181 relations: Acer heldreichii, Adonis vernalis, Aegean Sea, Alder, Alpide belt, Arabakonak, Archar (river), Asia, Aytos, Šar Mountains, Babsko Praskalo, Bacho Kiro cave, Balkan Region, Balkans, Battle of Pliska, Battle of Shipka Pass, Battle of the Rishki Pass, Battle of Tryavna, Beech, Beklemeto Pass, Belogradchik Rocks, Black Sea, Blueberry, Borov Kamak, Botev Peak, Botevgrad, Brown bear, Bulgaria, Bulgarian Empire, Bulgarian language, Bulgarians, Bulgarka Nature Park, Bulgars, Burgas, Buzludzha, Byzantine Empire, Cape Emine, Central Balkan National Park, Chamois, Cherno More motorway, Classical antiquity, Dactylorhiza, Danube, Danubian Plain (Bulgaria), Deer, Dinaric Alps, Drosera rotundifolia, Dyulino Pass, Elena (town), Equisetum arvense, ..., Etropole Waterfall, Eurasian woodcock, Europe, European snow vole, Fire salamander, First Bulgarian Empire, Folk etymology, Gabrovo, Gaj's Latin alphabet, Golden eagle, Gray wolf, Griffon vulture, Gurkovo, Haemus Mons, Hajduk, Hawk, Hazel dormouse, Hemus motorway, History of Bulgaria, Horned lark, Hristo Botev, Important Bird Area, Iris pumila, Iskar (river), Iskar Gorge, Kalofer, Kaluđerski Skokovi, Kamchiya, Karlovsko Praskalo, Karnobat, Karst, Kazanlak, Kom Peak, Kom–Emine, Kopren Waterfall, Kotel Pass, Kotel, Bulgaria, Krum, Late Middle Ages, Ledenika, Leontopodium nivale, Lesser mole-rat, Levski Peak (Bulgaria), Lilium martagon, Lom (river), Long-legged buzzard, Losing stream, Luda Kamchiya Gorge, Magura Cave, Midžor, Middle Ages, Mire, Moesia, Montana, Bulgaria, Montane ecosystems, Mountain, Mountain pass, Mountain range, Nature reserve, Newt, Nikephoros I, Oak, Obzor Pass, Ogosta, Osam, Ottoman Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish language, Paeonia peregrina, Pass of the Republic, Persian language, Petrohan Pass, Pilj Waterfall, Pindus, Pinus mugo, Pirin, Politika, Provadia, Pulsatilla vulgaris, Quercus robur, Raysko Praskalo, Rhodope Mountains, Rila, Rish Pass, Roman Empire, Rusenski Lom, Russian Orthodox Church, Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Saeva dupka, Salmo trutta fario, Salmonidae, Serbia, Shipka Pass, Shipkovo, Shumen, Skat (river), Sliven, Sofia, Sopot, Lovech Province, Spa town, Spruce, Sredna Gora, Strandzha, Sub-Balkan valleys, Svishtiplaz, Temštica, Thracian language, Timok, Troyan, Tsibritsa, Tufa, Turkmenistan, Typhon, Uly Balkan, Ural owl, Varbitsa Pass, Varna, Varshets, Vasil Levski, Veliko Tarnovo, Vezhen Peak, Vit, Vitinya Pass, Vitosha, Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park, Vrashka Chuka, Vratnik Pass (Bulgaria), Vratsa, Wild boar, Yantra, Zeus. Expand index (131 more) » « Shrink index
Acer heldreichii, common names Heldreich's maple, Greek maple, and Balkan maple is a European species of maple.
Adonis vernalis, known variously as pheasant's eye, spring pheasant's eye, yellow pheasant's eye and false hellebore, is a perennial flowering plant in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae It is found in dry meadows and steppes in Eurasia.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae.
The Alpide belt or Alpine-Himalayan orogenic beltK.M. Storetvedt, K. M., The Tethys Sea and the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt; mega-elements in a new global tectonic system, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Volume 62, Issues 1–2, 1990, Pages 141–184 is a seismic belt and orogenic belt that includes an array of mountain ranges extending along the southern margin of Eurasia, stretching from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic.
Arabakonak (Арабаконак) or Botevgrad Pass is a mountain pass through the Balkan Mountains connecting Sofia with Botevgrad and Northern Bulgaria.
The Archar or Archaritsa (Арчар, Арчарица; Ratiaria) is a river in the western Danubian Plain of northern Bulgaria and a right tributary of the Danube.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Aytos (Айтос), sometimes written Aitos and Ajtos, is a town located in eastern Bulgaria some 30 kilometers from the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and belonging to the administrative boundaries of Burgas Province.
The Šar Mountains (Macedonian and Шар планина, Šar planina) or Sharr Mountains (Malet e Sharrit), form a mountain range in the Balkans that extends from Kosovo and the northwest of the Republic of Macedonia, to northeastern Albania.
Babsko Praskalo (Бабско пръскало) is a waterfall in the Central Balkan National Park, Balkan Mountains, central Bulgaria.
The Bacho Kiro cave is situated west of the town Dryanovo, Bulgaria, only away from the Dryanovo Monastery.
Balkan Region (Balkan welaýaty, Балкан велаяты, بلقان ولايتى) is one of the regions of Turkmenistan.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Battle of Pliska or Battle of Vărbitsa Pass was a series of battles between troops, gathered from all parts of the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Nicephorus I Genik, and Bulgaria, governed by Khan Krum.
The Battle of Shipka Pass consisted of four battles that were fought between the Russian Empire, aided by Bulgarian volunteers known as Opalchentsi, and the Ottoman Empire for control over the vital Shipka Pass during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878).
The Battle of the Rishki Pass took place in the pass of the same name, in Stara Planina, Bulgaria in 759.
The Battle of Tryavna (Битка при Трявна) occurred in 1190, in the mountains around the contemporary town of Tryavna, central Bulgaria.
Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.
Beklemeto Pass, also known as Troyan Pass (Троянски проход), is a mountain pass in the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) in Bulgaria.
The Belogradchik Rocks (Белоградчишки скали, Belogradchishki skali) are a group of strangely shaped sandstone and conglomerate rock formations located on the western slopes of the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) near the town of Belogradchik in northwest Bulgaria.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with blue– or purple–colored berries.
Borov Kamak (Боров камък, "Pine Stone") is a waterfall in the Vratsa mountain, western Balkan Mountains, Bulgaria.
Botev Peak (Връх Ботев, Vrah Botev) is, at above sea level, the highest peak of the Balkan Mountains.
Botevgrad (Ботевград), is a town in western Bulgaria.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
In the medieval history of Europe, Bulgaria's status as the Bulgarian Empire (Българско царство, Balgarsko tsarstvo), wherein it acted as a key regional power (particularly rivaling Byzantium in Southeastern Europe) occurred in two distinct periods: between the seventh and eleventh centuries, and again between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
The Bulgarka Natural Park (Bulgarian, Природен Парк Българка) is a Bulgarian nature park on the northern slopes of the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina), occupying 22,000 hectares of territory in the central and eastern part of the mountains between the cities of Gabrovo and Kazanluk.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
Burgas (Бургас), sometimes transliterated as Bourgas, is the second largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and the fourth-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia, Plovdiv, and Varna, with a population of 211,033 inhabitants, while 277,922 live in its urban area.
Buzludzha (Бузлуджа Buzludzha derived from Turkish icy) is a historical peak in the Central Balkan Mountains, Bulgaria and is high.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cape Emine (Нос Емине) is a headland located at the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
The Central Balkan National Park (Национален парк Централен Балкан) lies in the heart of Bulgaria, nestled in the central and higher portions of the Balkan Mountains.
The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a species of goat-antelope native to mountains in Europe, including the European Alps, the Pyrenees, the Carpathians, the Tatra Mountains, the Balkans, parts of Turkey, the Caucasus, and the Apennines.
The Cherno More motorway or the Black Sea motorway (Avtomagistrala "Cherno more") is a Bulgarian motorway planned to link the major coastal cities of Varna and Burgas, passing along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Dactylorhiza, commonly called marsh orchid or spotted orchid, is a genus of flowering plants in the orchid family (Orchidaceae).
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Danubian Plain (Дунавска равнина, Dunavska ravnina) constitutes the northern part of Bulgaria, situated north of the Balkan Mountains and south of the Danube.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
The Dinaric Alps, also commonly Dinarides, are a mountain range in Southern and Southeastern Europe, separating the continental Balkan Peninsula from the Adriatic Sea.
Drosera rotundifolia — the round-leaved sundew or common sundew — is a species of sundew, a carnivorous plant often found in bogs, marshes and fens.
Dyulino Pass is a mountain pass in the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) in eastern Bulgaria.
Elena (Елена) is a Bulgarian town in the central Stara Planina mountain in Veliko Tarnovo Province, located 42 km southeast of Veliko Tarnovo.
Equisetum arvense, the field horsetail or common horsetail, is an herbaceous perennial plant in the Equisetopsida (the horsetails), native throughout the arctic and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere.
Etropole Waterfall (Етрополски водопад), known also as Varovitets (Варовитец) is a waterfall in the Balkan Mountains, Bulgaria, located near the Etropole Monastery.
The Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) is a medium-small wading bird found in temperate and subarctic Eurasia.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European snow vole or snow vole (Chionomys nivalis, previously Arvicola nivalis and Microtus nivalis) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae.
The fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) is possibly the best-known salamander species in Europe.
The First Bulgarian Empire (Old Bulgarian: ц︢рьство бл︢гарское, ts'rstvo bl'garskoe) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD.
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
Gabrovo (Габрово) is a city in central northern Bulgaria, the administrative centre of Gabrovo Province.
Gaj's Latin alphabet (gâj); abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin). It was devised by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1835, based on Jan Hus's Czech alphabet. A slightly reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language, and a slightly expanded version is used as a script of the modern standard Montenegrin language. A modified version is used for the romanization of the Macedonian language. Pavao Ritter Vitezović had proposed an idea for the orthography of the Croatian language, stating that every sound should have only one letter. Gaj's alphabet is currently used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia.
The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) is a large Old World vulture in the bird of prey family Accipitridae.
Gurkovo (Гурково) is a small town in the Stara Zagora Province, South-central Bulgaria.
In earlier times, the Balkan Mountains were known as the Haemus Mons.
A hajduk is a type of peasant irregular infantry found in Central and Southeast Europe from the early 17th to mid 19th centuries.
Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
The hazel dormouse or common dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) is a small mammal and the only living species in the genus Muscardinus.
The Hemus motorway (Avtomagistrala "Hemus") or Haemus motorway, designated A2, is a partially built motorway in Bulgaria.
The history of Bulgaria can be traced from the first settlements on the lands of modern Bulgaria to its formation as a nation-state and includes the history of the Bulgarian people and their origin.
The horned lark (Eremophila alpestris), called the shore lark in Europe, is a species of lark in the Alaudidae family found across the northern hemisphere.
Hristo Botev (Христо Ботев, also transliterated as Hristo Botyov), born Hristo Botyov Petkov (Христо Ботьов Петков), was a Bulgarian poet and national revolutionary.
An Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) is an area identified using an internationally agreed set of criteria as being globally important for the conservation of bird populations.
Iris pumila, sometimes known as pygmy iris, probably originated as a natural hybrid between Iris pseudopumila Boissier & Heldreich and I. attica Tineo.
The Iskar (Искър; Oescus) is a right tributary of the Danube.
The Iskar Gorge is a gorge passing through the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) in Bulgaria.
Kalòfer is a town in central Bulgaria, located on the banks of the Tundzha between the Balkan Mountains to the north and the Sredna Gora to the south.
Kaluđerski Skokovi (Калуђерски Скокови) is the highest waterfall in Serbia.
The Kamchiya (also Kamchia and Kamčija, Bulgarian: Камчия) is a river in eastern Bulgaria, the longest river on the Balkan Peninsula to flow directly into the Black Sea.
Karlovsko Praskalo (Карловско пръскало) is a waterfall in the Central Balkan National Park, Balkan Mountains, central Bulgaria.
Karnobat (Карнобат) is a town in the Burgas Province, Southeastern Bulgaria.
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
Kazanlak (Казанлъ̀к, Kazanlǎk, Thracian and Greek Σευθόπολις (Seuthopolis) is a Bulgarian town in Stara Zagora Province, located in the middle of the plain of the same name, at the foot of the Balkan mountain range, at the eastern end of the Rose Valley. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Kazanlak Municipality. The town is among the 15 biggest industrial centres in Bulgaria, with a population of 47,325 people as of Feb 2011. It is the center of rose oil extraction in Bulgaria and the oil-producing rose of Kazanlak is one of the most widely recognizable national symbols.
Kom Peak (връх Ком, vrah Kom) or Golyam Kom (Голям Ком, "Big Kom") is a peak in the western Balkan Mountains, located in western Bulgaria, not far from the Serbian border.
Kom–Emine („Ком – Емине“), known during the socialist era as the Friendship Route („Маршрут на дружбата“, „Marshrut na druzhbata“), is a high-mountain long-distance trail in Bulgaria.
Kopren Waterfall (Koprenski vodopad) is the second highest waterfall in Serbia.
Kotel Pass is a mountain pass in the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) in Bulgaria.
Kotel (Ко̀тел) is a town in central Bulgaria, part of Sliven Province.
Krum (Крум, Κρούμος/Kroumos) was the Khan of Bulgaria from sometime after 796 but before 803 until his death in 814.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Ledenika (Леденика, English: icy or glacial) is a cave in the Northwestern parts of the Balkan Mountains, 16 km away from the Bulgarian city of Vratsa.
Leontopodium nivale, commonly called edelweiss (English pronunciation), is a well-known mountain flower, belonging to the daisy or sunflower family, Asteraceae.
The lesser mole-rat (Spalax leucodon) is a species of rodent in the family Spalacidae found in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Kosovo, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, Israel, Turkey, Iran and Ukraine.
Levski Peak (Левски) is a peak in the central Balkan Mountains, in Lovech Province, Bulgaria.
Lilium martagon (martagon lily or Turk's cap lily) is a Eurasian species of lily.
The Lom is a river in northwestern Bulgaria, a right tributary of the Danube flowing into it 1 km east of the town of Lom.
The long-legged buzzard (Buteo rufinus) is a bird of prey in the genus Buteo.
A losing stream, disappearing stream, influent stream or sinking river is a stream or river that loses water as it flows downstream.
The Luda Kamchiya Gorge is a gorge in the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) in Bulgaria.
The Magura Cave (from Bulgarian "-gora") is located in north-western Bulgaria close to the village of Rabisha, from the town of Belogradchik in Vidin Province.
Midžor (Миџор) or Midzhur (Миджур) is a peak in the Balkan Mountains, situated on the border between Serbia and Bulgaria.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A mire is a wetland type, dominated by living, peat-forming plants.
Moesia (Latin: Moesia; Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River.
Montana (Монтана) is a city in northwestern Bulgaria, located south of the Danube river, northwest of Vratsa and east of the Serbian border.
Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains.
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
A newt is a salamander in the subfamily Pleurodelinae, also called eft during its terrestrial juvenile phase.
Nikephoros I, or Nicephorus I (Νικηφόρος Α΄, Nikēphoros I; died July 26, 811), was Byzantine Emperor from 802 to 811, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Obzor Pass is a mountain pass in the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) in Bulgaria.
The Ogosta (Огоста, Latin: Augusta), is the largest river in Northwestern Bulgaria, a right tributary of the Danube.
The Òsam (Осъм) is a river in northern Bulgaria.
The history of Ottoman Bulgaria spans nearly 500 years, from the conquest by the Ottoman Empire of the smaller kingdoms emerging from the disintegrating Second Bulgarian Empire in the late 14th century, to the Liberation of Bulgaria in 1878.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Paeonia peregrina is a species of flowering plant in the peony family Paeoniaceae, native to Southeastern Europe and Turkey.
Pass of the Republic (Проход на Републиката, is a mountain pass in the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) in Bulgaria. It connects Veliko Tarnovo and Gurkovo.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Petrohan Pass is a mountain pass in the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) in Bulgaria.
Pilj Waterfall or simply Pilj (Пиљски водопад/Piljski vodopad), is the third highest waterfall in Serbia, being discovered by geologists and alpinists only in 2002.
The Pindus (also Pindos or Pindhos) (Πίνδος) mountain range is located in northern Greece and southern Albania.
Pinus mugo, known as creeping pine, dwarf mountainpine, mugo pine, mountain pine, scrub mountain pine or Swiss mountain pine, is a species of conifer, native to high elevation habitats from southwestern to Central Europe.
The Pirin Mountains (Пирин) are a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria, with Vihren at an altitude of 2,914 m being the highest peak.
Politika (Политика; Politics) is a Serbian daily newspaper, published in Belgrade.
Provadia (Провадия) is a town in northeastern Bulgaria, part of Varna Province, located in a deep karst gorge (Provadia syncline) along the Provadia River not far from the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
Pulsatilla vulgaris (pasque flower, pasqueflower, common pasque flower, European pasqueflower, Dane's blood) is a species of flowering plant belonging to the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), found locally on calcareous grassland in Europe.
Quercus robur, commonly known as common oak, pedunculate oak, European oak or English oak, is a species of flowering plant in the beech and oak family, Fagaceae.
Raysko Praskalo ("Heavenly Sprinkler"), 124.5 m in height, is the highest waterfall in Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula.
The Rhodopes (Родопи, Rodopi; Ροδόπη, Rodopi; Rodoplar) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece.
Rila (Рила) is a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria and the highest mountain range of Bulgaria and the Balkans, with its highest peak being Musala at 2,925 m. The massif is also the sixth highest mountain in Europe (when each mountain is represented by its highest peak only), coming after the Caucasus, the Alps, Sierra Nevada, the Pyrenees and Mount Etna, and the highest between the Alps and the Caucasus.
Rish Pass (Ришки проход, Rishki Prohod) is a mountain pass in the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) in Bulgaria.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Rusenski Lom is a river in northeastern Bulgaria, the last major right tributary of the Danube.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Saeva dupka (Съева дупка) is a cave in northern Bulgaria near the village of Brestnitsa, Lovech Province.
Salmo trutta morpha fario is the riverine form of the brown trout Salmo trutta that spends its entire life cycle in running water.
Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only living family currently placed in the order Salmoniformes.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Shipka Pass (Шипченски проход, Shipchenski prohod) (el. 1150 m./3820 ft.) is a scenic mountain pass through the Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria.
Shipkovo is a village in Troyan Municipality, Lovech Province, northern Bulgaria.
Shumen (also spelled Shoumen, Šumen or Shumla Шумен) is the tenth largest city in Bulgaria and the administrative and economic capital of Shumen Province.
The Skat (Скът; also transliterated Skǎt or Skut; Scitus) is a river in the western Danubian Plain of northern Bulgaria and a right tributary of the Ogosta.
Sliven (Сливен) is the eighth-largest city in Bulgaria and the administrative and industrial centre of Sliven Province and municipality.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
Sopot (Сопот) is a village (село) in northern Bulgaria, located in the Ugarchin Municipality (Община Угърчин) of the Lovech Province (Област Ловеч).
A spa town is a resort town based on a mineral spa (a developed mineral spring).
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth.
Sredna Gora (Средна гора) is a mountain range in central Bulgaria, situated south of and parallel to the Balkan mountain range (Stara Planina) and extending from the Iskar River to the west and the elbow of Tundzha north of Yambol to the east.
Strandzha (Странджа, also transliterated as Strandja; Istranca or Yıldız) is a mountain massif in southeastern Bulgaria and the European part of Turkey.
The Sub-Balkan valleys of Bulgaria are located between Stara Planina, Vitosha and Sredna Gora.
Svishtiplaz (Свищиплаз, "windy place") is a Bulgarian mountain peak located in the Stara Planina range just north of Zlatitsa.
Temštica (Темштица) is a river in Serbia, a right tributary of the river Nišava.
The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians, the northern neighbors of the Ancient Greeks.
The Timok (Bulgarian and Serbian Cyrillic: Тимок, Timoc), sometimes also known as Great Timok (Serbian: Veliki Timok/Велики Тимок), is a river in eastern Serbia, a right tributary of the Danube.
Troyan (also spelled Trojan, Троян) is a town remembering the name of Roman Emperor Trajan, in Lovech Province in central Bulgaria with population of 21,997 inhabitants, as of December 2009.
The Tsibritsa (Цибрица, pronounced; also transliterated as Cibrica, Tzibritza; Ciabrus) is a river in the western Danubian Plain of northern Bulgaria and a right tributary of the Danube.
Tufa is a variety of limestone formed when carbonate minerals precipitate out of ambient temperature water.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Typhon (Τυφῶν, Tuphōn), also Typhoeus (Τυφωεύς, Tuphōeus), Typhaon (Τυφάων, Tuphaōn) or Typhos (Τυφώς, Tuphōs), was a monstrous serpentine giant and the most deadly creature in Greek mythology.
The Uly Balkan, also known as the Great Balkan Range is a mountain range in Turkmenistan.
The Ural owl (Strix uralensis) is a medium-sized nocturnal owl of the genus Strix, with up to 15 subspecies found in Europe and northern Asia.
Varbitsa Pass is a mountain pass in the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) in Bulgaria.
Varna (Варна, Varna) is the third-largest city in Bulgaria and the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
Varshets (Вършец, variously transliterated) is a spa town in Montana Province, northwestern Bulgaria.
Vasil Levski (Васил Левски, originally spelled Василъ Лѣвскій, pronounced), born Vasil Ivanov Kunchev (Васил Иванов Кунчев; 18 July 1837 – 18 February 1873), was a Bulgarian revolutionary and is a national hero of Bulgaria today.
Veliko Tarnovo (Велико Търново, "Great Tarnovo") is a city in north central Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province.
Vezhen (Вежен) is a peak in the western Balkan Mountains, located in western Bulgaria.
The Vit also Vid (Вит; Utus) is a river in central northern Bulgaria with a length of 168 km.
Vitinya Pass (Витиня) is a mountain pass in the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) in Bulgaria.
Vitosha (Витоша), the ancient Scomius or Scombrus, is a mountain massif, on the outskirts of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park (Природен парк „Врачански Балкан“) is a Nature Park in Bulgaria with an area of 30129.9 ha established on 21 December 1989.
Vrashka Chuka (Връшка чука) or Vrška čuka (Serbian Cyrillic: Вршка чука) is a peak in the Balkan Mountains, situated on the border between Bulgaria and Serbia.
Vratnik Pass is a mountain pass in the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) in Bulgaria.
Vratsa (Враца) is a city in northwestern Bulgaria, at the foothills of the Balkan Mountains.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
Yantra (यन्त्र) (Sanskrit) (literally "machine, contraption") is a mystical diagram, mainly from the Tantric traditions of the Indian religions.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.