101 relations: Aerodynamics, Aircraft, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Apollo 11, Archery, Arctic small tool tradition, Armour, Arrow, Artillery, Ball, Ballistic conduction, Ballistic limit, Ballistic missile, Baseball (ball), BBC News, Bloodstain pattern analysis, Bullet, Celestial mechanics, Chimpanzee, China, Circular error probable, Classical mechanics, Cruise missile, Designer, Ejection seat, Elasticity (physics), Electron, Equations of motion, Escape velocity, External ballistics, Firearm, Fireworks, Flight, Force, Forensic firearm examination, Galileo Galilei, Gravity, Gun, Gun barrel, Gunshot residue, Gunshot wound, Hamburg, History of China, Holmegaard, Human spaceflight, Hydrostatic shock (firearms), Internal ballistics, Isaac Newton, L.T.E. Thompson, ..., Latin, Launch vehicle, Lyn Wadley, Marshall Space Flight Center, Mechanics, Missile, Muscle, Newton's law of universal gravitation, Newton's laws of motion, Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia, Peter Bielkowicz, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Physics of firearms, Pistol, Projectile, Propellant, Propelling nozzle, Propulsion, Ranged weapon, Reaction (physics), Rifle, Rifling, Rocket, Rocket engine, Rocket propellant, Satellite, Shell (projectile), Shoulder, Sibudu Cave, Siege engine, South Africa, Space, Space Age, Space exploration, Spacecraft, Spear-thrower, Stopping power, Taser, Tendon, Terminal ballistics, Throwing stick, Thrust, Trajectory, Transitional ballistics, Two New Sciences, Unguided bomb, University of the Witwatersrand, Vaporific effect, Vehicle, Weapon, Wolfram Demonstrations Project. Expand index (51 more) » « Shrink index
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
The Arctic Small Tool tradition (ASTt) was a broad cultural entity that developed along the Alaska Peninsula, around Bristol Bay, and on the eastern shores of the Bering Strait around 2500 BC.
Armour (British English or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.
An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile that is launched via a bow, and usually consists of a long straight stiff shaft with stabilizers called fletchings, as well as a weighty (and usually sharp and pointed) arrowhead attached to the front end, and a slot at the rear end called nock for engaging bowstring.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
A ball is a round object (usually spherical but sometimes ovoid) with various uses.
Ballistic conduction (ballistic transport) is the transport of electrons in a medium having negligible electrical resistivity caused by scattering.
The ballistic limit or limit velocity is the velocity required for a particular projectile to reliably (at least 50% of the time) penetrate a particular piece of material.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
A baseball is a ball used in the sport of the same name.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA), one of several specialties in the field of forensic science, involves the study and analysis of bloodstains at a known or suspected violent crime scene with the goal of helping investigators draw conclusions about the nature, timing and other details of the crime.
A bullet is a kinetic projectile and the component of firearm ammunition that is expelled from the gun barrel during shooting.
Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the motions of celestial objects.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
In the military science of ballistics, circular error probable (CEP) (also circular error probability or circle of equal probability) is a measure of a weapon system's precision.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed.
A designer is a person who designs.
In aircraft, an ejection seat or ejector seat is a system designed to rescue the pilot or other crew of an aircraft (usually military) in an emergency.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, equations of motion are equations that describe the behavior of a physical system in terms of its motion as a function of time.
In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body.
External ballistics or exterior ballistics is the part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight.
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.
Flight is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere (or beyond it, as in the case of spaceflight) without contact with the surface.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
Forensic firearm examination is the forensic process of examining the characteristics of firearms as well as any cartridges or bullets left behind at a crime scene.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
A gun is a tubular ranged weapon typically designed to pneumatically discharge projectiles that are solid (most guns) but can also be liquid (as in water guns/cannons and projected water disruptors) or even charged particles (as in a plasma gun) and may be free-flying (as with bullets and artillery shells) or tethered (as with Taser guns, spearguns and harpoon guns).
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.
Gunshot residue (GSR), also known as cartridge discharge residue (CDR), "gunfire residue" (GFR), or firearm discharge residue (FDR), is residue deposited on the hands and clothes of someone who discharges a firearm.
A gunshot wound (GSW), also known as ballistic trauma, is a form of physical trauma sustained from the discharge of arms or munitions.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Until January 1, 2007, Holmegaard was a municipality (Danish, kommune) in Storstrøm County in the southern part of the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in south Denmark.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
Hydrostatic shock is the controversial concept that a penetrating projectile (such as a bullet) can produce a pressure wave that causes "remote neural damage", "subtle damage in neural tissues" and/or "rapid incapacitating effects" in living targets.
Internal ballistics (also interior ballistics), a subfield of ballistics, is the study of the propulsion of a projectile.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
Lyn Wadley is an honorary professor of archaeology, and also affiliated jointly with the Archaeology Department and the Institute for Evolution at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa.
The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), located in Huntsville, Alabama, is the U.S. government's civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center.
Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia (1499/1500, Brescia – 13 December 1557, Venice) was a Venetian mathematician, engineer (designing fortifications), a surveyor (of topography, seeking the best means of defense or offense) and a bookkeeper from the then-Republic of Venice (now part of Italy).
Peter Bielkowicz (1 February 1902 – 30 September 1993) was a physicist.
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
From the viewpoint of physics (dynamics, to be exact), a firearm, as for most weapons, is a system for delivering maximum destructive energy to the target with minimum delivery of energy on the shooter.
A pistol is a type of handgun.
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
A propelling nozzle is a nozzle that converts a gas turbine or gas generator into a jet engine.
Propulsion means to push forward or drive an object forward.
A ranged weapon is any weapon that can engage targets beyond hand-to-hand distance, i.e. at distances greater than the physical reach of the weapon itself.
As described by the third of Newton's laws of motion of classical mechanics, all forces occur in pairs such that if one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts an equal and opposite reaction force on the first.
A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls.
In firearms, rifling is the helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
Rocket propellant is a material used either directly by a rocket as the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion, or indirectly to produce the reaction mass in a chemical reaction.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.
The human shoulder is made up of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus (upper arm bone) as well as associated muscles, ligaments and tendons.
Sibudu Cave is a rock shelter in a sandstone cliff in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
The Space Age is a time period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race, space exploration, space technology, and the cultural developments influenced by these events.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
A spear-thrower or atlatl (or; ahtlatl) is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in dart-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to store energy during the throw.
Stopping power is the ability of a firearm or other weapon to cause enough ballistic trauma to a target (human or animal) to immediately incapacitate (and thus stop) the target.
A Taser is a brand of electroshock weapon sold by Axon.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
Terminal ballistics (also known as wound ballistics), a sub-field of ballistics, is the study of the behavior and effects of a projectile when it hits and transfers its energy to a target.
The throwing stick, or throwing club, is one of the first weapons used by early humans and cultures all around the world.
Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.
A trajectory or flight path is the path that a massive object in motion follows through space as a function of time.
Transitional ballistics, also known as intermediate ballistics, at Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Accessed April 27, 2009 is the study of a projectile's behavior from the time it leaves the muzzle until the pressure behind the projectile is equalized, so it lies between internal ballistics and external ballistics.
The Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences (Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche Intorno a Due Nuove Scienze), published in 1638 was Galileo's final book and a scientific testament covering much of his work in physics over the preceding thirty years.
An unguided bomb, also known as a free-fall bomb, gravity bomb, dumb bomb, or iron bomb, is a conventional aircraft-delivered bomb that does not contain a guidance system and hence, simply follows a ballistic trajectory.
The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, is a multi-campus South African public research university situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg.
Vaporific effect is a flash fire resulting from the impact of high velocity projectiles with metallic objects.
A vehicle (from vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
The Wolfram Demonstrations Project is an organized, open-source collection of small (or medium-size) interactive programs called Demonstrations, which are meant to visually and interactively represent ideas from a range of fields.
Ballistic Trajectories, Ballistic body, Ballistic trajectories, Ballistic vehicle, Ballistically, Ballistics test, Criminal ballistics, Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners, Forensic ballistics, Science of a bullet.