddin (Hayrettin) Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kapudan Pasha), born Khizr or Khidr (Turkish: Hızır; c. 1478 – 4 July 1546), was an Ottoman admiral of the fleet who was born on the island of Lesbos and died in Constantinople, the Ottoman capital.
Hispania Balearica was a Roman province encompassing the Balearic Islands off the east coast of modern Spain.
Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania.
The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.
Hugh II (c. 1035 – 1116) was the Count of Empúries from 1078 until his death.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Ibiza (Eivissa) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea off the east coast of Spain.
Eivissa, also known as the Eivissa Town, is a city and municipality located on the southeast coast of the island of Eivissa in the Balearic Islands.
Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.
The National Institute of Statistics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE) is the official organisation in Spain that collects statistics about demography, economy, and Spanish society.
The Franco-Spanish reconquest of Menorca (historically called "Minorca" by the British) from its British invaders in February 1782, after the Siege of Fort St.
Isabella I (Isabel, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death.
ISO 3166-2:ES is the entry for Spain in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
James I the Conqueror (Jaume el Conqueridor, Chaime lo Conqueridor, Jacme lo Conquistaire, Jaime el Conquistador; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276; King of Majorca from 1231 to 1276; and Valencia from 1238 to 1276.
James II (Jaume) (31 May 1243 – 29 May 1311) was King of Majorca and Lord of Montpellier from 1276 until his death.
James III (also Jaume or Jaime; 5 April 1315 – 25 October 1349), called the Rash or the Unfortunate, was King of Majorca from 1324 to 1344.
John Tzetzes (Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Ioánnis Tzétzis; c. 1110, Constantinople – 1180, Constantinople) was a Byzantine poet and grammarian who is known to have lived at Constantinople in the 12th century.
Jorge Lorenzo Guerrero (born 4 May 1987) is a professional Spanish Grand Prix motorcycle road racer.
Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, born 5 January 1938) reigned as King of Spain from 1975 until his abdication in 2014.
The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Majorca (Regne de Mallorca,; Reino de Mallorca; Regnum Maioricae) was founded by James I of Aragon, also known as James The Conqueror.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
La Balanguera is the official anthem of the Balearic island of Majorca, Spain.
The languages of Spain (lenguas de España), or Spanish languages (lenguas españolas), are the languages spoken or once spoken in Spain.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
This is a list of the kings and queens of Aragon.
Menorca is a small island in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain, with a population of approximately 88,000.
Menorca is a small island in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain.
This is a list of the municipalities in the province and autonomous community of the Balearic Islands, Spain.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
Lobster stew (Caldereta de llagosta in Catalan) is a Menorcan dish.
Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Lycophron (Λυκόφρων ὁ Χαλκιδεύς) was a Hellenistic Greek tragic poet, grammarian, and commentator on comedy, to whom the poem Alexandra is attributed (perhaps falsely).
Maó-Mahón, sometimes written in English as Mahon (Maó, Mahón) is a municipality, the capital city of the island of Menorca, and seat of the Island Council of Menorca.
Mahón cheese is a soft to hard white cheese made from cow's milk, named after the natural port of Mahón on the island of Menorca off the Mediterranean coast of Spain.
Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean.
The maritime republics (repubbliche marinare) of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages.
Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Mayonnaise (also), informally mayo, is a thick cold sauce or dressing usually used in sandwiches and composed salads.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Menorca or Minorca (Menorca; Menorca; from Latin: Insula Minor, later Minorica "smaller island") is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain.
Miguel Ángel Nadal Homar (born 28 July 1966) is a Spanish retired footballer.
Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.
Abu ʾl-Djaysh Mujāhid ibn ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿĀmiri, surnamed al-Muwaffaḳ (died AD 1044/5), was the ruler of Dénia and the Balearic Islands from late 1014 (early AH 405) until his death.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Spain is a diverse country integrated by different contrasting entities that show varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical, political and cultural traditions.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
A nightclub, music club or club, is an entertainment venue and bar that usually operates late into the night.
The Notitia Dignitatum (Latin for "The List of Offices") is a document of the late Roman Empire that details the administrative organization of the Eastern and Western Empires.
Nudity, or nakedness, is the state of wearing no clothing.
Occitania (Occitània,,,, or) is the historical region and a nation, in southern Europe where Occitan was historically the main language spoken, and where it is sometimes still used, for the most part as a second language.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Palma de Mallorca, frequently used name for the city of Palma, is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain.
The Parliament of the Balearic Islands (Catalan: Parlament de les Illes Balears) is the unicameral autonomous parliament of the Balearic Islands, one of the autonomous communities of Spain.
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
Peter I (Pedro) (February 23, 1187 - June 2, 1258) was the second son of King Sancho I of Portugal and his wife Dulce, infanta of Aragon, and would eventually become Count of Urgell and Lord of the Balearic Islands.
Peter the Great (Pere el Gran, Pero lo Gran; 1239 – 11 November 1285) was the King of Aragon (as Peter III) of Valencia (as Peter I), and Count of Barcelona (as Peter II) from 1276 to his death, (this union of kingdoms was called the Crown of Aragon).
Peter IV (5 September 1319 – 6 January 1387), called the Ceremonious (Catalan: el Cerimoniós), was from 1336 until his death the King of Aragon and also King of Sardinia and Corsica (as Peter I), King of Valencia (as Peter II), and Count of Barcelona (and the rest of the Principality of Catalonia as Peter III).
Philip III (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285), called the Bold (le Hardi), was King of France from 1270 to 1285, a member of the House of Capet.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Pietro Moriconi (died 1119) was the Archbishop of Pisa from 1105, succeeding Dagobert.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
Pistoia is a city and comune in the Italian region of Tuscany, the capital of a province of the same name, located about west and north of Florence and is crossed by the Ombrone Pistoiese, a tributary of the River Arno.
The Pityusic Islands, often referenced simply as the Pityuses (Pitiüses, Pitiusas; from the Greek πιτύα pitýa, pine tree), or commonly but informally (and ambiguously) as the Pine Islands, is the name given collectively to the Balearic islands of Ibiza (Catalan: Eivissa), Formentera, S'Espalmador and other small islets in the Mediterranean Sea.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Pollença is a town and municipality situated in the northern part of the island of Majorca, near Cap de Formentor and Alcúdia.
Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer.
Pope Martin IV (Martinus IV; c. 1210/1220 – 28 March 1285), born Simon de Brion, was Pope from 22 February 1281 to his death in 1285.
Pope Paschal II (Paschalis II; 1050 1055 – 21 January 1118), born Ranierius, was Pope from 13 August 1099 to his death in 1118.
Port de Sóller is a village and the port of the town of Sóller, in Mallorca, in the Balearic Islands, Spain.
Porto Torres (Posthudorra, Pòrtu Turre) is a comune and city in northern Sardinia, in the Province of Sassari.
The President of the Balearic Islands is the head of government of the Balearic Islands, one of the 17 autonomous communities of Spain, while the monarch Felipe VI remains the head of state as King of Spain (and therefore of the Balearic Islands).
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces (provincias,; sing. provincia).
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
The Punics (from Latin punicus, pl. punici), also known as Carthaginians, were a people from Ancient Carthage (now in Tunisia, North Africa) who traced their origins to the Phoenicians.
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Balearicus (born c. 170 BC) was a Roman statesman and general who was elected consul in 123 BC.
Rafael Nadal Parera (born 3 June 1986) is a Spanish professional tennis player, currently world No. 1 in men's singles tennis by the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP).
Ramon Berenguer III the Great was the count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 1086 (jointly with Berenguer Ramon II and solely from 1097), Besalú from 1111, Cerdanya from 1117, and count of Provence in the Holy Roman Empire, from 1112, all until his death in Barcelona in 1131.
This article includes several ranked indicators for Spain's autonomous communities, as well as for the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla.
Real Club Deportivo Mallorca, S.A.D. (Reial Club Deportiu Mallorca) is a Spanish football team based in Palma, in the Balearic Islands.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
The Republic of Pisa (Repubblica di Pisa) was a de facto independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa during the late 10th and 11th centuries.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
The Archdiocese of Pisa (Archidioecesis Pisana) is a metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in Italy.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Roussillon (or;; Rosselló, Occitan: Rosselhon) is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales (Eastern Pyrenees).
The Royal Palace of La Almudaina, Spanish Palacio Real de La Almudaina, is the Alcázar (fortified palace) of Palma, the capital city of the Island of Majorca, Spain.
Rodolfo "Rudy" Fernández y Farrés (born April 4, 1985) is a Spanish professional basketball player who last played for Real Madrid of the Liga ACB.
S'Espalmador (Espalmador) is a small, privately owned, uninhabited island located in the Balearic Islands.
Segunda División B (Second Division B) is the third level of the Spanish football league system currently divided into 4 groups of 20 teams each.
The Senate (Senado) is the upper house of Spain's parliament, the Cortes Generales.
The Serra de Tramuntana (Sierra de Tramontana) is a mountain range running southwest–northeast which forms the northern backbone of the Spanish island of Mallorca.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Siege of Fort St Philip (commonly known in Britain as the Fall of Minorca or Siege of Minorca) took place in 1756 during the Seven Years' War.
Siena (in English sometimes spelled Sienna; Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy.
A sling is a projectile weapon typically used to throw a blunt projectile such as a stone, clay, or lead "sling-bullet".
Sobrassada (sobrasada) is a raw, cured sausage from the Balearic Islands made with ground pork, paprika and salt and other spices.
The Socialist Party of the Balearic Islands–PSOE (Partit Socialista de les Illes Balears–PSOE) is the regional branch in the Balearic Islands of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), main centre-left party in Spain since the 1970s.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish cuisine is heavily influenced by regional cuisines and the particular historical processes that shaped culture and society in those territories.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy (Estatuto de Autonomía, Estatut d'Autonomia, Estatuto de Autonomía, Estatutu d' Autonomía, Autonomia Estatutua) is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation (including organic laws).
Stephen of Byzantium, also known as Stephanus Byzantinus (Greek: Στέφανος Βυζάντιος; fl. 6th century AD), was the author of an important geographical dictionary entitled Ethnica (Ἐθνικά).
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.
The taifa of Dénia was an Islamic Moorish kingdom in medieval Spain, ruling over part of the Valencian coast and Ibiza.
The Taifa of Majorca was a medieval Moorish taifa kingdom which existed from 1018 to 1203 in Majorca.
The talaiots, or talayots, are Bronze Age megaliths on the islands of Menorca and Majorca forming part of the Talaiotic Culture or Talaiotic Period.
The Talaiotic Culture or Talaiotic Period is the name used to describe the society that existed on the Gymnesian Islands (the easternmost Balearic Islands) during the Iron Age.
Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean Earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.
The Spanish telephone numbering plan is the allocation of telephone numbers in Spain.
The Treaty of Amiens (French: la paix d'Amiens) temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and Great Britain during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Treaty of Anagni was an accord between the Pope Boniface VIII, James II of Aragon, Philip IV of France, Charles II of Naples, and James II of Majorca.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
Ugo da Parlascio Ebriaco (died 30 May 1136) was a leading citizen in the Republic of Pisa in the early twelfth century.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The Valldemossa Charterhouse (Catalan: Cartoixa de Valldemossa, Spanish: Cartuja de Valldemosa), translatable as: Carthusian Monastery of Valldemossa) is a palace in Valldemossa, Majorca that was residence of the king Sancho of Majorca former royal residence and Royal Charterhouse (15th century).
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Volterra is a walled mountaintop town in the Tuscany region of Italy of which its history dates to before the 7th century BC and has substantial structures from the Etruscan, Roman, and Medieval periods.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
Whale watching is the practice of observing whales and dolphins (cetaceans) in their natural habitat.
William V (or Guilhem V; died 1121) was the Lord of Montpellier from 1068 until his death.
The 1999 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final was a football match played between Mallorca of Spain and Lazio of Italy, to determine the winner of the 1998–99 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup.
The 2003 Copa del Rey Final was the 101st final since its establishment.
The 2010 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season was the 62nd F.I.M. Road Racing World Championship season.
The 2012 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season was the 64th F.I.M. Road Racing World Championship season.
The 2015 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season was the 67th F.I.M. Road Racing World Championship season.
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