416 relations: Accession of Albania to the European Union, Accession of Montenegro to the European Union, Accession of Serbia to the European Union, Achaemenid Empire, Administrative divisions of Croatia, Adolf Hitler, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Albania, Albanian language, Albanian lek, Albanians, Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia, Aleksandar Vučić, Alexis Tsipras, Allies of World War I, Ana Brnabić, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Andrej Plenković, Ankara, Apennine Mountains, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Aromanians, Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians, Ashkenazi Jews, Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Athens, Atlantic Ocean, August Zeune, Çorlu, Đurađ I Balšić, Šar Mountains, Bakir Izetbegović, Balkan cuisine, Balkan Insight, Balkan League, Balkan Mountains, Balkan music, Balkan Region, Balkan sprachbund, Balkan Universities Network, Balkan Wars, Balkanization, Bauxite, Beech, Belgrade, Binali Yıldırım, Bird of prey, ..., Black Sea, Bora (wind), Boris III of 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The Republic of Albania has been an official candidate for accession to the European Union (EU) since June 2014 and is on the current agenda for future enlargement of the EU.
Accession of Montenegro to the European Union (EU) is on the current agenda for future enlargement of the EU.
The accession of Serbia to the European Union is the process of the Republic of Serbia being admitted to the European Union as a member state and it is on the current agenda for future enlargement of the EU.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The subdivisions of Croatia on the first level are the 20 counties (županija, pl. županije) and one city-county (grad, "city").
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
The lek (plural lekë) (sign: L; code: ALL) is the official currency of Albania.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Albanians are the largest ethnic minority in the Republic of Macedonia.
Aleksandar Vučić (Александар Вучић,, born 5 March 1970) is a Serbian politician who has been the President of Serbia since 31 May 2017.
Alexis Tsipras (Αλέξης Τσίπρας,; born 28 July 1974) is a Greek politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Greece since 2015.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Ana Brnabić (Ана Брнабић,; born 28 September 1975) is a Serbian politician who has been the Prime Minister of Serbia since 29 June 2017.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrej Plenković (born 8 April 1970) is a Croatian politician and diplomat serving as Prime Minister of Croatia since 19 October 2016.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
The Aromanians (Rrãmãnj, Armãnj; Aromâni) are a Latin European ethnic group native to the Balkans, traditionally living in northern and central Greece, central and southern Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo and south-western Bulgaria.
The Ashkali (also Aškalije, Haškalije, Hashkali) and Balkan Egyptians (Jevgs, Egjiptjant or Gjupci) are Albanian-speaking ethnic cultural minorities (recognized communities) which mainly inhabit Kosovo.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, occurred on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo when they were mortally wounded by Gavrilo Princip.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Johann August Zeune (12 May 1778 –14 November 1853) was a German teacher of geography and Germanic languages, as well as the founder of the Berlin Foundation for the Blind.
Çorlu is a northwestern Turkish city in inland Eastern Thrace that falls under the administration of the Province of Tekirdağ.
Đurađ Balšić (Ђурађ Балшић), also known as Đurađ I (Ђурађ I) was the Lord of Zeta between 1362 and 13 January 1378.
The Šar Mountains (Macedonian and Шар планина, Šar planina) or Sharr Mountains (Malet e Sharrit), form a mountain range in the Balkans that extends from Kosovo and the northwest of the Republic of Macedonia, to northeastern Albania.
Bakir Izetbegović (born 28 June 1956) is a Bosnian politician.
Balkan cuisine may refer to.
Balkan Insight is a publication of the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN), that focuses on news, analysis, commentary and investigative reporting from southeast Europe.
The Balkan League was an alliance formed by a series of bilateral treaties concluded in 1912 between the Balkan kingdoms of Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro, and directed against the Ottoman Empire, which at the time still controlled much of the Balkan peninsula.
The Balkan mountain range (Bulgarian and Стара планина, Latin Serbian Stara planina, "Old Mountain") is a mountain range in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula.
Balkan music is a type of music found in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe.
Balkan Region (Balkan welaýaty, Балкан велаяты, بلقان ولايتى) is one of the regions of Turkmenistan.
The Balkan sprachbund or Balkan language area is the ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans.
The Balkan Universities Network or BUN in its present form was created after the end of the SFR Yugoslavia, the founding of new universities, and the implementation of the Bologna Process in Balkan Universities.
The Balkan Wars (Balkan Savaşları, literally "the Balkan Wars" or Balkan Faciası, meaning "the Balkan Tragedy") consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913.
Balkanization, or Balkanisation, is a geopolitical term used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region or state into smaller regions or states that are often hostile or uncooperative with one another.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Binali Yıldırım (born 20 December 1955) is a Turkish politician, the 27th and current Prime Minister of Turkey since 2016 and Leader of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) from 2016 to 2017.
A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The bora is a northern to north-eastern katabatic wind in the Adriatic Sea.
Boris III (Борѝс III; 28 August 1943), originally Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver (Boris Clement Robert Mary Pius Louis Stanislaus Xavier), was Tsar of Bulgaria from 1918 until his death.
Borut Pahor (born 2 November 1963) is a Slovenian politician serving as President of Slovenia since December 2012.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: konvertibilna marka, Cyrillic: конвертибилна марка) is the currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
Boyko Metodiev Borisov (Бойко Методиев Борисов,; born 13 June 1959) is a Bulgarian politician who has been serving as the 50th Prime Minister of Bulgaria since 4 May 2017.
Brașov (Corona, Kronstadt, Transylvanian Saxon: Kruhnen, Brassó) is a city in Romania and the administrative centre of Brașov County.
The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
In the medieval history of Europe, Bulgaria's status as the Bulgarian Empire (Българско царство, Balgarsko tsarstvo), wherein it acted as a key regional power (particularly rivaling Byzantium in Southeastern Europe) occurred in two distinct periods: between the seventh and eleventh centuries, and again between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries.
The lev (лев, plural: лева, левове / leva, levove) is the currency of Bulgaria.
The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Българска православна църква, Balgarska pravoslavna tsarkva) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Albania is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
The Catholic Church in Bosnia and Herzegovina is part of the worldwide Catholic Church under the spiritual leadership of the pope in Rome.
The Catholic Church in Croatia (Katolicizam u Hrvatskoj) is part of the worldwide Catholic Church that is under the spiritual leadership of the Pope, Roman Curia and the Croatian Bishops' Conference.
The Catholic Church in Greece is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
The Catholic Church has a population in Kosovo of approximately 65,000 in a region of roughly 2 million people.
The Catholic Church in the Republic of Macedonia is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome and is one of the major religious communities that exist on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Catholic Church in Montenegro is a part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
The Catholic Church (Biserica Catolică din România, Romániai Római Katolikus Egyház, Katholische Kirche in Rumänien) in Romania is a Latin Rite Christian church, part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
The Catholic Church in Serbia is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
The Roman Catholic Church in Slovenia is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) is a trade agreement between non-EU countries, members of which are now mostly located in Southeastern Europe.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Central Serbia (Централна Србија / Centralna Srbija), also referred to as Serbia proper (ужа Србија / uža Srbija), is the part of Serbia lying outside the provinces of Vojvodina to the north and the disputed territory of Kosovo (Kosovo and Metohija) to the south.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chromite is an iron chromium oxide: FeCr2O4.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg; Kolozsvár,; Medieval Latin: Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis; and קלויזנבורג, Kloiznburg), commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania, and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Communist Party of Greece (Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας; Kommounistikó Kómma Elládas, KKE) is a Marxist–Leninist political party in Greece.
Constanța (Κωνστάντζα or Κωνστάντια, Konstantia, Кюстенджа or Констанца, Köstence), historically known as Tomis (Τόμις), is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania.
Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus (Κωνσταντῖνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos; 8 February 1405 – 29 May 1453) was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor, ruling as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The kuna is the currency of Croatia, in use since 1994 (ISO 4217 code: HRK).
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
The Croatian War of Independence was fought from 1991 to 1995 between Croat forces loyal to the government of Croatia—which had declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY)—and the Serb-controlled Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and local Serb forces, with the JNA ending its combat operations in Croatia by 1992.
Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.
The Dacians (Daci; loc Δάοι, Δάκαι) were an Indo-European people, part of or related to the Thracians.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Denis Zvizdić (born 9 June 1964) is a Bosnian politician.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
The Dinaric Alps, also commonly Dinarides, are a mountain range in Southern and Southeastern Europe, separating the continental Balkan Peninsula from the Adriatic Sea.
Duško Marković (Cyrillic: Душко Марковић; born 6 July 1959) is a Montenegrin politician and the current Prime Minister of Montenegro, elected on 28 November 2016.
East Thrace, or Eastern Thrace (Doğu Trakya or simply Trakya; Ανατολική Θράκη, Anatoliki Thraki; Източна Тракия, Iztochna Trakiya), also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of the modern Republic of Turkey that is geographically part of Southeast Europe.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eastern Orthodoxy in Albania arrived in the area of contemporary Albania during the Roman period.
The Eastern Orthodox Church is the most widespread Christian denomination in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the second most widespread religious group in the country, following Islam and followed in turn by Roman Catholicism.
Eastern Orthodox Christianity is the second largest religious denomination in Croatia, as Roman Catholicism predominates.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Edi Rama (born 4 July 1964) is an Albanian politician, artist, writer and former basketball player, who has been the Prime Minister of Albania since 2013.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
Enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the process of including new member states in NATO.
The enlargement of the eurozone is an ongoing process within the European Union (EU).
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Union Customs Union (EUCU) is a customs union which consists of all the member states of the European Union (EU), Monaco, and some territories of the United Kingdom which are not part of the EU (Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Bailiwick of Guernsey, Bailiwick of Jersey, and the Isle of Man).
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
Filip Vujanović (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Филип Вујановић) (born 1 September 1954) is a Montenegrin politician who served as the President of Montenegro from 2003 to 2018.
Firs (Abies) are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae.
The First Balkan War (Балканска война; Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; Први балкански рат, Prvi Balkanski rat; Birinci Balkan Savaşı), lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League (the kingdoms of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) against the Ottoman Empire.
Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) was an open source intelligence component of the Central Intelligence Agency's Directorate of Science and Technology.
Francis Dvornik (Chomýž, 14 August 1893 – Chomýž, 4 November 1975), in Czech František Dvorník, was a priest and academic, and one of the leading twentieth-century experts on Slavic and Byzantine history, and on relations between the churches of Rome and Constantinople.
There are five recognised candidates for future membership of the European Union: Turkey (applied in 14 April 1987), Macedonia (applied in 22 March 2004), Montenegro (applied in 2008), Albania (applied in 2009), and Serbia (applied in 2009).
The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili, Gagauzça) is a Turkic language spoken by the Gagauz people of Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey, and it is the official language of the Autonomous Region of Gagauzia in Moldova.
Georgi Stoykov Rakovski (Георги Стойков Раковски) (1821 – 9 October 1867), known also Georgi Sava Rakovski (Георги Сава Раковски), born Sabi Stoykov Popovich (Съби Стойков Попович), was a 19th-century Bulgarian revolutionary, freemason, writer and an important figure of the Bulgarian National Revival and resistance against Ottoman rule.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
In economics, the Gini coefficient (sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality.
Gjorge Ivanov (Ѓорге Иванов,; born May 2, 1960), is a Macedonian politician currently serving as the President of the Republic of Macedonia, in office since 2009.
The Gorani (Горани) or Goranci (Serbian Cyrillic: Горанци) are a Slavic Muslim ethnic group inhabiting the Gora region - the triangle between Kosovo, Albania, and the Republic of Macedonia.
Georgi Nikolov Delchev (Bulgarian: Георги Николов Делчев), known as Gotse Delchev, also spelled Goce Delčev, Cyrillic: Гоце Делчев, originally spelled in older Bulgarian orthography: Гоце Дѣлчевъ; (February 4, 1872 – May 4, 1903) was an important Bulgarian revolutionary figure in Ottoman-ruled Macedonia and Thrace at the turn of the 20th century.
The Greco-Italian War (Italo-Greek War, Italian Campaign in Greece; in Greece: War of '40 and Epic of '40) took place between the kingdoms of Italy and Greece from 28 October 1940 to 23 April 1941.
Τhe Greek Civil War (ο Eμφύλιος, o Emfýlios, "the Civil War") was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army—backed by the United Kingdom and the United States—and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE)—the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE).
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
In Greek mythology, King Haemus of Thrace (Haîmos) was the son of Boreas.
In earlier times, the Balkan Mountains were known as the Haemus Mons.
Halil İnalcık (26 May 1916 – 25 July 2016) was a Turkish historian of the Ottoman Empire.
Hashim Thaçi (.
The Balkans is an area situated in Southeastern and Eastern Europe.
Jews have had a continuous presence in historic Bulgarian lands since before the 2nd century CE, and have often played an important part in the history of Bulgaria.
Hristo Botev (Христо Ботев, also transliterated as Hristo Botyov), born Hristo Botyov Petkov (Христо Ботьов Петков), was a Bulgarian poet and national revolutionary.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
The Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia (MTA)) is the most important and prestigious learned society of Hungary.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
Iași (also referred to as Jassy or Iassy) is the second-largest city in Romania, after the national capital Bucharest, and the seat of Iași County.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Ilir Meta (born 24 March 1969) is an Albanian diplomat and politician who has served as President of Albania since 24 July 2017.
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy.
Individual Partnership Action Plans (IPAP) are plans developed between NATO and different countries which outline the objectives and the communication framework for dialogue and cooperation between both parties.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
The international E-road network is a numbering system for roads in Europe developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).
The Ionian Sea (Ιόνιο Πέλαγος,, Mar Ionio,, Deti Jon) is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam in Albania mainly arrived during the Ottoman period when the majority of Albanians over time converted to Islam and in particular two of its denominations: Sunni and Bektashi (a Shia-Sufi order).
Islam is the most widespread religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Islam in Bulgaria is a minority religion and the largest religion in the country after Christianity.
Islam is the second-largest faith in Croatia after Christianity.
Islam in Greece is represented by two distinct communities; Muslims that have lived in Greece since the times of the Ottoman Empire (primarily in East Macedonia and Thrace) and Muslim immigrants that began arriving in the last quarter of the 20th century, mainly in Athens and Thessaloniki.
Islam in Kosovo has a long-standing tradition dating back to the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans, including Kosovo.
Muslims in Montenegro form the largest minority religion in the country.
Islam spread to Serbia during the five centuries of Ottoman rule.
The Muslims in Slovenia are ethnically mostly Bosniaks and other Slavic Muslims.
Muslims in the Republic of Macedonia represent one-third of the nation's total population, making Islam the second most widely professed religion in the country.
Islam in Turkey, The established presence of Islam in the region that now constitutes modern Turkey dates back to the latter half of the 11th century, when the Seljuks started expanding into eastern Anatolia.
Isolationism is a category of foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who assert that their nations' best interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Istria (Croatian, Slovene: Istra; Istriot: Eîstria; Istria; Istrien), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
Ivan Crnojević (Иван Црнојевић), also known as Ivan the Black was the Lord of Zeta from 1465 to 1490.
The Jewish Virtual Library ("JVL", formerly known as JSOURCE) is an online encyclopedia published by the American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE).
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The Jireček Line is a conceptual boundary through the ancient Balkans that divides the influence of the Latin (in the north) and Greek (in the south) languages in the Roman Empire from Antiquity until the 4th century.
John Bacon Sawrey Morritt (1772? – 1843) was an English traveller, politician and classical scholar.
John V. A. Fine Jr. (born 1939) is an American historian and author.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнa Горa / Kraljevina Crna Gora), was a monarchy in southeastern Europe, present day Montenegro, during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist in practice.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Klaus Werner Iohannis (also spelled Johannis; born 13 June 1959) is the current President of Romania.
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović ((born 29 April 1968) is a Croatian politician and diplomat who has been the President of Croatia since 2015. She is the first woman to be elected president after the first multi-party elections in 1990. At 46 years of age, she became the youngest person to enter the office. Before her election as president, Grabar-Kitarović held a number of governmental and diplomatic positions. She was Minister of European Affairs from 2003 to 2005, the first female Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration from 2005 to 2008 in both the first and second cabinets of Ivo Sanader, Croatian Ambassador to the United States from 2008 to 2011 and Assistant Secretary General for Public Diplomacy at NATO under Secretaries-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen and Jens Stoltenberg from 2011 to 2014. Grabar-Kitarović contested the presidential election held in December 2014 and January 2015 as the only female candidate (out of four in total), finishing as the runner-up in the first round and thereafter proceeding to narrowly defeat incumbent President Ivo Josipović in the second round. Her strong performance in the first round was widely viewed as unexpected, as most opinion polls had given incumbent president Josipović a strong lead and some even showed it was possible that he would win outright by acquiring more than 50% of the vote. In the second round, Grabar-Kitarović defeated Josipović by the closest percentage margin of any presidential election to date (1.48%) and received the smallest number of votes of any elected president in Croatia (1.114 million votes). Furthermore, as Croatia had previously also had a female Prime Minister, Jadranka Kosor, from 2009 until 2011, Grabar-Kitarović's election as president also included the country into a small group of parliamentary republics which have had both a female head of state and head of government. Grabar-Kitarović was a member of the conservative Croatian Democratic Union party from 1993 to 2015 and was also one of three Croatian members of the Trilateral Commission, but she was required to resign both positions upon taking office as president in 2015, as Croatian Presidents are not permitted to hold other political positions or party membership while in office. In 2017, Forbes magazine listed Grabar-Kitarović as the world's 39th most powerful woman.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
The Kupa (Croatian and Serbian pronunciation) or Kolpa (or; from Colapis in Roman times) river, a right tributary of the Sava, forms a natural border between north-west Croatia and southeast Slovenia.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
This is a list of languages spoken in regions ruled by Balkan countries.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović (Лазар Хребељановић; ca. 1329 – 15 June 1389) was a medieval Serbian ruler who created the largest and most powerful state on the territory of the disintegrated Serbian Empire.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients.
Country calling codes or country dial in codes are telephone dialing prefixes for the member countries or regions of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
This is a list of Roman Catholic Church dioceses in the Balkans. In Balkanic Europe, the Roman Catholic Church comprises 8 conferences, 14 ecclesiastical provinces, 31 suffragan dioceses and 1 apostolic administration.
Ljubljana (locally also; also known by other, historical names) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Macedonia (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) is a geographic and historical region of Greece in the southern Balkans.
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.
The Macedonia naming dispute is a political dispute over the use of the name "Macedonia" between the southeastern European countries of Greece and the Republic of Macedonia, formerly a region within Yugoslavia.
The denar (денар; paucal: denari / денари) is the currency of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonica Front (after Thessaloniki), was a military theatre of World War I formed as a result of an attempt by the Allied Powers to aid Serbia, in the fall of 1915, against the combined attack of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
The Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric (MOC-OA; Македонска православна црква – Охридска архиепископија (МПЦ-ОА), tr. Makedonska pravoslavna crkva – Ohridska arhiepiskopija (MPC-OA)), or simply the Macedonian Orthodox Church (MOC; Македонска православна црква (МПЦ), tr. Makedonska pravoslavna crkva (MPC)), is the largest body of Christians in the Republic of Macedonia who are united under the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia.
The Macedonians (Македонци; transliterated: Makedonci), also known as Macedonian Slavs or Slavic Macedonians, are a South Slavic ethnic group native to the region of Macedonia.
Magnesite is a mineral with the chemical formula MgCO3 (magnesium carbonate).
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is an international alliance that consists of 29 member states from North America and Europe.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Miloš Obilić (Милош Обилић,; died June 15, 1389) was a Serbian knight in the service of Prince Lazar, during the invasion of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs (Bundesministerium für Europa, Integration und Äußeres, abbreviated BMEIA, colloquially Außenministerium) or commonly just referred to as Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is Austria's foreign ministry.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
Miroslav Cerar Jr. (known as Miro Cerar; born 25 August 1963) is a Slovenian lawyer and politician who has served as the 10th Prime Minister of Slovenia from 18 September 2014 to 14 March 2018, when he announced his resignation, and now serves as the leader of a caretaker government lasting until a new one is formed following the June parliamentary election.
The Modern Library Chronicles are a series of short books published by the American publisher, Modern Library.
Monfalcone (Bisiacco: Mofalcòn; Monfalcon; Tržič; archaic Falkenberg) is a town and comune of the province of Gorizia in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, northern Italy, located on the Gulf of Trieste.
Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro.
The Montenegrin Orthodox Church (MOC; Montenegrin: Crnogorska Pravoslavna Crkva (CPC)/Црногорска православна црква (ЦПЦ)) is an Orthodox Christian Church acting in Montenegro and Montenegrin diaspora (most notably in Serbia and Argentina).
Montenegrins (Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci, or), literally "People of the Black Mountain", are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Montenegro.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Mount Olympus (Όλυμπος Olympos, for Modern Greek also transliterated Olimbos, or) is the highest mountain in Greece.
Musala (Мусала); from Arabic through Ottoman Turkish: from Musalla, "near God" or "place for prayer" is the highest peak in the entire Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,925 m (9,596 ft).
National and University Library in Zagreb (NUL) (NSK; formerly Nacionalna i sveučilišna biblioteka u Zagrebu, NSB) is the national library of Croatia and central library of the University of Zagreb.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's (NATO) military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) during the Kosovo War.
The NATO intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina was a series of actions undertaken by NATO whose stated aim was to establish long-term peace during and after the Bosnian War.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nikola Šubić Zrinski or Zrínyi Miklós (1508 – 7 September 1566) was a Croatian nobleman and general in the service of the Habsburg, ban of Croatia from 1542-56, and member of the Zrinski noble family.
Nikola Janakiev Karev (Bulgarian and Macedonian: Никола Карев; 1877–1905) was a revolutionary in Ottoman-ruled Macedonia.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Northern Dobruja (Dobrogea; Северна Добруджа, Severna Dobrudzha) is the part of Dobruja within the borders of Romania.
Novi Sad (Нови Сад,; Újvidék; Nový Sad; see below for other names) is the second largest city of Serbia, the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina and the administrative center of the South Bačka District.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
An open economy is an economy in which there are economic activities between the domestic community and outside.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Deliberate Force was a sustained air campaign conducted by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), in concert with the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) ground operations, to undermine the military capability of the Bosnian Serb Army (VRS), which had threatened and attacked UN-designated "safe areas" in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War with the Srebrenica and Markale massacres, precipitating the intervention.
Operation Storm (Operacija Oluja, Операција Олуја) was the last major battle of the Croatian War of Independence and a major factor in the outcome of the Bosnian War.
The Orient Express was a long-distance passenger train service created in 1883 by Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits (CIWL).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century.
The overthrow of Slobodan Milošević occurred on 5 October 2000, in Belgrade, in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, following the presidential election on September 24th, and culminating in the downfall of Slobodan Milošević's government on 5 October 2000.
In antiquity, Paeonia or Paionia (Παιονία) was the land and kingdom of the Paeonians (Παίονες).
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.
Pécs (known by alternative names) is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia.
A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The Pindus (also Pindos or Pindhos) (Πίνδος) mountain range is located in northern Greece and southern Albania.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Plovdiv (Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 341,000 and 675,000 in the greater metropolitan area.
Podgorica (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Подгорица,, lit. " below Gorica ") is the capital and largest city of Montenegro.
A polje, also karst polje or karst field, is a large flat plain found in karstic geological regions of the world, with areas usually 5 to 400 km².
Pope Innocent VIII (Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492.
A population decline (or depopulation) in humans is any great reduction in a human population caused by events such as long-term demographic trends, as in sub-replacement fertility, urban decay, white flight or rural flight, or due to violence, disease, or other catastrophes.
Pristina (Prishtina or Prishtinë) or Priština (Приштина), is the capital and largest city of Kosovo.
Prokletije (Проклетије,; Bjeshkët e Nemuna; both translated as "cursed mountains"), also known as the Albanian Alps (Alpet Shqiptare) and the Accursed Mountains, is a mountain range on the western Balkan peninsula, extending from northern Albania to Kosovo and eastern Montenegro.
Prokopios Pavlopoulos, GColIH (Προκόπιος Παυλόπουλος,, born 10 July 1950), commonly shortened to Prokopis (Προκόπης), is the President of Greece, in office since 2015.
Protestants are the 4th largest religious group in Serbia, after Eastern Orthodox Christians, Roman Catholics and Muslims.
Proto-writing consists of visible marks communicating limited information.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Ramush Haradinaj (born 3 March 1968) is a Kosovo Albanian politician, who has been the Prime Minister of Kosovo since 9 September 2017 and leader of the AAK party.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Rhodopes (Родопи, Rodopi; Ροδόπη, Rodopi; Rodoplar) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece.
Rila (Рила) is a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria and the highest mountain range of Bulgaria and the Balkans, with its highest peak being Musala at 2,925 m. The massif is also the sixth highest mountain in Europe (when each mountain is represented by its highest peak only), coming after the Caucasus, the Alps, Sierra Nevada, the Pyrenees and Mount Etna, and the highest between the Alps and the Caucasus.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The Romanian leu (plural lei; ISO 4217 code RON; numeric code 946) is the currency of Romania.
The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches and ranked seventh in order of precedence.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rumelia (روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Rumeli), also known as Turkey in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.
Rumen Georgiev Radev (Румен Георгиев Радев; born 18 June 1963) is a Bulgarian Major General of the Reserve and the current President of Bulgaria since January 2017.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.
The Sava (Сава) is a river in Central and Southeastern Europe, a right tributary of the Danube.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 (O.S.) / 29 (N.S.) June 1913.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The dinar (динар,; paucal: dinara / динара) is the currency of Serbia.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
The Serbian Orthodox Church (Српска православна црква / Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant.
George Castriot (Gjergj Kastrioti, 6 May 1405 – 17 January 1468), known as Skanderbeg (Skënderbej or Skënderbeu from اسکندر بگ İskender Bey), was an Albanian nobleman and military commander, who served the Ottoman Empire in 1423–43, the Republic of Venice in 1443–47, and lastly the Kingdom of Naples until his death.
Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slobodan Milošević (Слободан Милошевић; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician and the President of Serbia (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
The Slovenes, also called as Slovenians (Slovenci), are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak Slovenian as their first language.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
The Soča (in Slovene) or Isonzo (in Italian; other names Lusinç, Sontig, Aesontius or Isontius) is a long river that flows through western Slovenia and northeastern Italy.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The Socialist Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: Социјалистичка Република Македонија, Socijalistička Republika Makedonija) was one of the six constituent countries of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and a socialist nation state of the Macedonians.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
Southeast European Times was a United States European Command-sponsored news website dedicated to coverage of Southeast Europe that ended publication in March 2015.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth.
The Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe was an institution aimed at strengthening peace, democracy, human rights and economy in the countries of South Eastern Europe from 1999 to 2008.
The Starčevo culture, sometimes included within a larger grouping known as the Starčevo–Körös–Criş culture, is an archaeological culture of Southeastern Europe, dating to the Neolithic period between c. 6200 and 4500 BCE.
The city of Belgrade is divided into 17 municipalities.
Subdivisions of Slovenia.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
The Ten-Day War (desetdnevna vojna) or the Slovenian Independence War (slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna), was a brief war of independence that followed the Slovenian declaration of independence on 25 June 1991.
The American Historical Review is the official publication of the American Historical Association.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
Theodoros Kolokotronis (Θεόδωρος Κολοκοτρώνης; 3 April 1770 – 4 February 1843) was a Greek general and the pre-eminent leader of the Greek War of Independence (1821–1829) against the Ottoman Empire.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians, the northern neighbors of the Ancient Greeks.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Timișoara (Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Temesvár,; טעמשוואר; Темишвар / Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár; Temeşvar; Temešvár) is the capital city of Timiș County, and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tirana (—; Tiranë; Tirona) is the capital and most populous city of Albania.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Turkish lira (Türk lirası; sign: ₺; code: TRY; usually abbreviated as TL) is the currency of Turkey and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Typhon (Τυφῶν, Tuphōn), also Typhoeus (Τυφωεύς, Tuphōeus), Typhaon (Τυφάων, Tuphaōn) or Typhos (Τυφώς, Tuphōs), was a monstrous serpentine giant and the most deadly creature in Greek mythology.
The Uly Balkan, also known as the Great Balkan Range is a mountain range in Turkmenistan.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
UTC+01:00, known simply as UTC+1, is a time offset that adds 1 hour to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
UTC+02:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +02.
Vardar Macedonia (Macedonian and Вардарска Македонија, Vardarska Makedonija) was the name given to the territory of Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia roughly corresponding to today's Republic of Macedonia.
Varna (Варна, Varna) is the third-largest city in Bulgaria and the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
Vasil Levski (Васил Левски, originally spelled Василъ Лѣвскій, pronounced), born Vasil Ivanov Kunchev (Васил Иванов Кунчев; 18 July 1837 – 18 February 1873), was a Bulgarian revolutionary and is a national hero of Bulgaria today.
Vihren is the highest peak of Bulgaria's Pirin Mountains.
The Vinča culture, also known as Turdaș culture or Turdaș–Vinča culture, is a Neolithic archaeological culture in Serbia and smaller parts of Romania (particularly Transylvania), dated to the period 5700–4500 BC.
The Vinča symbols, sometimes called the Danube script, Vinča signs, Vinča script, Vinča–Turdaș script, Old European script, etc., are a set of symbols found on Neolithic era (6th to 5th millennia BC) artifacts from the Vinča culture of Central Europe and Southeastern Europe.
Vasilica Viorica Dăncilă (born 16 December 1963) is a Romanian politician, a leader of the Social Democratic Party, and the Prime Minister of Romania since 29 January 2018.
Vojvodina (Serbian and Croatian: Vojvodina; Војводина; Pannonian Rusyn: Войводина; Vajdaság; Slovak and Czech: Vojvodina; Voivodina), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; see Names in other languages), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.
A vulture is a scavenging bird of prey.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,236 or more in 2016, calculated using the Atlas method.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Young Bosnia (Mlada Bosna/Млада Босна) was a revolutionary movement active in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina before World War I. The members were predominantly school students, primarily Bosnian Serbs, but also Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats.
The Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslovenska narodna armija / Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslavenska narodna armija; also Yugoslav National Army), often referred-to simply by the initialism JNA, was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zadar (see other names) is the oldest continuously inhabited Croatian city.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zoran Zaev (Зоран Заев; born 8 October 1974) is a Macedonian economist and politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Macedonia since 31 May 2017.
The 2001 insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia was an armed conflict which began when the ethnic Albanian National Liberation Army (NLA) militant group attacked the security forces of the Republic of Macedonia at the beginning of February 2001, and ended with the Ohrid Agreement.
The 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence was adopted on 17 February 2008 by the Assembly of Kosovo.
Balcans, Balkan, Balkan Peninsula, Balkan Penninsula, Balkan Pennisula, Balkan States, Balkan cities over 200,000 people, Balkan countries, Balkan peninsula, Balkan penninsula, Balkan peoples, Balkan states, Balkanic, Balkanic Europe, Balkanoid, Balkans Peninsula, Balkans peninsula, Balkins, Central Balkans, Demographics of the Balkans, Demography of the Balkans, East Balkan, Haemus Peninsula, Historical regions of the Balkan Peninsula, Historical regions of the Balkans, List of Balkan countries, List of historical regions of the Balkan Peninsula, Peninsula of Haemus, South Balkan area, The Balkans, Western Balkan, Western Balkan region, Western Balkans.