272 relations: Abbottabad, Abdul Hamid Khan (general), Abdul Qayum Sher, Aboobaker Osman Mitha, Abrar Hussain (general), Action of Khan Baghdadi, Ahmadpur East Tehsil, Ali Kuli Khan Khattak, Allied invasion of Sicily, Anglo-Egyptian War, Anglo-Iraqi War, Anglo-Persian War, Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, Arakan Campaign 1942–43, Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, Bahawalpur (princely state), Bahawalpur Regiment, Baloch people, Balochistan, Pakistan, Battle honour, Battle of Armentières, Battle of Bologna, Battle of Chamb, Battle of Chawinda, Battle of Gallabat, Battle of Gazala, Battle of Jitra, Battle of Kampar, Battle of Kandahar, Battle of Keren, Battle of Khushab, Battle of Krithia, Battle of Loos, Battle of Mahidpur, Battle of Maiwand, Battle of Megiddo (1918), Battle of Meiktila and Mandalay, Battle of Messines (1914), Battle of Neuve Chapelle, Battle of Pokoku and Irrawaddy River operations, Battle of San Marino, Battle of Singapore, Battle of Tell El Kebir, Belgium, Bengal Presidency, Beret, 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Abbottabad (Urdu, ایبٹ آباد) is the capital city of Abbottabad District in the Hazara region of eastern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
General Abdul Hamid Khan, (Urdu: عبد الحمید خان), was a four star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, serving as the Chief of Staff of the Pakistan Army under President Yahya Khan and led the army during the events in the war with India in 1971.
Brig Abdul Qayum Sher HJ was an officer of the Pakistani Army.
Aboobaker Osman Mitha (Urdu:ابو بكر عثمان متها; b.1923–1999), popularize as A.O. Mitha,, was a two-star rank army general who is considered a legend in the Pakistan Army, and a "stay behind" conceptual founder of Special Services Group (SSG).
Major General Abrar Hussain, HJ MBE (1918–1992) was a Pakistani military officer who served in World War II and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
The Action of Khan Baghdadi was an engagement during the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I.
Ahmadpur East or Ahmadpur Sharqia (Punjabi, Saraiki, تحصِيل احمدپُور شرقیہ) is one of the five tehsils, or administrative subdivisions, of Bahawalpur District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Ali Kuli Khan Khattak (Urdu: على قلى خان; HI(M), is a retired Pakistani three-star rank general officer and former field commander of X Corps. Prior to this field assignment, he was the chief of general staff and also directed the directorate-general of the Military Intelligence (DGMI) during his career. Khattak was also an instructor in the National Defence University (NDU) before being elevated to the senior staff appointments. He has been credited for foresight in predicting the dangers of terrorism and the public appraised reputation when thwarting the conspiracy hatched by infiltrated rogue officers against the government of Prime minister Benazir Bhutto. He opposed the Kargil War and was notably superseded by the former Prime minister Nawaz Sharif after approving the appointment of Khattak's course-mate, General Pervez Musharraf to four-star rank and chief of army staff.
The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).
The Anglo-Egyptian War (al-āḥalāl al-Brīṭānnī al-Miṣr) occurred in 1882 between Egyptian and Sudanese forces under Ahmed ‘Urabi and the United Kingdom.
The Anglo–Iraqi War (2–31 May 1941) was a British military campaign against the rebel government of Rashid Ali in the Kingdom of Iraq during the Second World War.
The Anglo–Persian War lasted between November 1, 1856 and April 4, 1857, and was fought between Great Britain and Persia (which was at the time ruled by the Qajar dynasty).
The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, also known as Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia, was the invasion of the Imperial State of Iran during the Second World War by Soviet, British and other Commonwealth armed forces.
The Arakan Campaign of 1942–43 was the first tentative Allied attack into Burma, following the Japanese conquest of Burma earlier in 1942, during the Second World War.
General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani (اشفاق پرویز کیانی; born 20 April 1952),, is a retired four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army who served as the Chief of Army Staff (COAS), being appointed on 29 November 2007 until 29 November 2013.
Bahawalpur (بہاولپُور), was a princely state of British India and later, Pakistan, that existed from 1802 to 1955.
The Bahawalpur Regiment was an infantry regiment with One artillery regiment known as 14 Abbasia Field Regiment Artillery of Pakistan Army.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
A battle honour is an award of a right by a government or sovereign to a military unit to emblazon the name of a battle or operation on its flags ("colours"), uniforms or other accessories where ornamentation is possible.
The Battle of Armentières (also Battle of Lille) was fought by German and Franco-British forces in northern France in October 1914, during reciprocal attempts by the armies to envelop the northern flank of their opponent, which has been called the Race to the Sea.
The Battle of Bologna was fought in Bologna, Italy from 9–21 April 1945 during the Second World War, as part of the Spring 1945 offensive in Italy.
The Battle of Chamb, 1971 was a battle in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
The Battle of Chawinda was a part of the Sialkot Campaign in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
The Battle of Gallabat (also called the Battle of Metemma) was fought 9–10 March 1889 between the Mahdist Sudanese and Ethiopian forces.
The Battle of Gazala (near the modern town of Ayn al Ghazālah) was fought during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, west of the port of Tobruk in Libya, from 26 May to 21 June 1942.
The Battle of Jitra was fought between the invading Japanese and Allied forces during the Malayan Campaign of the Second World War, from 11–13 December 1941.
The Battle of Kampar (30 December 1941 – 2 January 1942) was an engagement of the Malayan Campaign during World War II, involving British and Indian troops from the 11th Indian Infantry Division and the Japanese 5th Division.
The Battle of Kandahar, 1 September 1880, was the last major conflict of the Second Anglo-Afghan War.
The Battle of Keren (or Cheren, the old Italian spelling) was fought as part of the East African Campaign during the Second World War.
The Battle of Khushab (Battle of Khoosh-Ab) took place on 7 February 1857 and was the largest single engagement of the Anglo-Persian War.
During the Gallipoli campaign in 1915, several battles were fought near the village of Krithia which is from the Greek "Krithari" which means Barley.
The Battle of Loos was a battle that took place from 1915 in France on the Western Front, during the First World War.
The Battle of Mahidpur was fought during the Third Anglo-Maratha War between the Holkar faction of the Maratha Confederacy and the British East India Company at Mahidpur, a town in the Malwa region, on 21 December 1817.
The Battle of Maiwand on 27 July 1880 was one of the principal battles of the Second Anglo-Afghan War.
The Battle of Megiddo (Megiddo Muharebesi) also known in Turkish as the Nablus Hezimeti ("Rout of Nablus"), or the Nablus Yarması ("Breakthrough at Nablus") was fought between 19 and 25 September 1918, on the Plain of Sharon, in front of Tulkarm, Tabsor and Arara in the Judean Hills as well as on the Esdralon Plain at Nazareth, Afulah, Beisan, Jenin and Samakh.
The concurrent Battle of Meiktila and Battle of Mandalay were decisive engagements near the end of the Burma Campaign.
The Battle of Messines was fought in October 1914 between the armies of the German and British empires, as part of the Race to the Sea, between the river Douve and the Comines–Ypres canal.
The Battle of Neuve Chapelle (10–13 March 1915) took place in the First World War.
The Battle of Pakokku and Irrawaddy River operations were a series of battles fought between the British Indian Army and the Imperial Japanese Army and allied forces over the successful Allied Burma Campaign on the China Burma India Theater during World War II.
The Battle of San Marino was an engagement on 17–20 September 1944 during the Italian Campaign of the Second World War, in which German Army forces occupied the neutral Republic of San Marino, and were then attacked by Allied forces.
The Battle of Singapore, also known as the Fall of Singapore, was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II when the Empire of Japan invaded the British stronghold of Singapore—nicknamed the "Gibraltar of the East".
The Battle of Tel El Kebir was fought between the Egyptian army led by Ahmed Urabi and the British military near Tell El Kebir.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Bengal Presidency was once the largest subdivision (presidency) of British India, with its seat in Calcutta (now Kolkata).
A beret is a soft, round, flat-crowned hat, usually of woven, hand-knitted wool, crocheted cotton, wool felt, or acrylic fibre.
Bhandari Ram VC (24 July 191919 May 2002) was an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
The Bombay Army was the army of the Bombay Presidency, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
The Brahui (Brahui: براہوئی) or Brahvi people are an ethnic group of about 2.2 million people with the vast majority found in Baluchistan, Pakistan.
Ceylon (Sinhala: බ්රිතාන්ය ලංකාව, Brithānya Laṃkāva; Tamil: பிரித்தானிய இலங்கை, Birithaniya Ilangai) was a British Crown colony between 1815 and 1948.
British East Africa 1896 is a Battle Honour awarded to the 24th (Baluchistan) (Duchess of Connaught's Own) Regiment of Bombay Infantry; an infantry battalion of the British Indian Army, which participated in the 1896 expedition to British East Africa to suppress a local rebellion.
British East Africa 1897–99 is a Battle Honour awarded to 27th Regiment (1st Baluch Battalion) of Bombay (Light) Infantry; an infantry battalion of the British Indian Army, which participated in the 1897 expedition to British East Africa to suppress a rebellion.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Expedition to Abyssinia was a rescue mission and punitive expedition carried out in 1868 by the armed forces of the British Empire against the Ethiopian Empire.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka, translit) was a British protectorate in present-day northwestern Somalia.
The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
The Central India Campaign was one of the last series of actions in the Indian rebellion of 1857.
The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (CJCSC) is, in principle, the highest-ranking and senior most military officer, typically at four-star rank, in the Pakistan Armed Forces who serves as a principal military adviser to the civilian government led by elected Prime minister of Pakistan and his/her National Security Council.
General Sir Charles James Napier, (10 August 178229 August 1853), was an officer and veteran of the British Army's Peninsula, and 1812 campaigns, and later a Major General of the Bombay Army, during which period he led the military conquest of Sindh, before serving as the Governor of Sindh, and Commander-in-Chief in India.
Colonel Charles James William Grant VC (14 October 1861 – 23 November 1932) was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Cherat is a hill station dating from the 1860s that is located immediately above the villages of Chapri, Saleh Khana and Dak Ismail Khel in the Nowshera District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan.
The Chief of Army Staff (سربراہ پاک فوج) (reporting name: COAS), is a military appointment and statutory office held by the four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.
The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.
The Chief of the Army Staff is the commander and usually the highest-ranking officer of the Indian Army.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinthe (ဇါဒိသိုၚ်,; သၢင်ႇသီႈ) is a leogryph (lion-like creature) that is often seen at the entrances of pagodas and temples in Burma, Cambodia, Laos and is related to the Singha (สิงห์) in Thailand and the Simha (සිංහ) in Sri Lanka as well as to other similar lion statues in other parts of Asia.
The Pakistan Civil Awards were established on March 19, 1957, following the proclamation of Pakistan as an independent republic on March 23, 1956.
Field Marshal Sir Claud William Jacob, (21 November 1863 – 2 June 1948) was a British Indian Army officer.
Colonel commandant is a military title used in the armed forces of some English-speaking countries.
The Colony of Aden or Aden Colony (مستعمرة عدن) was a British Crown colony from 1937 to 1963 located in the south of contemporary Yemen.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
During the period of the British Raj, the Commander-in-Chief, India (often "Commander-in-Chief in or of India") was the supreme commander of the British Indian Army.
The commanding officer (CO) or, if the incumbent is a general officer, commanding general (CG), is the officer in command of a military unit.
Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Coorg War was fought between the British East India Company and the State of Coorg in 1834.
A cummerbund (kamarband) is a broad waist sash, usually pleated, which is often worn with single-breasted dinner jackets (or tuxedos).
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the Commonwealth of Nations, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat.
The Dogras are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group in India and Pakistan that speaks the Dogri language.
East Africa Protectorate (also known as British East Africa) was an area in the African Great Lakes occupying roughly the same terrain as present-day Kenya (approximately) from the Indian Ocean inland to Uganda and the Great Rift Valley.
The East African Campaign in World War I was a series of battles and guerrilla actions, which started in German East Africa (GEA) and spread to portions of Portuguese Mozambique, Northern Rhodesia, British East Africa, the Uganda Protectorate, and the Belgian Congo.
The East African Campaign (also known as the Abyssinian Campaign) was fought in East Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly from the British Empire, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI), between June 1940 and November 1941.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
General Sir Edward Pellew Quinan (9 January 1885 – 13 November 1960) was a British Army commander during the Second World War.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Fall of Baghdad (11 March 1917) occurred during the Mesopotamia Campaign, fought between the forces of the British Empire and the Ottoman Turkish Empire in the First World War.
Fazal Din VC (1 July 1921 – 2 March 1945) was an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
The fez (more correctly ṭarbūsh from the Persian sarpūsh) is a felt headdress in the shape of a short cylindrical peakless hat, usually red, and sometimes with a tassel attached to the top.
The First Anglo-Burmese War, also known as the First Burma War, (ပထမ အင်္ဂလိပ် မြန်မာ စစ်;; 5 March 1824 – 24 February 1826) was the first of three wars fought between the British and Burmese empires in the 19th century.
The First Battle of El Alamein (1–27 July 1942) was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, fought in Egypt between Axis forces (Germany and Italy) of the Panzer Army Africa (Panzerarmee Afrika, which included the Afrika Korps) (Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) Erwin Rommel) and Allied (British Imperial and Commonwealth) forces (Britain, British India, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) of the Eighth Army (General Claude Auchinleck).
The First Battle of Ypres (Première Bataille des Flandres Erste Flandernschlacht, was a battle of the First World War, fought on the Western Front around Ypres, in West Flanders, Belgium, during October and November 1914.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
The Frontier Force Regiment is one of six infantry regiments of the Pakistan Army.
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.
The General Officer Commanding (GOC) is the usual title given in the armies of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth (and some other, such as in Ireland) nations to a General Officer who holds a command appointment.
The George Cross (GC) is the second highest award of the United Kingdom honours system.
Gilding metal is a copper alloy, a brass, comprising 95% copper and 5% zinc.
General Gopal Gurunath Bewoor, PVSM (11 August 1916 – 24 October 1989) was an officer of the Indian Army who served as the 9th Chief of Army Staff.
The Gothic Line (Gotenstellung; Linea Gotica) was a German defensive line of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Governor-General of Pakistan (گورنر جنرل پاکستان), was the representative in Pakistan of the British monarch, from the country's independence in 1947.
Τhe Greek Civil War (ο Eμφύλιος, o Emfýlios, "the Civil War") was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army—backed by the United Kingdom and the United States—and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE)—the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE).
Gurjar or Gujjar are a pastoral agricultural ethnic group with populations in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and a small number in northeastern Afghanistan.
Lieutenant General Habibullah Khan Khattak also known as Muhammad Habibullah Khan (October 17, 1913 – 1994) was a Pakistani Army officer born in Karak, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan.
Lieutenant-General Sir Harold Rawdon Briggs, (24 July 1894 – 27 October 1952) was a senior British Indian Army officer, active during World War I and World War II and the post-war era.
The Hazaras (هزاره, آزره) are an ethnic group native to the region of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan, speaking the Hazaragi variant of Dari, itself an eastern variety of Persian and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916), was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.
The Hilal-i-Imtiaz (English: Crescent of Excellence; ہلال امتیاز, Hilāl-i Imtiyāz) is the second highest civilian award and honour given to both civilians and military officers of the Pakistan armed forces by the Government of Pakistan.
The Hilal-i-Jur'at (ہلال جرات, as if it were Halāl-e-Jurāt; English: Crescent of Courage, sometimes spelled as Hilal-e-Jur'at, Hilal-e-Jurat, Hilal-i-Jurrat and Hilal-i-Juraat)Various official sources that are highly reputable spell the name of the medal differently, so the Pakistan Army website spelling is being taken as the official spelling construction.
Hollebeke is a Flemish village in the Belgian province of West Vlaanderen, now part of Ypres city.
Major General Iftikhar Khan Janjua Shaheed, HJ & Bar, SPk, SQA, (Urdu: افتخار خان جنجوعہ) (died December 9, 1971) of the Pakistan Army is the most senior Pakistani officer to have been killed in action.
The Imperial Service Troops were forces raised by the princely states of the British Indian Empire.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.
Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern states of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.
The Indonesian National Revolution, or Indonesian War of Independence (Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia; Indonesische Onafhankelijkheidsoorlog), was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
The Iraqi revolt against the British, also known as the 1920 Iraqi Revolt or Great Iraqi Revolution, started in Baghdad in the summer of 1920 with mass demonstrations by Iraqis, including protests by embittered officers from the old Ottoman army, against the British occupation of Iraq.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
Jacobabad or Khangarh (Sindhi and جيڪب آباد) is a city in Sindh, Pakistan, serving as both the capital city of Jacobabad District and the administrative centre of Jacobabad Taluka, an administrative subdivision of the district.
Lieutenant-General Jamshed Gulzar Kiani (Urdu: جمشید گلزار کیانی; b.20 July 1944 – 1 November 2008),, was a three-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, intelligence officer and the former Colonel Commandant of the Baloch Regiment and commander of X Corps.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Japanese conquest of Burma was the opening chapter of the Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II, which took place over four years from 1942 to 1945.
Brigadier-General John Jacob CB (11 January 1812 – 6 December 1858) was an officer of the British East India Company who served in colonial India for the major portion of his career.
Sepoy Kamal Ram VC (17 December 19241 July 1982) was an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
The Kargil War (करगिल युद्ध, kargil yuddh, کرگل جنگ kargil jang), also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC).
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Kasur or Qasur (Punjabi and قصُور) is a city located to south of Lahore, in the Pakistani province of Punjab.
Khaki (Canada and) is a color, a light shade of yellow-brown.
Lieutenant General (retd) Khalid Maqbool Vohra, (Urdu: خالد مقبول), (born 1948), is a career Pakistan Army officer was the longest serving Governor of Punjab, the most populous province of Pakistan, under the General Pervez Musharraf government.
Khudadad Khan, VC (20 October 1888 – 8 March 1971) was the first South Asian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest military award for gallantry in the face of the enemy given to British and Commonwealth forces. On 31 October 1914, at Hollebeke, Belgium, 26-year-old Khan, then serving in the British Indian Army, performed an act of bravery for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross during the First World War. A statue of Khudadad Khan is at the entrance of the Pakistan Army Museum in Rawalpindi.
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
A lanyard is a cord or strap worn around the neck, shoulder, or wrist to carry such items as keys or identification cards.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Light infantry is a designation applied to certain types of foot soldiers (infantry) throughout history, typically having lighter equipment or armament or a more mobile or fluid function than other types of infantry, such as heavy infantry or line infantry.
The Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonica Front (after Thessaloniki), was a military theatre of World War I formed as a result of an attempt by the Allied Powers to aid Serbia, in the fall of 1915, against the combined attack of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria.
Machilipatnam, also known as Masulipatnam and Bandar, is a city in Krishna district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
The Madras Army was the army of the Presidency of Madras, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St.
Lieutenant Colonel Mahmood Khan Durrani, GC (1914–1995) was a South Asian recipient of the George Cross, awarded for acts of the greatest heroism or of the most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme danger.
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
The Malayan Campaign was a military campaign fought by Allied and Axis forces in Malaya, from 8 December 1941 – 31 January 1942 during the Second World War.
Manipur is a state in Northeast India, with the city of Imphal as its capital.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
A medal bar or medal clasp is a thin metal bar attached to the ribbon of a military decoration, civil decoration, or other medal.
The Mercian Regiment (Cheshire, Worcesters and Foresters, and Staffords) is an infantry regiment of the British Army, which is recruited from five of the counties that formed the ancient kingdom of Mercia.
The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I fought between the Allies represented by the British Empire, mostly troops from Britain, Australia and the British Indian, and the Central Powers, mostly of the Ottoman Empire.
General Mirza Aslam Beg (Urdu: مرزا اسلم بیگ; born 2 August 1931), is a retired four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who served as its Chief of Army Staff from 1988 until his retirement in 1991. His appointment as chief of army staff came when his predecessor, President General Zia-ul-Haq, died in an air crash on 17 August 1988. Beg's tenure witnessed Benazir Bhutto as being elected Prime Minister in November 1988, and the restoration of democracy and the civilian control of the military in the country. Controversial accusations were leveled against him of financing the Islamic Democracy Alliance (IDA), the conservative and right-wing opposition alliance against left-wing PPP, and rigging subsequent general elections in 1990. As a result of general elections, Nawaz Sharif was elected Prime Minister in 1990, but fell out with Beg when the latter recommended support for Iraq during the Gulf War. Beg was denied an extension from President Ghulam Ishaq Khan soon after in 1991, and replaced by General Asif Nawaz as chief of army staff.Ahmad Faruqui. Dawn, 12 October 2009 Apart from his military career, Beg briefly tenured as professor of security studies at the National Defence University (NDU) and regularly writes columns in The Nation. Beg's post-retirement has been characterized by controversies: first, Beg was accused of playing an internal role in the airplane crash that killed President Zia, and, second, he was summoned to the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 2012 for his alleged role in releasing the financial funding to the conservative politicians as opposed to the Pakistan Peoples Party's politicians during the general elections held in 1990.
The Mohmand blockade (1916–1917) was a blockade formed by a series of blockhouses and barbed wire defences, along the Mohmand border on the North West Frontier by the Indian Army during World War I. The blockade began after a number of Mohmand raids into Peshawar.
The Moro River Campaign was an important battle of the Italian Campaign during the Second World War, fought between elements of the British Eighth Army and LXXVI Panzer Corps (LXXVI Panzerkorps) of the German 10th Army (10. Armee).
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
Muscat (مسقط) is the capital and largest city of Oman.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Naning is an area in modern-day Malacca, Malaysia and was founded in 1641.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
General Sir Garrett O'Moore Creagh (2 April 1848 – 9 August 1923), known as Sir O'Moore Creagh, was a senior British Army officer and an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Operation Diadem, also referred to as the Fourth Battle of Monte Cassino or, in Canada, the Battle of the Liri Valley, was an offensive operation undertaken by the Allies of World War II (U.S. Fifth Army and British Eighth Army in May 1944, as part of the Italian Campaign of World War II. Diadem was supported by air attacks called Operation Strangle. The opposing force was the German 10th Army. The object of Diadem was to break the German defenses on the Gustav Line (the western half of the Winter Line) and open up the Liri Valley, the main route to Rome. General Sir Harold Alexander, Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) of the Allied Armies in Italy (AAI), planned Diadem to coordinate roughly with the invasion of Normandy, so that German forces would be tied down in Italy, and could not be redeployed to France. Four corps were employed in the attack. From right to left these were Polish II Corps and British XIII Corps, of Eighth Army, and the Free French Corps (including Moroccan Goumiers) and U.S. II Corps, of Fifth Army. Fifth Army also controlled U.S. VI Corps in the Anzio beachhead, some 60 miles northwest. Diadem was launched at 23:00pm on 11 May 1944 by elements, composed of the British 4th Infantry Division and 8th Indian Infantry Division with supporting fire from the 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade. They made a successful strongly opposed night crossing of the Garigliano and Rapido rivers. This broke into the heart of the German defenses in the Liri valley against strong opposition and drew German theater reserves reducing pressure on the Anzio beachhead. The Free French Corps pushed through the mountains to the left on 14 May, supported by U.S. II Corps along the coast. On 17 May, Polish II Corps on the right attacked Monte Cassino. The German position collapsed, and the Germans fell back from the Gustav Line to the Hitler Line some 10 miles to their rear. On 23 May, the four corps attacked the Hitler Line. On the same day, the U.S. VI Corps attacked out of the Anzio beachhead. The Hitler Line was breached by 1st Canadian Infantry Division's 4th Princess Louise Dragoon Guards at Pontecorvo on 23 May. German Tenth Army was forced to retire northwestward. U.S. VI Corps, moving northeast from Anzio, was on the point of cutting the German line of retreat, when Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark, commander of the U.S. Fifth Army, inexplicably ordered them to turn northwest and advance on Rome instead. There is much speculation that he did this so that his Fifth Army would capture Rome ahead of the Eighth Army advancing up the Liri Valley. The German 10th Army thus avoided being surrounded. The Germans fought a series of delaying actions, retired to the Trasimene Line, and then to the Gothic Line (identified on German maps as the "Green" Line), north of the Arno River.
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.
The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1878.
The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1861.
A pagoda is a tiered tower with multiple eaves, built in traditions originating as stupa in historic South Asia and further developed in East Asia or with respect to those traditions, common to Nepal, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Myanmar, India, Sri Lanka and other parts of Asia.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (تحریک پاکستان –) was a religious political movement in the 1940s that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of the British Indian Empire.
Param Vishisht Seva Medal (PVSM) is a military award of India.
Major Parkash Singh VC (31 March 1913 – 23 March 1991) was a Sikh recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Patiala State was a self-governing princely state outside British India during the British Raj period in the Indian sub-continent.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
Pelicans are a genus of large water birds that make up the family Pelecanidae.
The Persian Campaign or Invasion of Persia also known as Invasion of Iran (اشغال ایران در جنگ جهانی اول) was a series of engagements in Iranian Azerbaijan and western Iran (Persia) involving the forces of the Ottoman Empire against those of the British Empire and Russian Empire, and also involving local population elements, beginning in December 1914 and ending with the Armistice of Mudros on October 30, 1918 as part of Middle Eastern theatre of World War I.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The Punjab Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Pakistan Army.
General Qamar Javed Bajwa (قمر جاوید باجوہ; born 11 November 1960),, is the 10th and current Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army.
Quetta (کوټه; کویته; کوٹه; کوئٹہ) is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan, Pakistan.
Rahimuddin Khan (born 21 July 1924) is a retired four-star general of the Pakistan Army who served as Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee from 1984 to 1987, after serving as the 7th Governor of Balochistan from 1978 to 1984.
The Raid on the Suez Canal, also known as Actions on the Suez Canal, took place between 26 January and 4 February 1915 after a German-led Ottoman Army force advanced from Southern Palestine to attack the British Empire-protected Suez Canal, before the beginning of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. Substantial Ottoman forces crossed the Sinai peninsula, but their attack failed mainly because of strongly held defences and alert defenders.
Rampa rebellion of 1879 (also known as the First Rampa rebellion to distinguish it from the Rampa Rebellion of 1922-24) was an insurrection by the hill tribes in the Rampa region of the Vizagapatam Hill Tracts Agency of Vizagapatam District against the British government of the Madras Presidency.
The Rann of Kutch is a large area of salt marshes located mostly in Gujarat (primarily the Kutch district), India and the southern tip of Sindh, Pakistan.
Rashad Mahmood (Urdu/راشد محمود), is a retired four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army who served as the 16th Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee.
The Royal Highland Fusiliers, 2nd Battalion, The Royal Regiment of Scotland (2 SCOTS) is an infantry battalion of the Royal Regiment of Scotland.
The Royal Regiment of Scotland is the senior and only Scottish line infantry regiment of the British Army Infantry.
The Royal Regiment of Wales (24th/41st Foot) was an infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales' Division.
The Royal Welsh (R WELSH) (Y Cymry Brenhinol) is one of the new large infantry regiments of the British Army.
Saya San (also spelled Hsaya, original name Yar Kyaw.ဆရာစံ,; 24 October 1876 – 28 November 1931) was a former monk, a physician and the leader of the 'Saya San Rebellion' of 1930-1932 in British Burma.
The Second Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز دويمه جګړه) was a military conflict fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan.
The Second Anglo-Burmese War or the Second Burma War (ဒုတိယ အင်္ဂလိပ် မြန်မာ စစ်; 5 April 185220 January 1853) was the second of the three wars fought between the Burmese and British forces during the 19th century, with the outcome of the gradual extinction of Burmese sovereignty and independence.
The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805) was the second conflict between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War was a military conflict between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company that took place in 1848 and 1849.
The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.
The Second Battle of Kut was fought on 23 February 1917, between British and Ottoman forces at Kut, Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
During World War I, the Second Battle of Ypres was fought from for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium after the First Battle of Ypres the previous autumn.
Varieties of the color green may differ in hue, chroma (also called saturation or intensity) or lightness (or value, tone, or brightness), or in two or three of these qualities.
Shahmed Khan, (1 July 1879 – 28 July 1947) was an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
The Siachen Glacier (Hindi: सियाचिन ग्लेशियर, Urdu: سیاچن گلیشیر) is a glacier located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalayas at about, just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends.
Sialkot (سيالكوٹ and سيالكوٹ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.
The Siege of Delhi was one of the decisive conflicts of the Indian rebellion of 1857.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
The Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I was fought between the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire, supported by the German Empire.
The Sind Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Pakistan Army established on 1 July 1980.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Sitara-e-Jurat (Star of Courage) is the third highest military award of Pakistan.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
The Special Service Group (SSG) (عساکرء خدمات خصوصی) is the primary special operations force of the Pakistan Army.
The spring 1945 offensive in Italy, codenamed Operation Grapeshot, was the final Allied attack during the Italian Campaign in the final stages of the Second World War.
The Staffordshire Regiment (Prince of Wales') (or simply "Staffords" for short) was an infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales' Division.
Subedar-major is the senior rank of junior commissioned officer in the Indian and Pakistani Armies, and formerly a Viceroy's commissioned officer in the British Indian Army.
Major General Syed Ghawas was a former governor of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan.
The Syria–Lebanon campaign, also known as Operation Exporter, was the British invasion of Vichy French Syria and Lebanon from June–July 1941, during the Second World War.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
General Tariq Majid, (Urdu: طارق مجید; born 23 August 1950; NI(M), afwc, fsc(m), psc) is a retired four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army who held prestigious four-star assignment as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee from 2007 to 2010, the principal and highest-ranking military advisier in the Pakistan Armed Forces.
Tartan (breacan) is a pattern consisting of criss-crossed horizontal and vertical bands in multiple colours.
The Tenth Army was a field army of the British Army during the Second World War created in Iraq and formed from the major part of "Paiforce" (Persia and Iraq Force).
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Rifles is an infantry regiment of the British Army.
The Third Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز درېمه جګړه), also referred to as the Third Afghan War, began on 6 May 1919 when the Emirate of Afghanistan invaded British India and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919.
The Third Anglo-Burmese War, also known as the Third Burma War, was a conflict that took place during 7–29 November 1885, with sporadic resistance and insurgency continuing into 1887.
The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1818) was the final and decisive conflict between the British East India Company (EIC) and the Maratha Empire in India.
The Third Battle of Gaza was fought on the night of 1/2 November 1917 between British and Ottoman forces during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I, and came after the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) victory at the Battle of Beersheba had ended the Stalemate in Southern Palestine.
Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
Tiruchirappalli (formerly Trichinopoly in English), also called Trichy, is a major tier II city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Tiruchirappalli District.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Trasimene Line (so-named for Lake Trasimene, the site of a major battle of the Second Punic War in 217 BCE) was a German defensive line during the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Travancore rebellion against the British East India Company was led by the prime ministers of the Indian states of Travancore and Cochin in 1808–09.
Upper Burma (အထက်မြန်မာပြည်, also called Real Myanmar) refers to a geographic region of Burma (Myanmar), traditionally encompassing Mandalay and its periphery (modern Mandalay, Sagaing, Magway Regions), or more broadly speaking, Kachin and Shan States.
The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the British honours system.
Waziristan (Pashto and وزیرستان, "land of the Wazir") is a mountainous region covering the North Waziristan and South Waziristan districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
Captain William Alexander Kerr VC (18 July 1831 – 21 May 1919) was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Winter operations 1914–1915 is the name given to military operations during the First World War from 1915, on the part of the Western Front held by the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), in French and Belgian Flanders.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (آغا محمد یحییٰ خان; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), widely known as Yahya Khan,, was the third President of Pakistan, serving in this post from 25 March 1969 until turning over his presidency in December 1971.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
, literally "Port to the side" or "Beside the port", is the second largest city in Japan by population, after Tokyo, and the most populous municipality of Japan.
The Yorkshire Regiment (14th/15th, 19th and 33rd/76th Foot) (abbreviated YORKS) is an infantry regiment of the British Army, created by the amalgamation of three historic regiments in 2006.
The 10th Baluch or Baluch Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947.
The 124th Duchess of Connaught's Own Baluchistan Infantry was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army raised in 1820 as the 2nd (Marine) Battalion 12th Regiment of Bombay Native Infantry.
The 126th Baluchistan Infantry was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army raised in 1825 as the 2nd Extra Battalion of Bombay Native Infantry.
The 127th Queen Mary's Own Baluch Light Infantry was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army raised in 1844 as The Scinde Bellochee Corps.
The 129th Duke of Connaught's Own Baluchis was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army raised in 1846 as the 2nd Bellochee Battalion.
The 130th King George's Own Baluchis (Jacob's Rifles) was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army raised in 1858 as the 1st Regiment of Jacob’s Rifles or 1st Belooch Rifles. It was designated as the 130th Jacob’s Baluchis in 1903 and became 5th Battalion (King George's Own) 10th Baluch Regiment (Jacob's Rifles) in 1922. In 1947, it was allotted to the Pakistan Army, where it continues to exist as 12th Battalion of The Baloch Regiment.Ahmad, Lt Col RN. (2010). Battle Honours of the Baloch Regiment. Abbottabad: The Baloch Regimental Centre.
The 13th Lancers is an armoured regiment of Pakistan Army.
The 15th Lancers (Baloch) is an armoured regiment of the Pakistan Army.
19th Battalion The Baloch Regiment is one of the oldest Light Anti-Tank Regiment of Pakistan Army.
The 26th Jacob's Mountain Battery was an artillery unit of the British Indian Army.
The 59 Scinde Rifles (Frontier Force) was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army.
The 5th Indian Infantry Division was an infantry division of the Indian Army during World War II that fought in several theatres of war and was nicknamed the "Ball of Fire".
The 6th Armoured Division is a Pakistan Army armoured division currently based in Gujranwala, in Punjab Province.
The 89th Punjabis was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army raised in 1798 as a battalion of Madras Native Infantry.
The 8th Punjab Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947.
The 90th Punjabis were an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army.
The 91st Punjabis (Light Infantry) was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army.
The 92nd Punjabis were an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army.
The 93rd Burma Infantry was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army.